Philippe IV 'le Bel' de France, roi de France (1268 - 1314) MP

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Nicknames: "Philippe", "Philip", "The Fair", ""The Fair"", "King Philip IV of /France/", "'The /Fair'/", "Philip IV the Fair // King of France", "the Fair", "Phillip IV", "King of France", "called the Fair (French: le Bel)", "le Bel", "Philip the Fair", "Philip I King of Navarre"
Birthplace: Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne, Île-de-France, France
Death: Died in Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne, Île-de-France, France
Occupation: King of France, Roi de France, KING OF FRANCE, 'THE FAIR', Philippe IV le Bel, Kung av Spanien, Kung i Frankrike 1285-1314, och Navarra 1274-1305 (som Felipe I), greve i Champagne och Brie, Fransk kung, (1285-1314)
Managed by: Margaret, (C)
Last Updated:

About Philippe IV 'le Bel' de France, roi de France

Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (French: le Bel), son and successor of Philip III, reigned as King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was King of Navarre (as Philip I) and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305. The nickname Philip "the Fair" or "the Handsome" comes from his appearance; it had nothing to do with his actions as king.

A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born at the Palace of Fontainebleau at Seine-et-Marne, the son of King Philip III and Isabella of Aragon. Philip was nicknamed the Fair (le Bel) because of his handsome appearance, but his inflexible personality gained him other epithets, from friend and foe alike.

  1. Father: Philippe III , King Of France b: 1 May 1245 in Poissy, Yvelines, France

Mother: Princess Of Aragon Isabelle b: 1243-1247 in Montpellier, Herault, France

Marriage 1 Joan I , Of Navarre, Queen Of France b: 14 Jan 1271/72 in Bar-Sur-Seine, Aube, France

   * Married: 16 Aug 1284 in Notre Dame De Paris, Seine, France

Children

  1. Isabelle , Queen Of England b: 1292 in Paris, Seine, France
  2. Marguerite , Princess Of France b: 1286 in PARIS,SEINE,FRANCE
  3. Louis X "the Headstrong" , King Of France b: 4 Oct 1289 in Paris,Seine,France
  4. Blanche , Princess Of France b: 1290 in PARIS,SEINE,FRANCE
  5. Philippe V , King Of France b: 1291-1292 in Paris, Seine, France
  6. Charles IV "the Fari" , King Of France b: 1295 in Clermont, Oise, France
  7. Prince Of France Robert b: 1297 in PARIS,SEINE,FRANCE

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Philip IV of France

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_IV_of_France

Philip IV the Fair

King of France and Navarre

Count of Champagne

Reign 5 October 1285 – 29 November 1314

Coronation 6 January 1286, Reims

Predecessor Philip III

Successor Louis X

Spouse Joan I of Navarre

Issue

Louis X

Philip V

Charles IV

Isabelle, Queen of England

Father Philip III

Mother Isabella of Aragon

Born April–June 1268

Fontainebleau, France

Died 29 November 1314 (aged 46)

Fontainebleau, France

Burial Saint Denis Basilica

Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (French: le Bel), son and successor of Philip III, reigned as King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was King of Navarre (as Philip I) and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305. The nickname Philip "the Fair" or "the Handsome" comes from his appearance; it had nothing to do with his actions as king.

Youth

A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born at the Palace of Fontainebleau at Seine-et-Marne, the son of King Philip III and Isabella of Aragon. Philip was nicknamed the Fair (le Bel) because of his handsome appearance, but his inflexible personality gained him other epithets, from friend and foe alike. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him, "He is neither man nor beast. He is a statue."[1]

His education was guided by Guillaume d'Ercuis, the almoner of his father.

As prince, just before his father's death, he negotiated the safe passage of the royal family out of Aragon after the unsuccessful Aragonese Crusade.

Consolidation of the royal demesne

As a king, Philip was determined to strengthen the monarchy at any cost. He relied, more than any of his predecessors, on a professional bureaucracy of legalists. Because to the public he kept aloof and left specific policies, especially unpopular ones, to his ministers, he was called a "useless owl" by his contemporaries. His reign marks the French transition from a charismatic monarchy – which could all but collapse in an incompetent reign – to a bureaucratic kingdom, a move, under a certain historical reading, towards modernity.

Philip married queen Joan of Navarre (1271–1305) on 16 August 1284. The primary administrative benefit of this was the inheritance of Joan in Champagne and Brie, which were adjacent to the royal demesne in Ile-de-France and became thus effectively united to the king's own lands, forming an expansive area. During the reigns of Joan herself, and her three sons (1284–1328), these lands belonged to the person of the king; but by 1328 they had become so entrenched in the royal domain that king Philip VI of France (who was not an heir of Joan) switched lands with the then rightful heiress, Joan II of Navarre, with the effect that Champagne and Brie remained part of the royal demesne and Joan received compensation with lands in western Normandy.

The Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees was not so important to contemporary interests of the French crown. It remained in personal union 1284–1329, after which it went its separate way. Philip gained Lyon for France in 1312.

War with the English

As Duke of Aquitaine, the English king Edward I was a vassal to Philip, and had to pay him homage. Following the Fall of Acre in 1291 however, the former allies started to show dissent.[2]

In 1293, following a naval incident between the Normans and the English, Philip summoned Edward to the French court, but the latter, busy harassing Scotland, refused to appear. Philip used this pretext to strip Edward of all his possessions in France, thereby initiating hostilities with England.[2]

The outbreak of hostilities with England in 1294 was the inevitable result of the competitive expansionist monarchies, triggered by a secret Franco-Scottish pact of mutual assistance against Edward I, who was Philip's brother-in-law, having married Philip's sister Marguerite; inconclusive campaigns for the control of Gascony to the southwest of France were fought in 1294–98 and 1300–03. Philip gained Guienne but was forced to return it. The search for income to cover military expenditures set its stamp on Philip's reign and his contemporary reputation. Pursuant to the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1303), the marriage of Philip's daughter Isabella to the Prince of Wales, heir of Philip's enemy, celebrated at Boulogne, 25 January 1308, was meant to seal a peace; instead it would produce an eventual English claimant to the French throne itself, and the Hundred Years War.

Drive for income

In the shorter term, Philip expelled the Jews for oppressive lending practices from French territories on 22 July 1306 (see The Great Exile of 1306). He was criticized by his enemies in the Catholic Church[4] for his spendthrift lifestyle. He debased the coinage. When he also levied taxes on the French clergy of one half their annual income, he caused an uproar within the Roman Catholic Church and the papacy, prompting Pope Boniface VIII to issue the Bull Clericis laicos, forbidding the transference of any church property to the French Crown and prompting a drawn-out diplomatic battle with the King. In order to condemn the pope, Philip convoked an assembly of bishops, nobles and grand bourgeois of Paris, a precursor to the Etats Généraux that appeared for the first time during his reign, a measure of the professionalism and order that his ministers were introducing into government. Philip emerged victorious, after having sent his agent William Nogaret to arrest Boniface at Anagni, when the French archbishop Bertrand de Goth was elected pope as Clement V and the official seat of the papacy moved to Avignon, an enclave surrounded by French territories, commencing the captive Avignon Papacy.

In Flanders

He suffered a major embarrassment when an army of 2,500 noble men-at-arms (Knights and Squires) and 4,000 infantry he sent to suppress an uprising in Flanders was defeated in the Battle of the Golden Spurs near Kortrijk on 11 July 1302. Philip reacted with energy to the humiliation and personally defeated the Flemings at Mons-en-Pévèle two years later. Finally, in 1305, Philip forced the Flemish to accept a harsh peace treaty after his success at the battle of Mons-en-Pévèle; the peace exacted heavy reparations and humiliating penalties, and added the rich cloth cities of Lille and Douai, sites of major cloth fairs, to the royal territory. Béthune, first of the Flemish cities to yield, was granted to Mahaut, Countess of Artois, whose two daughters, to secure her fidelity, were married to Philip's two sons.

Suppression of the Knights Templar

Numerous complaints of usury across France prompted Philip to expel Jewish moneylenders and disband the Templars, a monastic order of knights who had acted as bankers for over two hundred years to serve the needs of the Crusades. As debts spiraled out of control, anger toward banking and usury abounded across Europe. In 1300, the Pope called for the first Christian jubilee where all debts could be forgiven. Templars did not forgive debts. So, banning usury altogether would free French subjects and the king of debt. On Friday the 13th, October 1307, hundreds of Knights Templar were arrested and tortured into admitting heresy. Legally, Knights Templar answered only to the Pope. Pope Clement V asked for trials, but it was too late. Philip had ordered the Templars burnt at the stake. In 1314, the last Grand Master of the Templars, Jacques de Molay was set upon a stake over a fire in Paris; and accursed both King Philip and Pope Clement V from the flames, vowing they would be dead within a year. Both King and Pope died within that year.

The crown passed through Philip's three sons, who also each died relatively young, without producing direct male heirs. By 1328, the Capet Dynasty ended, and the crown passed to the House of Valois.

Expulsion of the Jews

While King Edward ordered the Jews to leave England in 1290, Philip the Fair expelled the Jews from France in 1306, for oppressive money-lending policies. In 1315, the Jews were allowed back for 12 years of guaranteed residence, free from government interference if they promised to limit usury. In 1322, the Jews were expelled again by the Kings' successor, since usury became a problem again.

Tour de Nesle affair

In 1314, the daughters-in-law of Philip IV-Margaret of Burgundy, Queen of France Wife of Louis X; and Blanche of Burgundy wife of Charles IV-were accused of adultery, and their alleged lovers (Phillipe d'Aunay and Gauthier d'Aunay) tortured, flayed and executed in what has come to be known as the Tour de Nesle Affair (French: Affaire de la tour de Nesle). A third daughter-in-law, Jeanne II, Countess of Burgundy, wife of Philip V, was accused of knowledge of the affairs.

Crusades and diplomacy with Mongols

See Main article: Franco-Mongol alliance

Philip had various contacts with the Mongol power in the Middle East, including reception of the embassy of the Turkic/Mongol monk Rabban Bar Sauma.[8] Bar Sauma presented an offer of a Franco-Mongol alliance with Arghun of the Mongol Ilkhanate in Baghdad. Arghun was seeking to join forces between the Mongols and the Europeans, against their common enemy the Muslim Mamluks. In return, Arghun offered to return Jerusalem to the Christians, once it was re-captured from the Muslims. Philip seemingly responded positively to the request of the embassy, by sending one of his noblemen, Gobert de Helleville, to accompany Bar Sauma back to Mongol lands.[9]

There was further correspondence between Arghun and Philip in 1288 and 1289,[10] outlining potential military cooperation. However, Philip never actually pursued such military plans.

In April 1305, the new Mongol ruler Oljeitu sent letters to Philip,[11] the Pope, and Edward I of England. He again offered a military collaboration between the Christian nations of Europe and the Mongols against the Mamluks. European nations attempted another Crusade, but were delayed, and it never took place.

In 4 April 1312, another Crusade was promulgated at the Council of Vienne. In 1313, Philip "took the cross", making the vow to go on a Crusade in the Levant, thus responding to Pope Clement V's call. He was, however, warned against leaving by Enguerrand de Marigny[12] and died soon after in a hunting accident.

