This is a list of the emperors of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire. All Byzantine Emperors regarded themselves as Roman Emperors, the term "Byzantine" being coined firstly by Western historiography much later, in the 16th century.
Although the barbarian West recognized the Eastern Empire's claim to the Roman legacy for several centuries, on 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned King of Franks Charlemagne as the Roman Emperor (which eventually led to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire). This happened after the coronation of Empress Irene, who, as a woman, was not recognised by the Pope of Rome to have a right to the throne. Cont.
Byzantium under the Leonid Dynasty began with the ascension of Leo I in the midst of the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire. Not until the reign of Zeno did the Empire gain strength, at the expense of its defunct Western brother. Numerous palatial intrigues and questions over his barbarian roots did not allow Zeno to feel comfortable in his successes. The last of the dynasty, Anastasius I, was considered to be a man of quality and did much to restore the confidence in the imperial rule. His death ushered in the Justinian Dynasty
The Justinian Dynasty is a family who ruled over the Byzantine Empire from 518 to 602. It originated with Justin I and ended with Maurice. Patriarch Germanus I of Constantinople (term c. 715 - 730), whose father was named Justinian, might have been a descendant of the dynasty. The names Justinian and Germanus were common among dynasty members.
The Heraclian dynasty was named after the general Heraclius the Younger, who in 610 sailed from Carthage, overthrew the usurper Phocas and was crowned Emperor. At the time, the Empire was embroiled in a war with the Sassanid Persian Empire, which in the next decade conquered the Empire's eastern provinces. After a long and exhausting struggle, Heraclius managed to defeat the Persians and restore the Empire, only to lose these provinces again shortly after to the sudden eruption of the Muslim conquests. His successors struggled to contain the Arab tide. The Levant and North Africa were lost, while in 674–678, a large Arab army besieged Constantinople itself.
- Flavius Heraclius Augustus
- Constantine lll (emperor)
- Heraklonas, Constantine Heraclius
- Constans ll
- Constantine lV
- Justinian ll - 1st reign
- Leontios / Leontius
- Tiberius lll / Apsimar
- Justinian ll - 2nd reign
The East Roman or Byzantine Empire was ruled by the Isaurian or Syrian dynasty from 711 to 802. The Isaurian emperors were successful in defending and consolidating the Empire against the Caliphate after the onslaught of the early Muslim conquests, but were less successful in Europe, where they suffered setbacks against the Bulgars, had to give up the Exarchate of Ravenna and lose influence over Italy and the Papacy to the growing power of the Franks. The dynasty however is chiefly associated with Byzantine Iconoclasm, an attempt to restore divine favour by purifying the Christian faith from excessive adoration of icons, which resulted in considerable internal turmoil.
- Leo III (717–741) - wikipedia Leo lll the Isaurian
- Constantine V (741–775) - wikipedia Constantine V
- Leo IV (775–780) - wikipedia Leo lV the Khazar
- Constantine VI (776–797) - wikipedia Constantine Vl
- Irene (797–802) - wikipedia Irene of Athens
Rangabes dynsaty, 811–813
Armenian dynsaty, 813–820
Leo V 820–829
Amorian dynasty, 820–867
Macedonian dynasty, 867–1057
Doukid dynasty, 1059–1081
Komnenos dynasty, 1081–1185
Angelid dynasty, 1185–1204