The Arkansas Succession Convention decided that rather than activating the existing militia regiments, they would raise new units. The convention was concerned that if the militia was called out and transferred into Confederate Service, they would be subject to being transferred out of the state, leaving the state defenseless. The convention was also concerned with the cost involved in paying for a large standing state force. These new regiments would be a part of the Provisional Army of Arkansas and would be transitioned into Confederate service as quickly as possible. The Provisional Army of Arkansas was to consist of two divisions, the 1st Division in the western part of the state, and the 2nd Division in the eastern part of the state. The new State Regiments were mustered in to service for 90 days. The regiments in the eastern division were transferred into Confederate Service under the command of Brigadier General Hardee. The regiments in the western division participated in the Battle of Wilson's Creek as a brigade under State Brigadier General N.B. Pearce. Following the battle of Wilson's Creek, the western division was marched back to Arkansas and given the opportunity to vote on whether or not they would be transferred into Confederate Service. The units of the western division voted to disband rather than transfer into confederate service. The Succession Convention appointed a new state military board to organize the new regiments and coordinate their transition into Confederate service.
- 1st Regiment, Arkansas State Troops, later redesignated as the 15th (Josey's) Arkansas Volunteer Infantry regiment.
- 3rd Regiment, Arkansas State Troops also known as "Gratiot's Regiment"
- 4th Regiment, Arkansas State Troops Also known as "Walker's Regiment"
- 5th Regiment, Arkansas State Troops, Also known as "Dockery's Regiment"
- 6th Regiment, Arkansas State Troops, became the 6th Arkansas Volunteer Infantry
- 7th Regiment, Arkansas State Troops, became the 7th Arkansas Volunteer Infantry
- 1st Cavalry Regiment, Arkansas State Troops
- 3rd Cavalry Regiment, Arkansas State Troops