Death

Tomb of Philip IV in the Basilica of St Denis.

Philip IV's rule signaled the decline of the papacy's power from its near complete authority. His palace located on the Île de la Cité is represented today by surviving sections of the Conciergerie. He suffered a cerebral ictus during a hunt at Pont-Sainte-Maxence (Forest of Halatte) and died a few weeks later in Fontainebleau, where he was born. He is buried in the Basilica of St Denis. He was succeeded by his son Louis X.

[edit] Issue

The children of Philip IV and Jeanne of Navarre were:

  1. Marguerite (1288–c.1294)
  2. Louis X - ( 4 October 1289–5 June 1316)
  3. Blanche (died c.1294)
  4. Philip V - (1292/93–3 January 1322)
  5. Charles IV - (1294–1 February 1328)
  6. Isabelle - (c. 1295–23 August 1358)
  7. Robert (born 1297, died 1308 at St-Germaine-en-Laye)

All three of his sons reaching adulthood would become kings of France, and his surviving daughter, as consort of Edward II, was queen of England.

Notes

  1. ^ "Ce n'est ni un homme ni une bête. C'est une statue."
  2. ^ a b Les Rois de France, p.50
  3. ^ Coins minted under Philip IV
  4. ^ Contemporary chroniclers were all monks.
  5. ^ Malcolm Barber, The Trial of the Templars. Cambridge University Press, 1978. ISBN 0-521-45727-0.
  6. ^ National Geographic, The Fake Bible Part 1: The Knights Templar
  7. ^ Charles Adams, Fight, Flight, Fraud The Story of Taxation, 1982
  8. ^ Source
  9. ^ The Monks of Kublai Khan
 10. ^ Source
 11. ^ Mostaert and Cleaves, pp. 56-57, Source
 12. ^ Jean Richard, "Histoire des Croisades", p.485

References

   * Joseph Strayer. The reign of Philip the Fair, 1980. Representing over 30 years of research, considered one of the most comprehensive medieval biographies of any monarch.
   * Favier, Jean Philippe le Bel
   * Goyau, Georges (1913). "Philip IV (the Fair)". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12004a.htm. 
   * Grandes Chroniques de France
   * A.H. Newman, in Philip Schaff, The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
   * Knights Templar History and Mythology [1]
   * Schein, Sylvia (October 1979). "Gesta Dei per Mongolos 1300. The Genesis of a Non-Event". The English Historical Review 94 (373): 805–819. doi:10.1093/ehr/XCIV.CCCLXXIII.805. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0013-8266(197910)94:373%3C805:GDPM1T%3E2.0.CO;2-8. 

External links

Search Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Philip IV of France

   * Philip IV (The Fair) - Catholic Encyclopedia
   * Philip IV - 1268 - 1314 - templarhistory.com

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http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAPET.htm#_Toc154137010

PHILIPPE de France, son of PHILIPPE III "le Hardi" King of France & his first wife Infanta doña Isabel de Aragón (Fontainebleau 8 Apr/Jun 1268-Fontainebleau 29 Nov 1314, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). Became heir to the throne of the death of his older brother. He succeeded in 1284 by right of his wife as FELIPE I King of Navarre, Comte de Champagne. He succeeded his father in 1285 as PHILIPPE IV "le Bel" King of France. He was consecrated at Notre-Dame de Reims 6 Jan 1286. He refused the offer of Pope Nicholas IV 1290 to become guardian of the Holy Land. He conquered Bordeaux and Guyenne from King Edward I of England 1294, although these territories were returned to England under the terms of the peace treaty of Paris 20 May 1303. The necrology of Sainte-Chapelle records the death "III Kal Dec" of "domini Philippi nepotism beati Ludovici quondam regis Francie et Navarre"[429].

m (Paris, Notre Dame 16 Aug 1284) JUANA I Queen of Navarre Ctss de Champagne, daughter of ENRIQUE I King of Navarre, HENRI III Comte de Champagne & his wife Blanche d’Artois (Bar-sur-Seine 14 Jan 1273-Château de Vincennes 31 Mar or 2 Apr 1305, bur Paris église des Cordeliers). After her marriage, she continued to govern Champagne personally, her husband governing Navarre. The necrology of Sainte-Chapelle records the death "II Kal Apr" of "domine Johanne quondam regine Francie et Navarre"[430].

King Philippe IV & his wife had seven children:

1. LOUIS de France (Paris 4 Oct 1289-Château du Bois de Vincennes 5 Jun 1316, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). He succeeded his mother in 1305 as LUIS I King of Navarre, Comte de Champagne. Crowned King of Navarre at Pamplona, Cathedral of Santa María el Real, 1 Oct 1307. He succeeded his father in 1314 as LOUIS X "le Hutin" King of France. He was consecrated at Notre-Dame de Reims 24 Aug 1315. The necrology of Sainte-Chapelle records the death "VIII Id Jun" of "Ludovici quondam Francie et Navarre Regis"[431]. m firstly (contract Abbaye de Longchamp 28 Feb 1299/1300, contract Vincennes 28 Mar 1301, Corbeil, Essonne 23 Sep 1305) MARGUERITE de Bourgogne, daughter of ROBERT II Duke of Burgundy & his wife Agnès de France (1290-Château-Gaillard from tuberculosis 30 Apr 1315, bur Vernon, église des Cordeliers). The primary source which confirms his existence and marriage has not so far been identified. Accused of adultery in 1314, she was imprisoned at Château-Gaillard where she died soon after. The allegations against her, and her sisters-in-law, were the subject of la Ballade des dames du temps jadis by François Villon[432]. m secondly (Paris 19 Aug 1315) CLEMENCE of Hungary, daughter of CHARLES MARTEL of Sicily, Principe di Salerno, KÁROLY I titular King of Hungary [Anjou-Capet] & his wife Klementia von Habsburg (Feb 1293-Paris 12 Oct 1328, bur Paris, église des Jacobins). She was consecrated Queen with her husband, Notre-Dame de Reims 24 Aug 1315. Mistress (1): EUDELINE, daughter of ---. King Louis X & his first wife had one child:

a) JEANNE de France (Conflans Sainte Honorine 28 Jan 1312-Château de Conflans 6 Oct 1349, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). On the death of her father, she was excluded from the succession to the French crown, her birth being suspicious because of the reputation of her mother. Following her maternal grandmother’s protests, her uncle King Philippe V confirmed her future rights to the counties of Champagne and Brie 27 Mar 1318. She was proclaimed JUANA II Queen of Navarre by an assembly in 1328 shortly after the accession of Philippe VI as King of France, when he renounced his rights to the crown of Navarre. She renounced her rights to the county of Champagne in 1335. She died of the plague. m (contract Paris 27 Mar 1318, 18 Jun 1318, Château de Conflans 1329) PHILIPPE d’Evreux, son of LOUIS de France Comte d’Evreux & his wife Marguerite d’Artois (27 Mar 1306-Jerez de la Frontera 23 Sep 1343, bur Pamplona, Cathedral Santa María el Real). Comte d’Angoulême et de Mortain 27 Mar 1318, confirmed by the Treaty of Villeneuve-lès-Avignon 14 Mar 1336. He succeeded his father in 1319 as Comte d’Evreux. He was proclaimed FELIPE III “le Bon/le Sage” King of Navarre by an Assembly 1328, shortly after the succession of Philippe VI King of France. Crowned King of Navarre 5 Mar 1329, Pamplona, Cathedral of Santa María el Real.

King Louis X & his second wife had one child:

b) JEAN de France (posthumously Paris 14 Nov 1316-Louvre 19 Nov 1316, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). He succeeded at birth as JEAN I “le Posthume” King of France, JUAN I King of Navarre.

King Louis X had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1):

c) EUDELINE (1305-after 1330). Nun, later abbess at the Cordeline Convent, Faubourg Saint Marcel, Paris.

2. MARGUERITE de France (-1294). Betrothed (Nov 1294) to Infante don FERNANDO de Castilla, son of don SANCHO IV "el Bravo" King of Castile and León & his wife doña María Alfonso de Molina “la Grande” (Seville 6 Dec 1285-Jaen 7 Sep 1312). He succeeded in 1295 as FERNANDO IV "el Ajurno" King of Castile and León.

3. ISABELLE de France (Paris 1292-Castle Rising, Norfolk or Hertford Castle 21 Nov 1358, bur Greyfriars Church, Newgate, London). She was crowned Queen of England with her husband 24/25 Feb 1308. Her relationship with her husband steadily deteriorated over the years, culminating in her flight to France to seek the protection of her brother Philippe V King of France. In 1324, she started a love affair with Roger Mortimer, and together they plotted her husband's overthrow. She was declared head of the Council of Regency by Parliament on the deposition of her husband. However, her rule was unpopular. She signed an unfavourable treaty with France and recognised Robert Bruce as king of Scotland for the first time. In addition, Mortimer alienated the barons with his territorial ambitions. Her son seized power, had Mortimer arrested after a Great Council meeting at Nottingham 19 Oct 1330 and condemned him to death. Isabelle thereafter lived in retirement. m (Boulogne-sur-Mer 22 Jan 1308) EDWARD II King of England, son of EDWARD I King of England & his first wife Infanta doña Leonor de Castilla (Caernarvon Castle 25 Apr 1284-murdered Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire 21 Sep 1327, bur Gloucester Cathedral).

4. BLANCHE de France (-shortly after 1294, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). Betrothed (1294) to Infante don FERNANDO de Castilla, son of don SANCHO IV "el Bravo" King of Castile and León & his wife doña María Alfonso de Molina “la Grande” (Seville 6 Dec 1285-Jaen 7 Sep 1312). He succeeded in 1295 as FERNANDO IV "el Ajurno" King of Castile and León.

