Battle of Alnwick 1093
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Date: 13 Nov 1093
Alnwick, Northumberland, England
- Kingdom of Scotland
- Kingdom of England
Commanders and leaders
- Robert de Mowbray - 1st Earl of Northumbria, pardoned following his part in the Rebellion against William II in 1088. He was governor of Bamburgh Castle,
William Rufus set about gaining control of northern Northumbria by appointing strong barons who would control the border and prevent Scottish incursions. Malcolm Canmore also had ambitions regarding both Cumbria and Northumbria, and in May 1091 invaded Northumbria and besieged Durham. William Rufus led a large army north to meet this threat. He advanced into Scotland with Malcolm retreating in front of his army. Eventually a truce was negotiated and William withdrew.
The following year William strengthened his position in Cumbria to prevent the possibility of a Scottish invasion there. In November 1093, Malcolm led an army into Northumbria, pillaging and besieged Alnwick.
Malcolm’s army was big but Robert de Mowbray led a daring raid by a small party of knights directly against Malcolm and his entourage well beyond the castle walls. Suggestions of treachery linger over the fight, but it ended with Malcolm killed by a lance, and his son Edward mortally wounded. Leaderless, the Scots army headed back north.
Queen Margaret, Malcolm’s widow, died within days of learning of the death of her husband and son; and Malcolm’s younger sons were soon at war with his brother over the succession.
Casualties and losses
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References, Sources and Further Reading
- Scotland - The History of a Nation by Magnus Magnusson