5. PHILIPPE de France ([1292/93]-Longchamp, near Paris 3 Jan 1322, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). He was recognised Comte Palatin de Bourgogne, Sire de Salins, by right of his wife, 26 Jun 1310. Comte de Poitiers Dec 1311. He was appointed regent on the death of his brother in 1316, awaiting the birth of his nephew. He succeeded his nephew in 1316 as PHILIPPE V "le Long" King of France, FELIPE II King of Navarre. He was consecrated at Notre-Dame de Reims 6 Jan 1317. The necrology of Sainte-Chapelle records the death "III Non Jan" of "Philippus regis Magni"[433]. m (contract Vincennes 2 Mar 1295, Corbeil, Marne Jan 1307) JEANNE I Ctss Palatine de Bourgogne, Ctss d'Artois, daughter of OTHON V Comte Palatin de Bourgogne & his wife Mahaut Ctss d’Artois (before 2 Mar 1291-Roye, Somme 21 Jan 1330, bur Paris, église des Cordeliers). The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. She was accused of adultery in Spring 1314 and imprisoned in the Château de Dourdan. She was declared innocent and taken back by her husband. King Philippe V & his wife had six children:

a) JEANNE de France (1 or 2 May 1308-10 or 15 Aug 1347, bur Abbaye cistercienne de Fontenay). She succeeded her mother in 1330 as Ctss Palatine de Bourgogne Ctss d’Artois. Betrothed (contract Paris 6 Apr 1313) to HUGUES V Duke of Burgundy, son of ROBERT II Duke of Burgundy & his wife Agnès de France (1294-château d'Argilly, Côte d'Or early May 1315, bur 12 May Abbaye de Cîteaux). m (contract Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube 29 Sep 1316, Paris 18 Jun 1318) EUDES IV Duke of Burgundy, son of ROBERT II Duke of Burgundy & his wife Agnès de France (1295-Sens, Yonne 3 Apr 1349, bur Abbaye de Cîteaux).

b) MARGUERITE de France (1309-Paris 9 May 1382, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). Her marriage was arranged under the Treaty of Paris 5 May 1320, which reaffirmed the loyalty of her future husband's grandfather to the French crown[434]. Ctss d'Artois 1361. m (contract 21 Jun 1320, 22 Jul 1320) LOUIS de Flandre, son of LOUIS de Flandre Comte de Nevers et de Rethel & his wife Jeanne Ctss de Rethel ([1304]-killed in battle Crécy 25 Aug 1346, bur Bruges, St Donat). He succeeded his grandfather in 1322 as LOUIS I Count of Flanders.

c) ISABELLE de France (1310-1348). The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified. m firstly (contract Lyon 18 Jun 1316, contract Dole, Jura 17 May 1323, Fond-de-Dole 17 May 1323) GUIGUES VIII Dauphin de Viennois Comte d'Albon et de Grenoble, son of JEAN II de la Tour Comte d’Albon Dauphin de Viennois & his wife Béatrice of Hungary ([1309]-siege of la Perrière 28 Jul 1333, bur Grenoble, Saint-André). m secondly ([1339]) JEAN III Seigneur de Faucogney, son of JEAN II Seigneur de Faucogney & his wife Catherine de Neufchâtel ([1310]-17 Jun/13 Dec 1345). No issue.

d) BLANCHE de France (1311 or 1312-Longchamps 26 Apr 1358, bur Longchamps). The necrology of Longchamp provides on 2 Jan for a mass for "Phelippe roy de France et de Navarre et la reyne Jehanne de Bourgoingne pere et mere de la dame, seur Blanche, laquelle fut religieuse en ceste eglise"[435]. Clarice nun at Longchamps 1319.

e) PHILIPPE de France (Jan 1313-before 24 Mar 1321).

f) LOUIS de France (24 Jun 1316-Paris 18 Feb 1317, bur Paris, église des Cordeliers).

6. CHARLES de France (Creil, Oise 18 Jun 1294-Château du Bois de Vincennes 1 Feb 1328, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). Comte de La Marche 1314. He succeeded his brother in 1322 as CHARLES IV "le Bel" King of France, CARLOS I King of Navarre. He was consecrated at Notre-Dame de Reims 21 Feb 1322. The necrology of Sainte-Chapelle records the death "Kal Feb" of "Karoli Francie et Navarre regis"[436]. m firstly (before Apr 1308, repudiated 7 Sep 1322) BLANCHE de Bourgogne, daughter of OTTO de Chalon Comte de Bourgogne & his wife Mahaut Ctss d’Artois (1296-Abbaye de Maubuisson Apr 1326). The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. She was accused and convicted of adultery, imprisoned at Château-Gaillard 26 Aug 1319-21 May 1321, then repudiated by Charles on the grounds of consanguinity. She became a nun at the Abbaye de Maubuisson after her repudiation. m secondly (Provins, Seine-et-Marne 21 Sep 1322) MARIE de Luxembourg, daughter of Emperor HEINRICH VII Comte de Luxembourg & his wife Marguerite de Brabant (1305-Issoudun, Indre Mar 1324, bur Montargis, Loiret, église des religieuses de Saint-Dominique). Consecrated Queen at Paris Sainte-Chapelle 15 May 1323. She died in childbirth after falling out of the bottom of the coach which was driving her and her husband to a meeting with the Pope in Avignon[437]. m thirdly (5 Jul 1325) JEANNE d'Evreux, daughter of LOUIS de France Comte d’Evreux & his wife Marguerite d’Artois (1310-Brie-Comte-Robert 14 Mar 1371, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). The necrology of Vauvert records the death "IV Non Mar" of "domine Joanna de Ebroicis regina Francie et Navarre"[438]. The necrology of Sainte-Chapelle records the death "IV Non Mar" of "domine Johanne de Ebroys Francie et Navarre regine uxoris Karoli quarti…filii…Philippi Pulcri Francie regis"[439]. King Charles IV & his first wife had two children:

a) PHILIPPE de la Marche (shortly before 5 Jan 1314-before 24 Mar 1322, bur Abbaye du Pont-aux-Dames, Crécy-la-Chapelle, Seine-et-Marne).

b) JEANNE de la Marche (1315-17 May 1321, bur Abbaye de Maubuisson).

King Charles IV & his second wife had one child:

c) LOUIS de France (Issoudun, Indre Mar 1324-after christening a few days later, bur Montargis).

King Charles IV & his third wife had three children:

d) JEANNE de France (before 11 May 1326-before 16 Jan 1326/7).

e) MARIE de France (1327-6 Oct 1341, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).

f) BLANCHE de France (posthumously Châteauneuf near Orléans 1 Apr 1328-Vincennes 8 Feb 1393, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). Ctss de Beaumont-le-Roger. m (contract 8 Jan 1345) PHILIPPE de France Comte de Valois, son of PHILIPPE VI King of France & his first wife Jeanne "la Boiteuse" de Bourgogne (Château du Bois-de-Vincennes 1 Jul 1336-Orléans 1 Sep 1375, bur Orléans, église Sainte-Croix). He was created Duc d'Orléans, Comte de Beaumont-le-Roger, Vicomte de Breteuil by his father 16 Apr 1344.

7. ROBERT de France (1297-Saint-Germain-en-Laye Aug 1307, bur Priory of Poissy, église de Saint Louis). Betrothed (Oct 1306) to CONSTANZA of Sicily, daughter of FEDERIGO I King of Sicily [Aragon] & his wife Eléonore of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] ([1306]-after 19 Jun 1344).



--------------------

Philip IV the Fair, King of France and Navarre, Count of Champagne.


Reign 5 October 1285 – 29 November 1314

Coronation 6 January 1286, Reims

Father Philip III

Mother Isabella of Aragon

Born April-June 1268

Fontainebleau, France

Died 29 November 1314 (aged 46)

Fontainebleau, France

Burial Saint Denis Basilica

Philip IV (April-June 1268 – November 29, 1314), called the Fair (French: le Bel), son and successor of Philip III, reigned as King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was King of Navarre (as Philip I) and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305. The nickname Philip "the Fair" comes from his handsome appearance; it had nothing to do with his actions as King.

A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born at the Palace of Fontainebleau at Seine-et-Marne, the son of King Philip III and Isabella of Aragon. Philip was nicknamed the Fair (le Bel) because of his handsome appearance, but his inflexible personality gained him other epithets, from friend and foe alike. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him, "He is neither man nor beast. This is a statue"

His education was guided by Guillaume d'Ercuis the almoner of his father.

As prince, just before his father's death, he negotiated the safe passage of the royal family out of Aragon after the unsuccessful Aragonese Crusade.

As a king, Philip was determined to strengthen the monarchy at any cost. He relied, more than any of his predecessors, on a professional bureaucracy of legalists. Because to the public he kept aloof and left specific policies, especially unpopular ones, to his ministers, he was called a "useless owl" by his contemporaries. His reign marks the French transition from a charismatic monarchy – which could all but collapse in an incompetent reign – to a bureaucratic kingdom, a move towards modernity.

Philip married queen Joan of Navarre (1271–1305) on August 16, 1284. The primary administrative benefit of this was the inheritance of Joan in Champagne and Brie, which were adjacent to the royal demesne in Ile-de-France and became thus effectively united to the king's own lands, forming an expansive area. During the reigns of Joan herself, and her three sons (1284–1328), these lands belonged to the person of the king; but by 1328 they had become so entrenched in the royal domain that king Philip VI of France (who was not an heir of Joan) switched lands with the then rightful heiress, Joan II of Navarre, with the effect that Champagne and Brie remained part of the royal demesne and Joan received compensation with lands in western Normandy.

The Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees was not so important to contemporary interests of the French crown. It remained in personal union 1284–1329, after which it went its separate way. Philippe gained Lyon for France in 1312.

As Duke of Aquitaine, the English king Edward I was a vassal to Philip, and had to pay him homage. Following the Fall of Acre in 1291 however, the former allies started to show dissent.

In 1293, following a naval incident between the Normans and the English, Philip summoned Edward to the French court, but the latter, busy with trouble in Scotland, refused to appear. Philip used this pretext to strip Edward of all his possessions in France, thereby initiating hostilities with England.

The outbreak of hostilities with England in 1294 was the inevitable result of the competitive expansionist monarchies, triggered by a secret Franco-Scottish pact of mutual assistance against Edward I, who was Philip's brother-in-law, having married Philip's sister Marguerite; inconclusive campaigns for the control of Gascony to the southwest of France were fought in 1294–98 and 1300–03. Philippe gained Guienne but was forced to return it. No major war had been fought in Europe since the 'teens, and in the interim the nature of warfare had changed: it had become more professional, technologically more advanced and much more expensive. The search for income to cover military expenditures set its stamp on Philip's reign and his contemporary reputation. Pursuant to the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1303), the marriage of Philip's daughter Isabella to the Prince of Wales, heir of Philip's enemy, celebrated at Boulogne, 25 January 1308, was meant to seal a peace; instead it would produce an eventual English claimant to the French throne itself, and the Hundred Years War.


He suffered a major embarrassment when an army of 2,500 noble men-at-arms (Knights and Squires) and 4,000 infantry he sent to suppress an uprising in Flanders was defeated in the Battle of the Golden Spurs near Kortrijk on 11 July 1302. Philip reacted with energy to the humiliation and personally defeated the Flemings at Mons-en-Pévèle two years later. Finally, in 1305, Philip forced the Flemish to accept a harsh peace treaty after his success at the battle of Mons-en-Pévèle; the peace exacted heavy reparations and humiliating penalties, and added the rich cloth cities of Lille and Douai, sites of major cloth fairs, to the royal territory. Béthune, first of the Flemish cities to yield, was granted to Mahaut, Countess of Artois, whose two daughters, to secure her fidelity, were married to Philip's two sons.

Philip was hugely in debt to the Knights Templar, a monastic military order who had been acting as bankers for some two hundred years. As the popularity of the Crusades had decreased, support for the Order had waned, and Philip used a disgruntled complaint against the Order as an excuse to disband the entire organization, so as to free himself from his debts. On Friday, October 13, 1307, hundreds of Knights Templar in France were simultaneously arrested by agents of Philip the Fair, to be later tortured into admitting heresy in the Order. The Knights Templar were supposedly answerable only to the Pope, but Philip used his influence over Clement V, who was largely his pawn, to disband the organization. Pope Clement did attempt to hold proper trials, but Philip used the previously forced confessions to have many Templars burned at the stake before they could mount a proper defense.

In 1314, Philip had the last Grand Master of the Templars, Jacques de Molay, burnt at the stake in Paris. According to legend, de Molay cursed both Philip and Clement V from the flames, saying that he would summon them before God's Tribunal within a year;[citation needed] as it turned out, both King and Pope died within the next year. The throne passed rapidly through Philip's sons, who also died relatively young, and without producing male heirs. By 1328, his line was extinguished, and the throne had passed to the House of Valois.

While King Edward ordered the Jews to leave England in 1290, Philip the Fair expelled the Jews from France in 1306, ostensibly for oppresive money-lending policies. With the Jews gone, Philip appointed royal guardians to collect the loans made by the Jews and the money quite legally passed to the Crown.The scheme did not work well. The Jews were good businessmen who kept their customers happy, while the kings's collectors were less then tolerated. Finally, in 1315, because of the "clamour of the people", the Jews were invited back with an offer of 12 years of guaranteed residence, free from government interference. In 1322, the Jews were expelled again by the Kings' successor, who did not honour his commitment.

In 1314, the daughters-in-law of Philip IV were accused of adultery, and their alleged lovers tortured, flayed and executed in what has come to be known as the Tour de Nesle Affair (French: Affaire de la tour de Nesle).

Philip had various contacts with the Mongol power in the Middle East, including reception of the embassy of the Turkic/Chinese monk Rabban Bar Sauma. Bar Sauma presented an offer of a Franco-Mongol alliance with Arghun of the Mongol Ilkhanate in Baghdad. Arghun was seeking to join forces between the Mongols and the Europeans, against their common enemy the Muslim Mamluks. In return, Arghun offered to return Jerusalem to the Christians, once it was re-captured from the Muslims. Philip seemingly responded positively to the request of the embassy, by sending one of his noblemen, Gobert de Helleville, to accompany Bar Sauma back to Mongol lands.

There was further correspondence between Arghun and Philip in 1288 and 1289, outlining potential military cooperation. However, Philip never actually pursued such military plans.

In April 1305, the new Mongol ruler Oljeitu sent letters to Philip, the Pope, and Edward I of England. He again offered a military collaboration between the Christian nations of Europe and the Mongols against the Mamluks. European nations attempted another Crusade, but were delayed, and it never took place.

In April 4, 1312, another Crusade was promulgated at the Council of Vienne. In 1313, Philip "took the cross", making the vow to go on a Crusade in the Levant, thus responding to Pope Clement V's call. He was however warned against leaving by Enguerrand de Marigny and died soon after in a hunting accident.

Philip IV's rule signaled the decline of the papacy's power from its near complete authority. His palace located on the Île de la Cité is represented today by surviving sections of the Conciergerie. He suffered a cerebral ictus during a hunt at Pont-Sainte-Maxence (Forest of Halatte) and died a few weeks later in Fontainebleau, where he was born. He is buried in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son Louis X.

--------------------

Links:

Thepeerage: http://thepeerage.com/p10255.htm#i102545

Predecessor Philip III

Successor Louis X

Wikipedia:

English: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_IV_of_France

Francais: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippe_IV_de_France

--------------------

This person and their pedigree are currently documented from "The Royal Lineage of Our Noble and Gentle Families together with Their Paternal Ancestry" Compiled by Joseph Foster, 1885

[Source: http://www.archive.org/details/royallineageofou02fost ]

--------------------

Philip IV (1268 – November 29, 1314), called the Fair (French: le Bel), son and successor of Philip III, reigned as King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was King of Navarre (as Philip I) and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305.

A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born at the Palace of Fontainebleau at Seine-et-Marne, the son of King Philip III and Isabella of Aragon. Philip was nicknamed the Fair (le Bel) because of his handsome appearance, but his inflexible personality gained him other epithets, from friend and foe alike. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him, "He is neither man nor beast. This is a statue"[1]

His education was guided by Guillaume d'Ercuis the almoner of his father.

As prince, just before his father's death, he negotiated the safe passage of the royal family out of Aragon after the unsuccessful Aragonese Crusade.

As a king, Philip was determined to strengthen the monarchy at any cost. He relied, more than any of his predecessors, on a professional bureaucracy of legalists. Because to the public he kept aloof and left specific policies, especially unpopular ones, to his ministers, he was called a "useless owl" by his contemporaries. His reign marks the French transition from a charismatic monarchy – which could all but collapse in an incompetent reign – to a bureaucratic kingdom, a move towards modernity.

Philip married queen Jeanne of Navarre (1271–1305) on August 16, 1284. The primary administrative benefit of this was the inheritance of Jeanne in Champagne and Brie, which were adjacent to the royal demesne in Ile-de-France and became thus effectively united to the king's own lands, forming an expansive area. During the reigns of Jeanne herself, and her three sons (1284–1328), these lands belonged to the person of the king; but by 1328 they had become so entrenched in the royal domain that king Philip VI of France (who was not an heir of Jeanne) switched lands with the then rightful heiress, Joan II of Navarre, with the effect that Champagne and Brie remained part of the royal demesne and Joan received compensation with lands in western Normandy.

French Monarchy

Direct Capetians


Philip IV

  Louis X 
  Philip V 
  Isabella, Queen of England 
  Charles IV 

Grandchildren

   Joan II of Navarre 
   John I 
   Joan III, Countess and Duchess of Burgundy 
   Margaret I, Countess of Burgundy 
   Edward III of England 
   Mary of France 
   Blanche of France, Duchess of Orléans 

The Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees was not so important to contemporary interests of the French crown. It remained in personal union 1284–1329, after which it went its separate way. Philippe gained Lyon for France in 1312.

The outbreak of hostilities with England in 1294 was the inevitable result of the competitive expansionist monarchies, triggered by a secret Franco-Scottish pact of mutual assistance against Edward I, who was Philip's brother-in-law, having married Philip's sister Marguerite; inconclusive campaigns for the control of Gascony to the southwest of France were fought in 1294–98 and 1300–03. Philippe gained Guienne but was forced to return it. No major war had been fought in Europe since the 'teens, and in the interim the nature of warfare had changed: it had become more professional, technologically more advanced and much more expensive. The search for income to cover military expenditures set its stamp on Philip's reign and his contemporary reputation. Pursuant to the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1303), the marriage of Philip's daughter Isabella to the Prince of Wales, heir of Philip's enemy, celebrated at Boulogne, 25 January 1308, was meant to seal a peace; instead it would produce an eventual English claimant to the French throne itself, and the Hundred Years War.

In the shorter term, Philip arrested Jews so he could seize their assets to accommodate the inflated costs of modern warfare: he expelled them from his French territories in 1306. His financial victims included Lombard bankers and rich abbots. He was condemned by his enemies in the Catholic Church[2] for his spendthrift lifestyle. He debased the coinage. When he also levied taxes on the French clergy of one half their annual income, he caused an uproar within the Roman Catholic Church and the papacy, prompting Pope Boniface VIII to issue the Bull Clericis laicos, forbidding the transferance of any church property to the French Crown and prompting a drawn-out diplomatic battle with the King. In order to condemn the pope, Philip convoked an assembly of bishops, nobles and grand bourgeois of Paris, a precursor to the Etats Généraux that appeared for the first time during his reign, a measure of the professionalism and order that his ministers were introducing into government. Philip emerged victorious, after having sent his agent William Nogaret to arrest Boniface at Anagni, when the French archbishop Bertrand de Goth was elected pope as Clement V and the official seat of the papacy moved to Avignon, an enclave surrounded by French territories, commencing the captive Avignon Papacy.

He suffered a major embarrassment when an army of 2,500 noble men-at-arms (Knights and Squires) and 4,000 infantry he sent to suppress an uprising in Flanders was defeated in the Battle of the Golden Spurs near Kortrijk on 11 July 1302. Philip reacted with energy to the humiliation and personally defeated the Flemings at Mons-en-Pévèle two years later. Finally, in 1305, Philip forced the Flemish to accept a harsh peace treaty after his success at the battle of Mons-en-Pévèle; the peace exacted heavy reparations and humiliating penalties, and added the rich cloth cities of Lille and Douai, sites of major cloth fairs, to the royal territory. Béthune, first of the Flemish cities to yield, was granted to Mahaut, Countess of Artois, whose two daughters, to secure her fidelity, were married to Philip's two sons.

On Friday, October 13, 1307, hundreds of Knights Templar in France were simultaneously arrested by agents of Philip the Fair, to be later tortured into admitting heresy in the Order[3]. (This is the reason why Friday the 13th is seen as unlucky.)[citation needed] The Knights Templar were a 200-year-old military order, supposedly answerable only to the Pope. But Philip used his influence over Clement V, who was largely his pawn, to disband the order and remove its ecclesiastical status and protection in order to plunder it.

A modern historical view is that Philip seized the considerable Templar treasury and broke up the Templar monastic banking system. In 1314, he had the last Grand Master of the Templars, Jacques de Molay, burnt at the stake in Paris. According to legend, de Molay cursed both Philip and Clement V from the flames, saying that he would summon them before God's Tribunal within a year; as it turned out, both King and Pope died within the next year.

Philip IV's rule signaled the decline of the papacy's power from its near complete authority. His palace located on the Ile de la Cité is represented today by surviving sections of the Conciergerie. He died during a hunt when he was mauled by a wild boar and is buried in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son Louis X.

[edit] Children


Philip the FairThe children of Philip IV and Jeanne of Navarre were:

Marguerite (1288–1300)

Louis X - (October 4, 1289–June 5, 1316)

Philip V - (1291–January 3, 1322)

Isabelle - (c. 1292–August 23, 1358)

Charles IV - (1294–February 1, 1328)

Robert (1297–1308)

All three of his sons reaching adulthood would become kings of France, and his daughter, as consort of Edward II, was

--------------------

King Philip IV "the Fair" of France - was born in 1268 in Fontainebleau, Seine-Et-Marne, France and died on 29 Nov 1314 in Fontainebleau, Seine-Et-Marne, France and was buried in Saint Denis, France . He was the son of King Philip III "the Bold" of France and Princess Isabel of Aragon.

King Philip married Jeanne of Navarre on 16 Aug 1284. Jeanne was born Jan 1271/1272 in France. She was the daughter of King Henri "le Gros" of Navarre and Queen Blanche Artois. She died on 2 Apr 1305 in France .

King Philip - Philip "Le Bel" called Philip the Fair was born in the year 1268, 0ne hundred and fifty years after the formation of the Knights Templar and was King of France from 1285-1314. How could someone as corrupt as he, be called by the people, Philip the Fair? The term "The Fair" was a reference to Philip IV's good looks, being tall and handsome with long blonde hair and blue eyes. Philip Le Bel, in contrast to his pleasing looks, was a cold and secretive man who had strong wishes for France to be the head of the empire. In order to accomplish this plan he would need great financial resources (which the Templars possessed) and a week and subservient Papal Throne. Philip is well known for his battles with Boniface VIII (see chronology below) At one point Philip publicly burned Boniface VIII's Bull Unam Sanctam which gave the Pope absolute supremacy over everyone. Children: (Quick Family Chart)

i. King Louis X of France was born on 4 Oct 1289 in Paris, France and died on 5 Jun 1316 in Vincennes, France and was buried in St. Denis, France .

King Louis - married Marguerite of Burgandy and then Clemence of Hungary.

ii. King Philip V of France was born about 1294 in Lyons, France and died on 3 Jan 1322 in Longchamp, France and was buried in St. Denis, France .

King Philip - married Joan of Burgandy.

iii. Queen Isabella of France was born in 1292, lived in Paris, France and died on 22 Aug 1358 in Hertford Castle, Hertford, England and was buried in Grey Friars, Church, London, England .

Queen Isabella married King Edward II of England on 25 Jan 1307/1308 in Boulogne, Pas-de-Calais, France. King Edward was born on 25 Apr 1274 in Carnarvon Castle, Carnarvon , Wales. He was the son of King Edward I "Longshanks" Plantagenet and Princess Leonor of Castile and Leon. He died on 21 Sep 1327 in Berkeley Castle,Gloucester,Gloucester,England .

Queen Isabella - When Charles Iv of France seized Edward's territories in that country, the English king sent Charles' sister Isabella who after Gaveston's death had managed to bear Edward four children, including the future Edward Iii, who now accompanied her to effect an amicable arrangement. She despised her husband, hated the Despensers and now fell in love with Roger Mortimer who, condemned to life imprisonment for rebellion, had escaped from the Tower in 1324 and fled to the French court.

Hertford Castle


It was the Normans who first built a castle in Hertford after the battle of Hastings, although the oldest walls still standing today were built as part of Henry II's strengthening works in the 1170's. Ever since, the castle has been the centre of the town and in continual use.


It was captured by the French in the 13th century, became a royal palace in the 14th century, and was home to Parliament and the Law Courts when Elizabethan London was gripped by Plague in the 1500's. Shortly after becoming King, Charles I granted Hertford Castle to William Cecil, the Earl of Salibury (whose descendants still own it) and since 1911 it has been used as council offices.

See Plantagenet family for children.


iv. King Charles IV of France was born about 1294 and died on 1 Feb 1328 in Vincennes, France and was buried in St. Denis, France .

King Charles - married Blanche of Burgandy in 1307, Marie of Luxemburg in 1322 and Joan of Evreux in 1325.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_IV_of_France

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_IV_of_France

--------------------

Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (French: le Bel), son and successor of Philip III, reigned as King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was King of Navarre (as Philip I) and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305. The nickname Philip "the Fair" or "the Handsome" comes from his appearance; it had nothing to do with his actions as king.

Contents [hide]

1 Youth

2 Consolidation of the royal demesne

3 War with the English

4 Drive for income

5 In Flanders

6 Suppression of the Knights Templar

7 Expulsion of the Jews

8 Tour de Nesle affair

9 Crusades and diplomacy with Mongols

10 Death

11 Issue

12 Notes

13 References

14 External links


[edit] Youth

A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born at the Palace of Fontainebleau at Seine-et-Marne, the son of King Philip III and Isabella of Aragon. Philip was nicknamed the Fair (le Bel) because of his handsome appearance, but his inflexible personality gained him other epithets, from friend and foe alike. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him, "He is neither man nor beast. He is a statue."[1]

His education was guided by Guillaume d'Ercuis, the almoner of his father.

As prince, just before his father's death, he negotiated the safe passage of the royal family out of Aragon after the unsuccessful Aragonese Crusade.

[edit] Consolidation of the royal demesne

As a king, Philip was determined to strengthen the monarchy at any cost. He relied, more than any of his predecessors, on a professional bureaucracy of legalists. Because to the public he kept aloof and left specific policies, especially unpopular ones, to his ministers, he was called a "useless owl" by his contemporaries. His reign marks the French transition from a charismatic monarchy – which could all but collapse in an incompetent reign – to a bureaucratic kingdom, a move, under a certain historical reading, towards modernity.

Philip married queen Joan of Navarre (1271–1305) on 16 August 1284. The primary administrative benefit of this was the inheritance of Joan in Champagne and Brie, which were adjacent to the royal demesne in Ile-de-France and became thus effectively united to the king's own lands, forming an expansive area. During the reigns of Joan herself, and her three sons (1284–1328), these lands belonged to the person of the king; but by 1328 they had become so entrenched in the royal domain that king Philip VI of France (who was not an heir of Joan) switched lands with the then rightful heiress, Joan II of Navarre, with the effect that Champagne and Brie remained part of the royal demesne and Joan received compensation with lands in western Normandy.

The Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees was not so important to contemporary interests of the French crown. It remained in personal union 1284–1329, after which it went its separate way. Philip gained Lyon for France in 1312.

[edit] War with the English


Homage of Edward I (kneeling) to Philip IV (seated). As Duke of Aquitaine, Edward was a vassal to the French king.As Duke of Aquitaine, the English king Edward I was a vassal to Philip, and had to pay him homage. Following the Fall of Acre in 1291 however, the former allies started to show dissent.[2]

In 1293, following a naval incident between the Normans and the English, Philip summoned Edward to the French court, but the latter, busy harassing Scotland, refused to appear. Philip used this pretext to strip Edward of all his possessions in France, thereby initiating hostilities with England.[2]

The outbreak of hostilities with England in 1294 was the inevitable result of the competitive expansionist monarchies, triggered by a secret Franco-Scottish pact of mutual assistance against Edward I, who was Philip's brother-in-law, having married Philip's sister Marguerite; inconclusive campaigns for the control of Gascony to the southwest of France were fought in 1294–98 and 1300–03. Philip gained Guienne but was forced to return it. The search for income to cover military expenditures set its stamp on Philip's reign and his contemporary reputation. Pursuant to the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1303), the marriage of Philip's daughter Isabella to the Prince of Wales, heir of Philip's enemy, celebrated at Boulogne, 25 January 1308, was meant to seal a peace; instead it would produce an eventual English claimant to the French throne itself, and the Hundred Years War.

[edit] Drive for income

See also: Coinage of Philip IV of France


Petit royal d'or, gold coin minted under Philip IV. Cabinet des Médailles. [3]In the shorter term, Philip arrested Jews so he could seize their assets to accommodate the inflated costs of modern warfare: he expelled them from his French territories on 22 July 1306 (see The Great Exile of 1306). His financial victims included Lombard bankers and rich abbots. He was condemned by his enemies in the Catholic Church[4] for his spendthrift lifestyle. He debased the coinage. When he also levied taxes on the French clergy of one half their annual income, he caused an uproar within the Roman Catholic Church and the papacy, prompting Pope Boniface VIII to issue the Bull Clericis laicos, forbidding the transference of any church property to the French Crown and prompting a drawn-out diplomatic battle with the King. In order to condemn the pope, Philip convoked an assembly of bishops, nobles and grand bourgeois of Paris, a precursor to the Etats Généraux that appeared for the first time during his reign, a measure of the professionalism and order that his ministers were introducing into government. Philip emerged victorious, after having sent his agent William Nogaret to arrest Boniface at Anagni, when the French archbishop Bertrand de Goth was elected pope as Clement V and the official seat of the papacy moved to Avignon, an enclave surrounded by French territories, commencing the captive Avignon Papacy.

[edit] In Flanders

He suffered a major embarrassment when an army of 2,500 noble men-at-arms (Knights and Squires) and 4,000 infantry he sent to suppress an uprising in Flanders was defeated in the Battle of the Golden Spurs near Kortrijk on 11 July 1302. Philip reacted with energy to the humiliation and personally defeated the Flemings at Mons-en-Pévèle two years later. Finally, in 1305, Philip forced the Flemish to accept a harsh peace treaty after his success at the battle of Mons-en-Pévèle; the peace exacted heavy reparations and humiliating penalties, and added the rich cloth cities of Lille and Douai, sites of major cloth fairs, to the royal territory. Béthune, first of the Flemish cities to yield, was granted to Mahaut, Countess of Artois, whose two daughters, to secure her fidelity, were married to Philip's two sons.

[edit] Suppression of the Knights Templar

Philip was hugely in debt to the Knights Templar, a monastic military order who had been acting as bankers for some two hundred years. As the popularity of the Crusades had decreased, support for the Order had waned, and Philip used a disgruntled complaint against the Order as an excuse to disband the entire organization, so as to free himself from his debts. On Friday, 13 October 1307, hundreds of Knights Templar in France were simultaneously arrested by agents of Philip the Fair, to be later tortured into admitting heresy in the Order.[5] The Knights Templar were supposedly answerable only to the Pope, but Philip used his influence over Clement V, who was largely his pawn, to disband the organization. Pope Clement did attempt to hold proper trials, but Philip used the previously forced confessions to have many Templars burned at the stake before they could mount a proper defense.

In 1314, Philip had the last Grand Master of the Templars, Jacques de Molay, not burnt at the stake but rather roasted slowly over a fire in Paris. According to legend, de Molay cursed both Philip and Clement V from the flames, saying that he would summon them before God's Tribunal within a year;[6] as it turned out, both King and Pope died within the next year. The throne passed rapidly through Philip's sons, who also died relatively young, and without producing male heirs. By 1328, his line was extinguished, and the throne had passed to the House of Valois.

[edit] Expulsion of the Jews

While King Edward ordered the Jews to leave England in 1290, Philip the Fair expelled the Jews from France in 1306, ostensibly for oppressive money-lending policies. With the Jews gone, Philip appointed royal guardians to collect the loans made by the Jews and the money quite legally passed to the Crown. The scheme did not work well. The Jews were good businessmen who kept their customers happy, while the kings's collectors were less than tolerated. Finally, in 1315, because of the "clamour of the people", the Jews were invited back with an offer of 12 years of guaranteed residence, free from government interference. In 1322, the Jews were expelled again by the Kings' successor, who did not honor his commitment.[7]

[edit] Tour de Nesle affair

In 1314, the daughters-in-law of Philip IV-Margaret of Burgundy, Queen of France Wife of Louis X; and Blanche of Burgundy wife of Charles IV-were accused of adultery, and their alleged lovers (Phillipe d'Aunay and Gauthier d'Aunay) tortured, flayed and executed in what has come to be known as the Tour de Nesle Affair (French: Affaire de la tour de Nesle). A third daughter-in-law, Jeanne II, Countess of Burgundy, wife of Philip V, was accused of knowledge of the affairs.

[edit] Crusades and diplomacy with Mongols

Main article: Franco-Mongol alliance

Philip had various contacts with the Mongol power in the Middle East, including reception of the embassy of the Turkic/Mongol monk Rabban Bar Sauma.[8] Bar Sauma presented an offer of a Franco-Mongol alliance with Arghun of the Mongol Ilkhanate in Baghdad. Arghun was seeking to join forces between the Mongols and the Europeans, against their common enemy the Muslim Mamluks. In return, Arghun offered to return Jerusalem to the Christians, once it was re-captured from the Muslims. Philip seemingly responded positively to the request of the embassy, by sending one of his noblemen, Gobert de Helleville, to accompany Bar Sauma back to Mongol lands.[9]

There was further correspondence between Arghun and Philip in 1288 and 1289,[10] outlining potential military cooperation. However, Philip never actually pursued such military plans.

In April 1305, the new Mongol ruler Oljeitu sent letters to Philip,[11] the Pope, and Edward I of England. He again offered a military collaboration between the Christian nations of Europe and the Mongols against the Mamluks. European nations attempted another Crusade, but were delayed, and it never took place.

In 4 April 1312, another Crusade was promulgated at the Council of Vienne. In 1313, Philip "took the cross", making the vow to go on a Crusade in the Levant, thus responding to Pope Clement V's call. He was, however, warned against leaving by Enguerrand de Marigny[12] and died soon after in a hunting accident.

[edit] Death


Tomb of Philip IV in the Basilica of St Denis.Philip IV's rule signaled the decline of the papacy's power from its near complete authority. His palace located on the Île de la Cité is represented today by surviving sections of the Conciergerie. He suffered a cerebral ictus during a hunt at Pont-Sainte-Maxence (Forest of Halatte) and died a few weeks later in Fontainebleau, where he was born. He is buried in the Basilica of St Denis. He was succeeded by his son Louis X.

[edit] Issue

The children of Philip IV and Jeanne of Navarre were:

Marguerite (1288–c.1294)

Louis X - ( 4 October 1289–5 June 1316)

Blanche (died c.1294)

Philip V - (1292/93–3 January 1322)

Charles IV - (1294–1 February 1328)

Isabelle - (c. 1295–23 August 1358)

Robert (born 1297, died 1308 at St-Germaine-en-Laye)

All three of his sons reaching adulthood would become kings of France, and his surviving daughter, as consort of Edward II, was queen of England.

[edit] Notes

This article's citation style may be unclear. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation, footnoting, or external linking. (September 2009) 

^ "Ce n'est ni un homme ni une bête. C'est une statue."

^ a b Les Rois de France, p.50

^ Coins minted under Philip IV

^ Contemporary chroniclers were all monks.

^ Malcolm Barber, The Trial of the Templars. Cambridge University Press, 1978. ISBN 0-521-45727-0.

^ National Geographic, The Fake Bible Part 1: The Knights Templar

^ Charles Adams, Fight, Flight, Fraud The Story of Taxation, 1982

^ Source

^ The Monks of Kublai Khan

^ Source

^ Mostaert and Cleaves, pp. 56-57, Source

^ Jean Richard, "Histoire des Croisades", p.485

[edit] References

Joseph Strayer. The reign of Philip the Fair, 1980. Representing over 30 years of research, considered one of the most comprehensive medieval biographies of any monarch.

Favier, Jean Philippe le Bel

Goyau, Georges (1913). "Philip IV (the Fair)". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12004a.htm.

Grandes Chroniques de France

A.H. Newman, in Philip Schaff, The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge

Knights Templar History and Mythology [1]

Schein, Sylvia (October 1979). "Gesta Dei per Mongolos 1300. The Genesis of a Non-Event". The English Historical Review 94 (373): 805–819. doi:10.1093/ehr/XCIV.CCCLXXIII.805. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0013-8266(197910)94:373%3C805:GDPM1T%3E2.0.CO;2-8.

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Philip IV of France  

Philip IV (The Fair) - Catholic Encyclopedia

Philip IV - 1268 - 1314 - templarhistory.com

Philip IV of France

House of Capet

Born: 1268 Died: 29 November 1314

Regnal titles

Preceded by

Philip III King of France

5 October 1285–29 November 1314 Succeeded by

Louis X of France

Preceded by

Henry I King of Navarre

16 August 1284–4 April 1305

with Joan I Succeeded by

Louis I of Navarre

French royalty

Preceded by

Louis Heir to the Throne

as Heir apparent

May 1276 — 5 October 1285 Succeeded by

Philip, Count of Poitou

French nobility

Preceded by

Henry I Count of Champagne

16 August 1284–4 April 1305

with Joan I Succeeded by

Louis I

--------------------

Philip IV of France

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Philip IV (April-June 1268 – November 29, 1314), called the Fair (French: le Bel), son and successor of Philip III, reigned as King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was King of Navarre (as Philip I) and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305.

Youth

A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born at the Palace of Fontainebleau at Seine-et-Marne, the son of King Philip III and Isabella of Aragon. Philip was nicknamed the Fair (le Bel) because of his handsome appearance, but his inflexible personality gained him other epithets, from friend and foe alike. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him, "He is neither man nor beast. This is a statue"[1]

His education was guided by Guillaume d'Ercuis the almoner of his father.

As prince, just before his father's death, he negotiated the safe passage of the royal family out of Aragon after the unsuccessful Aragonese Crusade.

[edit]Consolidation of the royal demesne

As a king, Philip was determined to strengthen the monarchy at any cost. He relied, more than any of his predecessors, on a professional bureaucracy of legalists. Because to the public he kept aloof and left specific policies, especially unpopular ones, to his ministers, he was called a "useless owl" by his contemporaries. His reign marks the French transition from a charismatic monarchy – which could all but collapse in an incompetent reign – to a bureaucratic kingdom, a move towards modernity.

Philip married queen Joan of Navarre (1271–1305) on August 16, 1284. The primary administrative benefit of this was the inheritance of Joan in Champagne and Brie, which were adjacent to the royal demesne in Ile-de-France and became thus effectively united to the king's own lands, forming an expansive area. During the reigns of Joan herself, and her three sons (1284–1328), these lands belonged to the person of the king; but by 1328 they had become so entrenched in the royal domain that king Philip VI of France (who was not an heir of Joan) switched lands with the then rightful heiress, Joan II of Navarre, with the effect that Champagne and Brie remained part of the royal demesne and Joan received compensation with lands in western Normandy.

The Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees was not so important to contemporary interests of the French crown. It remained in personal union 1284–1329, after which it went its separate way. Philippe gained Lyon for France in 1312.

[edit]Contacts with the Mongols

Main article: Franco-Mongol alliance

Philip had various contacts with the Mongol power in the Middle East, who were trying to obtain the cooperation of Christian powers to fight against the Muslims. He received the embassy of the Mongolian Chinese monk Rabban Bar Sauma, and an elephant as a present.[2] Philip seemingly responded positively to the request of the embassy:

"If it be indeed so that the Mongols, though they are not Christians, are going to fight against the Arabs for the capture of Jerusalem, it is meet especially for us that we should fight [with them], and if our Lord willeth, go forth in full strength."

—"The Monks of Kublai Khan Emperor of China[3]

Philip also gave the embassy numerous presents, and sent one of his noblemen, Gobert de Helleville, to accompany Bar Sauma back to Mongol lands:

"And he said unto us, "I will send with you one of the great Amirs whom I have here with me to give an answer to King Arghon"; and the king gave Rabban Sawma gifts and apparel of great price."

—"The Monks of Kublai Khan Emperor of China[4]

Gobert de Helleville departed on February 2, 1288, with two clercs Robert de Senlis and Guillaume de Bruyères, as well as arbaletier Audin de Bourges. They joined Bar Sauma in Rome, and accompanied him to Persia.[5]

The Mongol ruler Arghun, based in Baghdad, further wrote to him a letter in 1289, in answer to a letter sent by Philip to him in 1288,[6] specifically outlining military cooperation:

"Under the power of the eternal sky, the message of the great king, Arghun, to the king of France..., said: I have accepted the word that you forwarded by the messengers under Saymer Sagura (Bar Sauma), saying that if the warriors of Il Khaan invade Egypt you would support them. We would also lend our support by going there at the end of the Tiger year’s winter [1290], worshiping the sky, and settle in Damascus in the early spring [1291].

If you send your warriors as promised and conquer Egypt, worshiping the sky, then I shall give you Jerusalem. If any of our warriors arrive later than arranged, all will be futile and no one will benefit. If you care to please give me your impressions, and I would also be very willing to accept any samples of French opulence that you care to burden your messengers with.

I send this to you by Myckeril and say: All will be known by the power of the sky and the greatness of kings. This letter was scribed on the sixth of the early summer in the year of the Ox at Ho’ndlon."

—France royal archives[7]

Contrary to Saint Louis, Philip apparently did not pursue with such military plans in the Middle East in the form of a Crusade. He did however organize a military collaboration with the Mongols through the Knights Templar and their leader Jacques de Molay against the Mamluks. The plan was to coordinate actions between the Christian military orders, the King of Cyprus, the aristocracy of Cyprus and Little Armenia and the Mongols of the khanate of Ilkhan (Persia). In 1298 or 1299, Jacques de Molay halted a Mamluk invasion with military force in Armenia possibly because of the loss of Roche-Guillaume, the last Templar stronghold in Cilicia, to the Mamluks. However, when the Mongol khan of Persia, Ghâzân, defeated the Mamluks in the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar in December 1299, the Christian forces were not ready to take an advantage of the situation.

In 1300, Jacques de Molay made his order commit raids along the Egyptian and Syrian coasts to weaken the enemy's supply lines as well as to harass them, and in November that year he joined the occupation of the tiny fortress island of Ruad (today called Arwad) which faced the Syrian town of Tortosa. The intent was to establish a bridgehead in accordance with the Mongol alliance, but the Mongols were delayed for months, and the Crusaders had to retreat to Arwad. In 1300, rumors circulated in Europe that the Mongols had finally conquered the Holy Land and Jerusalem, and handed it over to the Christians, but this apparently did not happen.[8]

In September 1302 the Templars were driven out of Ruad by the attacking Mamluk forces from Egypt, and many were massacred when trapped on the island. The island of Ruad was lost, and when Ghâzân died in 1304 dreams of a rapid reconquest of the Holy Land were destroyed.

In April 1305, the new Mongol ruler Oljeitu sent letters to Philip,[9] the Pope, and Edward I of England. He again offered a military collaboration between the Christian nations of Europe and the Mongols against the Mamluks. European nations accordingly prepared a crusade, but were delayed, and the crusade never took place.

In 1310, Guillaume de Nogaret wrote a memorandum about capturing the Holy Land without the Templars, but in association with the Mongols, the Greeks and the harbour cities of Italy. The expedition would be financed by the revenues of the Templars and a tax on the Hospitallers and other orders.[10]

On April 4, 1312, a Crusade was promulgated at the Council of Vienne. In 1313, Philip "took the cross", making the vow to go on a Crusade in the Levant, thus responding to Pope Clement V's call for a Crusade. He was however warned against leaving by Enguerrand de Marigny[11] and died soon after in a hunting accident.

War With the English

As Duke of Aquitaine, the English king Edward I was a vassal to Philip, and had to pay him homage. Following the Fall of Acre in 1291 however, the former allies started to show dissent.[12]

In 1293, following a naval incident between the Normands and the English, Philip summoned Edward to the French court, but the latter, busy with trouble in Scotland, refused to appear. Philip used this pretext to strip Edward of all his possessions in France, thereby initiating hostilities with England.[13]

The outbreak of hostilities with England in 1294 was the inevitable result of the competitive expansionist monarchies, triggered by a secret Franco-Scottish pact of mutual assistance against Edward I, who was Philip's brother-in-law, having married Philip's sister Marguerite; inconclusive campaigns for the control of Gascony to the southwest of France were fought in 1294–98 and 1300–03. Philippe gained Guienne but was forced to return it. No major war had been fought in Europe since the 'teens, and in the interim the nature of warfare had changed: it had become more professional, technologically more advanced and much more expensive. The search for income to cover military expenditures set its stamp on Philip's reign and his contemporary reputation. Pursuant to the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1303), the marriage of Philip's daughter Isabella to the Prince of Wales, heir of Philip's enemy, celebrated at Boulogne, 25 January 1308, was meant to seal a peace; instead it would produce an eventual English claimant to the French throne itself, and the Hundred Years War.

The drive for income

In the shorter term, Philip arrested Jews so he could seize their assets to accommodate the inflated costs of modern warfare: he expelled them from his French territories on July 22, 1306 (see The Great Exile of 1306). His financial victims included Lombard bankers and rich abbots. He was condemned by his enemies in the Catholic Church[14] for his spendthrift lifestyle. He debased the coinage. When he also levied taxes on the French clergy of one half their annual income, he caused an uproar within the Roman Catholic Church and the papacy, prompting Pope Boniface VIII to issue the Bull Clericis laicos, forbidding the transferance of any church property to the French Crown and prompting a drawn-out diplomatic battle with the King. In order to condemn the pope, Philip convoked an assembly of bishops, nobles and grand bourgeois of Paris, a precursor to the Etats Généraux that appeared for the first time during his reign, a measure of the professionalism and order that his ministers were introducing into government. Philip emerged victorious, after having sent his agent William Nogaret to arrest Boniface at Anagni, when the French archbishop Bertrand de Goth was elected pope as Clement V and the official seat of the papacy moved to Avignon, an enclave surrounded by French territories, commencing the captive Avignon Papacy.

In Flanders

He suffered a major embarrassment when an army of 2,500 noble men-at-arms (Knights and Squires) and 4,000 infantry he sent to suppress an uprising in Flanders was defeated in the Battle of the Golden Spurs near Kortrijk on 11 July 1302. Philip reacted with energy to the humiliation and personally defeated the Flemings at Mons-en-Pévèle two years later. Finally, in 1305, Philip forced the Flemish to accept a harsh peace treaty after his success at the battle of Mons-en-Pévèle; the peace exacted heavy reparations and humiliating penalties, and added the rich cloth cities of Lille and Douai, sites of major cloth fairs, to the royal territory. Béthune, first of the Flemish cities to yield, was granted to Mahaut, Countess of Artois, whose two daughters, to secure her fidelity, were married to Philip's two sons.

[edit]Suppression of the Knights Templar

On Friday, October 13, 1307, hundreds of Knights Templar in France were simultaneously arrested by agents of Philip the Fair, to be later tortured into admitting heresy in the Order[15]. The Knights Templar were a 200-year-old military order, supposedly answerable only to the Pope. But Philip used his influence over Clement V, who was largely his pawn, to disband the order and remove its ecclesiastical status and protection in order to plunder it.

A modern historical view is that Philip seized the considerable Templar treasury and broke up the Templar monastic banking system. In 1314, he had the last Grand Master of the Templars, Jacques de Molay, burnt at the stake in Paris. According to legend, de Molay cursed both Philip and Clement V from the flames, saying that he would summon them before God's Tribunal within a year; as it turned out, both King and Pope died within the next year.

Tour de Nesle affair

In 1314, the daughters-in-law of Philip IV were accused of adultery, and their alleged lovers tortured, flayed and executed in what has come to be known as the Tour de Nesle Affair (French: Affaire de la tour de Nesle).

Death

Philip IV's rule signaled the decline of the papacy's power from its near complete authority. His palace located on the Île de la Cité is represented today by surviving sections of the Conciergerie. He died during a hunt when he was mauled by a wild boar and is buried in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son Louis X.

Children

The children of Philip IV and Jeanne of Navarre were:

Marguerite (1288–c.1294)

Louis X - (October, 1289–June 5, 1316)

Blanche (died c.1294)

Philip V - (1292/93–January 3, 1322)

Charles IV - (1294–February 1, 1328)

Isabelle - (c. 1295–August 23, 1358)

Robert (born 1297, died 1308 at St-Germaine-en-Laye)

All three of his sons reaching adulthood would become kings of France, and his surviving daughter, as consort of Edward II, was queen of England.

--------------------

Philip IV (1268 – November 29, 1314), called the Fair (French: le Bel), son and successor of Philip III, reigned as King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was King of Navarre (as Philip I) and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305.

A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born at the Palace of Fontainebleau at Seine-et-Marne, the son of King Philip III and Isabella of Aragon. Philip was nicknamed the Fair (le Bel) because of his handsome appearance, but his inflexible personality gained him other epithets, from friend and foe alike. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him, "He is neither man nor beast. This is a statue"[1]

His education was guided by Guillaume d'Ercuis the almoner of his father.

As prince, just before his father's death, he negotiated the safe passage of the royal family out of Aragon after the unsuccessful Aragonese Crusade.

[edit] Consolidation of the royal demesne

As a king, Philip was determined to strengthen the monarchy at any cost. He relied, more than any of his predecessors, on a professional bureaucracy of legalists. Because to the public he kept aloof and left specific policies, especially unpopular ones, to his ministers, he was called a "useless owl" by his contemporaries. His reign marks the French transition from a charismatic monarchy – which could all but collapse in an incompetent reign – to a bureaucratic kingdom, a move towards modernity.

Philip married queen Jeanne of Navarre (1271–1305) on August 16, 1284. The primary administrative benefit of this was the inheritance of Jeanne in Champagne and Brie, which were adjacent to the royal demesne in Ile-de-France and became thus effectively united to the king's own lands, forming an expansive area. During the reigns of Jeanne herself, and her three sons (1284–1328), these lands belonged to the person of the king; but by 1328 they had become so entrenched in the royal domain that king Philip VI of France (who was not an heir of Jeanne) switched lands with the then rightful heiress, Joan II of Navarre, with the effect that Champagne and Brie remained part of the royal demesne and Joan received compensation with lands in western Normandy.

The Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees was not so important to contemporary interests of the French crown. It remained in personal union 1284–1329, after which it went its separate way. Philippe gained Lyon for France in 1312.

War with the English

The outbreak of hostilities with England in 1294 was the inevitable result of the competitive expansionist monarchies, triggered by a secret Franco-Scottish pact of mutual assistance against Edward I, who was Philip's brother-in-law, having married Philip's sister Marguerite; inconclusive campaigns for the control of Gascony to the southwest of France were fought in 1294–98 and 1300–03. Philippe gained Guienne but was forced to return it. No major war had been fought in Europe since the 'teens, and in the interim the nature of warfare had changed: it had become more professional, technologically more advanced and much more expensive. The search for income to cover military expenditures set its stamp on Philip's reign and his contemporary reputation. Pursuant to the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1303), the marriage of Philip's daughter Isabella to the Prince of Wales, heir of Philip's enemy, celebrated at Boulogne, 25 January 1308, was meant to seal a peace; instead it would produce an eventual English claimant to the French throne itself, and the Hundred Years War.

[edit] The drive for income

In the shorter term, Philip arrested Jews so he could seize their assets to accommodate the inflated costs of modern warfare: he expelled them from his French territories in 1306. His financial victims included Lombard bankers and rich abbots. He was condemned by his enemies in the Catholic Church[2] for his spendthrift lifestyle. He debased the coinage. When he also levied taxes on the French clergy of one half their annual income, he caused an uproar within the Roman Catholic Church and the papacy, prompting Pope Boniface VIII to issue the Bull Clericis laicos, forbidding the transferance of any church property to the French Crown and prompting a drawn-out diplomatic battle with the King. In order to condemn the pope, Philip convoked an assembly of bishops, nobles and grand bourgeois of Paris, a precursor to the Etats Généraux that appeared for the first time during his reign, a measure of the professionalism and order that his ministers were introducing into government. Philip emerged victorious, after having sent his agent William Nogaret to arrest Boniface at Anagni, when the French archbishop Bertrand de Goth was elected pope as Clement V and the official seat of the papacy moved to Avignon, an enclave surrounded by French territories, commencing the captive Avignon Papacy.

He suffered a major embarrassment when an army of 2,500 noble men-at-arms (Knights and Squires) and 4,000 infantry he sent to suppress an uprising in Flanders was defeated in the Battle of the Golden Spurs near Kortrijk on 11 July 1302. Philip reacted with energy to the humiliation and personally defeated the Flemings at Mons-en-Pévèle two years later. Finally, in 1305, Philip forced the Flemish to accept a harsh peace treaty after his success at the battle of Mons-en-Pévèle; the peace exacted heavy reparations and humiliating penalties, and added the rich cloth cities of Lille and Douai, sites of major cloth fairs, to the royal territory. Béthune, first of the Flemish cities to yield, was granted to Mahaut, Countess of Artois, whose two daughters, to secure her fidelity, were married to Philip's two sons.

[edit] Suppression of the Knights Templar

On Friday, October 13, 1307, hundreds of Knights Templar in France were simultaneously arrested by agents of Philip the Fair, to be later tortured into admitting heresy in the Order[citation needed]. (This is the reason why Friday the 13th is seen as unlucky.)[citation needed] The Knights Templar were a 200-year-old military order, supposedly answerable only to the Pope. But Philip used his influence over Clement V, who was largely his pawn, to disband the order and remove its ecclesiastical status and protection in order to plunder it.

A modern historical view is that Philip seized the considerable Templar treasury and broke up the Templar monastic banking system. In 1314, he had the last Grand Master of the Templars, Jacques de Molay, burnt at the stake in Paris. According to legend, de Molay cursed both Philip and Clement V from the flames, saying that he would summon them before God's Tribunal within a year; as it turned out, both King and Pope died within the next year.

Philip IV's rule signaled the decline of the papacy's power from its near complete authority. His palace located on the Ile de la Cité is represented today by surviving sections of the Conciergerie. He died during a hunt when he was mauled by a wild boar and is buried in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son Louis X.

--------------------

Philip IV (April–June 1268 – November 29, 1314), called the Fair (French: le Bel), son and successor of Philip III, reigned as King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was King of Navarre (as Philip I) and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305. The nickname Philip "the Fair" or "the Handsome" comes from his appearance; it had nothing to do with his actions as king.

Youth

A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born at the Palace of Fontainebleau at Seine-et-Marne, the son of King Philip III and Isabella of Aragon. Philip was nicknamed the Fair (le Bel) because of his handsome appearance, but his inflexible personality gained him other epithets, from friend and foe alike. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him, "He is neither man nor beast. He is a statue."

His education was guided by Guillaume d'Ercuis, the almoner of his father.

As prince, just before his father's death, he negotiated the safe passage of the royal family out of Aragon after the unsuccessful Aragonese Crusade.

Consolidation of the royal demesne

As a king, Philip was determined to strengthen the monarchy at any cost. He relied, more than any of his predecessors, on a professional bureaucracy of legalists. Because to the public he kept aloof and left specific policies, especially unpopular ones, to his ministers, he was called a "useless owl" by his contemporaries. His reign marks the French transition from a charismatic monarchy – which could all but collapse in an incompetent reign – to a bureaucratic kingdom, a move towards modernity.

Philip married queen Joan of Navarre (1271–1305) on August 16, 1284. The primary administrative benefit of this was the inheritance of Joan in Champagne and Brie, which were adjacent to the royal demesne in Ile-de-France and became thus effectively united to the king's own lands, forming an expansive area. During the reigns of Joan herself, and her three sons (1284–1328), these lands belonged to the person of the king; but by 1328 they had become so entrenched in the royal domain that king Philip VI of France (who was not an heir of Joan) switched lands with the then rightful heiress, Joan II of Navarre, with the effect that Champagne and Brie remained part of the royal demesne and Joan received compensation with lands in western Normandy.

The Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees was not so important to contemporary interests of the French crown. It remained in personal union 1284–1329, after which it went its separate way. Philip gained Lyon for France in 1312.

As Duke of Aquitaine, the English king Edward I was a vassal to Philip, and had to pay him homage. Following the Fall of Acre in 1291 however, the former allies started to show dissent.

In 1293, following a naval incident between the Normans and the English, Philip summoned Edward to the French court, but the latter, busy harassing Scotland, refused to appear. Philip used this pretext to strip Edward of all his possessions in France, thereby initiating hostilities with England.

The outbreak of hostilities with England in 1294 was the inevitable result of the competitive expansionist monarchies, triggered by a secret Franco-Scottish pact of mutual assistance against Edward I, who was Philip's brother-in-law, having married Philip's sister Marguerite; inconclusive campaigns for the control of Gascony to the southwest of France were fought in 1294–98 and 1300–03. Philip gained Guienne but was forced to return it. The search for income to cover military expenditures set its stamp on Philip's reign and his contemporary reputation. Pursuant to the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1303), the marriage of Philip's daughter Isabella to the Prince of Wales, heir of Philip's enemy, celebrated at Boulogne, 25 January 1308, was meant to seal a peace; instead it would produce an eventual English claimant to the French throne itself, and the Hundred Years War.

Drive for income


Petit royal d'or, gold coin minted under Philip IV. Cabinet des Médailles. In the shorter term, Philip arrested Jews so he could seize their assets to accommodate the inflated costs of modern warfare: he expelled them from his French territories on July 22, 1306 (see The Great Exile of 1306). His financial victims included Lombard bankers and rich abbots. He was condemned by his enemies in the Catholic Church for his spendthrift lifestyle. He debased the coinage. When he also levied taxes on the French clergy of one half their annual income, he caused an uproar within the Roman Catholic Church and the papacy, prompting Pope Boniface VIII to issue the Bull Clericis laicos, forbidding the transference of any church property to the French Crown and prompting a drawn-out diplomatic battle with the King. In order to condemn the pope, Philip convoked an assembly of bishops, nobles and grand bourgeois of Paris, a precursor to the Etats Généraux that appeared for the first time during his reign, a measure of the professionalism and order that his ministers were introducing into government. Philip emerged victorious, after having sent his agent William Nogaret to arrest Boniface at Anagni, when the French archbishop Bertrand de Goth was elected pope as Clement V and the official seat of the papacy moved to Avignon, an enclave surrounded by French territories, commencing the captive Avignon Papacy.

In Flanders

He suffered a major embarrassment when an army of 2,500 noble men-at-arms (Knights and Squires) and 4,000 infantry he sent to suppress an uprising in Flanders was defeated in the Battle of the Golden Spurs near Kortrijk on 11 July 1302. Philip reacted with energy to the humiliation and personally defeated the Flemings at Mons-en-Pévèle two years later. Finally, in 1305, Philip forced the Flemish to accept a harsh peace treaty after his success at the battle of Mons-en-Pévèle; the peace exacted heavy reparations and humiliating penalties, and added the rich cloth cities of Lille and Douai, sites of major cloth fairs, to the royal territory. Béthune, first of the Flemish cities to yield, was granted to Mahaut, Countess of Artois, whose two daughters, to secure her fidelity, were married to Philip's two sons.

Suppression of the Knights Templar

Philip was hugely in debt to the Knights Templar, a monastic military order who had been acting as bankers for some two hundred years. As the popularity of the Crusades had decreased, support for the Order had waned, and Philip used a disgruntled complaint against the Order as an excuse to disband the entire organization, so as to free himself from his debts. On Friday, October 13, 1307, hundreds of Knights Templar in France were simultaneously arrested by agents of Philip the Fair, to be later tortured into admitting heresy in the Order. The Knights Templar were supposedly answerable only to the Pope, but Philip used his influence over Clement V, who was largely his pawn, to disband the organization. Pope Clement did attempt to hold proper trials, but Philip used the previously forced confessions to have many Templars burned at the stake before they could mount a proper defense.

In 1314, Philip had the last Grand Master of the Templars, Jacques de Molay, not burnt at the stake but rather roasted slowly over a fire in Paris. According to legend, de Molay cursed both Philip and Clement V from the flames, saying that he would summon them before God's Tribunal within a year; as it turned out, both King and Pope died within the next year. The throne passed rapidly through Philip's sons, who also died relatively young, and without producing male heirs. By 1328, his line was extinguished, and the throne had passed to the House of Valois.

Expulsion of the Jews

While King Edward ordered the Jews to leave England in 1290, Philip the Fair expelled the Jews from France in 1306, ostensibly for oppressive money-lending policies. With the Jews gone, Philip appointed royal guardians to collect the loans made by the Jews and the money quite legally passed to the Crown. The scheme did not work well. The Jews were good businessmen who kept their customers happy, while the kings's collectors were less than tolerated. Finally, in 1315, because of the "clamour of the people", the Jews were invited back with an offer of 12 years of guaranteed residence, free from government interference. In 1322, the Jews were expelled again by the Kings' successor, who did not honor his commitment.

Tour de Nesle affair

In 1314, the daughters-in-law of Philip IV-Margaret of Burgundy, Queen of France Wife of Louis X; and Blanche of Burgundy wife of Charles X-were accused of adultery, and their alleged lovers (Phillipe d'Aunay and Gauthier d'Aunay) tortured, flayed and executed in what has come to be known as the Tour de Nesle Affair (French: Affaire de la tour de Nesle). A third daughter-in-law, Jeanne II, Countess of Burgundy, wife of Philip V, was accused of knowledge of the affairs.

Crusades and diplomacy with Mongols

Main article: Franco-Mongol alliance

Philip had various contacts with the Mongol power in the Middle East, including reception of the embassy of the Turkic/Mongol monk Rabban Bar Sauma. Bar Sauma presented an offer of a Franco-Mongol alliance with Arghun of the Mongol Ilkhanate in Baghdad. Arghun was seeking to join forces between the Mongols and the Europeans, against their common enemy the Muslim Mamluks. In return, Arghun offered to return Jerusalem to the Christians, once it was re-captured from the Muslims. Philip seemingly responded positively to the request of the embassy, by sending one of his noblemen, Gobert de Helleville, to accompany Bar Sauma back to Mongol lands.

There was further correspondence between Arghun and Philip in 1288 and 1289, outlining potential military cooperation. However, Philip never actually pursued such military plans.

In April 1305, the new Mongol ruler Oljeitu sent letters to Philip, the Pope, and Edward I of England. He again offered a military collaboration between the Christian nations of Europe and the Mongols against the Mamluks. European nations attempted another Crusade, but were delayed, and it never took place.

In April 4, 1312, another Crusade was promulgated at the Council of Vienne. In 1313, Philip "took the cross", making the vow to go on a Crusade in the Levant, thus responding to Pope Clement V's call. He was, however, warned against leaving by Enguerrand de Marigny and died soon after in a hunting accident.

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Philip IV (April-June 1268 – November 29, 1314), called the Fair (French: le Bel), son and successor of Philip III, reigned as King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was King of Navarre (as Philip I) and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305. The nickname Philip "the Fair" comes from his handsome appearance; it had nothing to do with his actions as King.

The children of Philip IV and Jeanne of Navarre were:

Marguerite (1288–c.1294)

Louis X - (October, 1289–June 5, 1316)

Blanche (died c.1294)

Philip V - (1292/93–January 3, 1322)

Charles IV - (1294–February 1, 1328)

Isabelle - (c. 1295–August 23, 1358)

Robert (born 1297, died 1308 at St-Germaine-en-Laye)

All three of his sons reaching adulthood would become kings of France, and his surviving daughter, as consort of Edward II, was queen of England.

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BIOGRAPHY: b. 1268, Fontainebleau, Fr.

d. Nov. 29, 1314, Fontainebleau

byname PHILIP THE FAIR, French PHILIPPE LE BEL, king of France from 1285 to 1314 (and of Navarre, as Philip I, from 1284 to 1305, ruling jointly with his wife, Joan I of Navarre). His long struggle with the Roman papacy ended with the transfer of the Curia to Avignon, Fr. (beginning the so-called Babylonian Captivity, 1309-78). He also secured French royal power by wars on barons and neighbours and by restriction of feudal usages. His three sons were successively kings of France: Louis X, Philip V, and Charles IV.

Early years.

Born at Fontainebleau while his grandfather was still ruling, Philip, the second son of Philip III the Bold and grandson of St. Louis (Louis IX), was not yet three when his mother, Isabella of Aragon, died on her return from the crusade on which Louis IX had perished. The motherless Philip and his three brothers saw little of their father, who, stricken by Isabella's death, threw himself into campaigning and administrative affairs. His troubled childhood and the series of blows he suffered explain in some measure the conflicting elements in his adult personality. In 1274 his father married Marie de Brabant, a beautiful and cultivated woman, and, with her arrival at court, intrigue began to flourish. In the same year, the two-year-old Joan, heiress of Champagne and Navarre, was welcomed as a refugee. Reared with the royal children, she would, when she was 12, become the bride of Philip the Fair.

In 1276 Philip's older brother, Louis, died, and the shock of this event, which suddenly made Philip heir of the kingdom, was compounded by persistent rumours of poisoning and suspicions that Philip's stepmother intended to see Isabella's remaining sons destroyed. Vague allegations were circulated that Louis's death was linked with certain unspecified "unnatural acts" of his father. These rumours, never satisfactorily put to rest, together with the unexpected change in Philip's fortunes, apparently served to arouse in him feelings of insecurity and mistrust.

Consequently, Philip turned elsewhere in search of a model for his own conduct. He found it in Louis IX, whose memory was increasingly venerated as the number of miracles attributed to him mounted. Reports of Louis's exacting standards of rulership and his saintly virtues were reinforced by the precepts of the religious advisers who surrounded the adolescent Philip. A more self-confident person might have been able to discriminate realistically among the sometimes artificially exaggerated stories and the utopian ideals. Philip, however, became convinced that it was his God-given duty to attain the lofty goals of his grandfather.

When Philip was 16, he was knighted and married to Joan of Navarre. In 1285 he accompanied his father to the south on a campaign to install Philip's brother Charles on the throne of Aragon. He had no sympathy with the enterprise, however, which was backed by his stepmother and aimed against the King of Aragon, his late mother's brother. When his father died in October 1285, Philip immediately abandoned the venture.

Conflict with the papacy.

Philip's rupture with Boniface VIII can be conside -------------------- Philip IV, called the Fair, was King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was, as Philip I, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305.

http://www.bonjourparis.com/story/rise-and-fall-knights-templar-part-ii/

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Philippe IV le Bel, roi de France's Timeline

1268
April 8, 1268
Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne, Île-de-France, France
1284
August 16, 1284
Age 16
Notre Dame, Paris, Seine, France

This couple had 4 sons & 3 daughters.

August 16, 1284
- present
Age 16
1285
1285
- 1314
Age 16
1286
1286
Age 17
Paris, , France
1289
October 4, 1289
Age 21
Paris, Île-de-France, France
1292
March 17, 1292
Age 23
Paris, Paris, Île-de-France, France
1293
November 17, 1293
Age 25
Lyon, Rhône, Rhone-Alpes, France
1294
June 18, 1294
Age 26
Clermont, Oise, Picardie, France
1314
November 29, 1314
Age 46
Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne, Île-de-France, France