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Cherokee Delegations to England, 18th Century

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  • Ostenaco Outacite "Mankiller" of Settico, Cherokee Emissary to England (c.1703 - 1780)
    Ostenaco Born c. 1703, Died c. 1780 Nationality: Cherokee Ostenaco (Ustanakwa, or "Big Head") , who preferred to go by the warrior's title he earned at any early age, "Mankiller" (Utsidihi), al...
  • Sir Alexander Cumming of Culter, 2nd Baronet (1690 - 1775)
    Biographical Summary " Sir Alexander Cumming, Baronet [S. 1695], possibly of Culter , 1st s. and h., by the 1st wife, b. 1690; entered the Army, 29 May 1703, at the age of 13, becoming, subsequently,...
  • Attakullakulla / Onacona (c.1699 - c.1797)
    Attakullakulla (ca. 1708–ca. 1777) or Atagulkalu (Cherokee, Ata-gul' kalu) — known to whites as Little Carpenter — was First Beloved Man of the Cherokee Indians from 1761 to around...
  • Oukah-Ulah Moytoy, Cherokee Emissary to England (1681 - 1755)
    OUKAYUDA, Oukah Ulah or King to be (ruler to be). SKAYAGUSTA OUKAH He was from the Lower towns. Also called Chief of Tasseta, Oukah Ulah, and Skiagunsta. Went on trip to England in 1730.
  • Clogoittah Maiden of Tellico (1706 - 1790)
    Attended: 1730, Delegation to King George II Blood: Full Blood Cherokee Clan: Ani'-Ga'tâge'wi = Kituah or Wild Potato (Wa-Wli Vann) Clogoittah [1238] ABT 1706 - ____ * BIRTH: ABT 170...

In 1721, the Cherokee made their first land cession to the British, selling the South Carolina colony a small strip of land between the Saluda, Santee and Edisto rivers. In 1730, at Nikwasi, Moytoy of Tellico was chosen as "Emperor" by the elders of the principal Cherokee towns. Sir Alexander Cumming had requested this to gain control over the Cherokee. Moytoy agreed to recognize King George II of Great Britain as the Cherokee protector. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherokee_military_history]

Moytoy of Tellico (d. 1741[1]) was from Great Tellico. Sir Alexander Cumming, a Scots-Anglo trade envoy from the Province of South Carolina, gave him the title "Emperor of the Cherokee", although he is regularly referred to as "King" in official reports.[2] Moytoy's name in Cherokee was Amo-adawehi, or "rainmaker."[3]

In 1730 Cumming, a Scottish adventurer with ties to the colonial government of South Carolina, arranged for Moytoy to be crowned emperor over all of the Cherokee towns in a ceremony intended to appeal to Cumming's colonial sponsors. He was crowned in Nikwasi with a headdress referred to as the "Crown of Tannassy." [http://cherokeeregistry.firstlightonline.org/]

Cumming arranged to take Moytoy and a group of Cherokee to England to meet King George II. Moytoy declined to go, saying that his wife was ill. Attakullakulla (Little Carpenter) volunteered to go in his place. [http://cherokeeregistry.firstlightonline.org/]

Seven prominent Cherokee, including Attakullakulla, traveled with Sir Alexander Cuming back to London, England in 1730:

The Cherokee laid the "Crown" at King George's feet, along with four scalps. [http://cherokeeregistry.firstlightonline.org/] The Cherokee delegation stayed in London for four months. The visit culminated in a formal treaty of alliance between the British and Cherokee, the 1730 Treaty of Whitehall. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherokee_military_history]

Statement by the British Crown to the Cherokee Delegation:

Articles of Friendship and Commerce - British to Moytoy 1730

Articles of Friendship and Commerce propos'd by the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations to the Deputys of the Cherrokee Nation in South Carolina by H.M. Order.

Whereas you Scayagusta Oukah, Chief of the town of Tassetsa—you Scalilosken Ketagusta—you Jethtowe—you Clogoittah—you Colannah—you Oucounaco—have been deputed by Motoy of Tellike, with the consent and approbation of the whole nation of ye Cherrokee Indians at a General Meeting at Nikossen the 3d of April 1730, to attend Sr. Alexander Cuming Baronet to Great Britain where you have seen the great King George, at whose feet ye said Alexander Cumming by express authority for that purpose, from ye said Moytoy, and all the Cherrokee people, has laid the Crown of your nation, with ye scalps of yor. enemies and feathers of glory at H.M. feet, in token of obedience.

Now ye King of Great Britain, bearing love in his heart, to ye powerfull and great nation of ye Cherrokee Indians, his good children and subjects, H.M. has impowered us to treat with you here, and accordingly we now speak to you, as if the whole nation of the Cherrokees, their old men, young men, wives and children, were all present, and you are to understand the words we speak, as the words of the great King our Master, whom you have seen; and we shall understand the words which you speak to us, as the words of all yor. people, with open and true hearts to ye Great King. And thereupon we give four peices of striped duffles.

Hear then the words of the Great King whom you have seen, and who has commanded us to tell you, that the English everywhere on all sides of the Great Mountains and Lakes, are his people and his children whom he loves. That their friends are his friends, and their enemies are his enemies. That he takes it kindly, that ye Great Nation of Cherrokees have sent you hither a great way, to brighten ye chain of friendship between Him and them, and between yor. people and His people, that ye chain of friendship between Him and ye Cherrokee Indians, is like the sun, which both shines here, and also upon the Great Mountains, where they live, and equally warms ye hearts of the Indians and of the English. That as there are no spots, or blackness in the sun, so there is not any rust or foulness in this chain, and as ye great King has fastened one end of it, to his own breast, He desires you will carry the other end of the chain, and fasten it well to ye breast of Moytoy of Tellike, and to ye breast of your old wise men, your Captains, and all your people, nevermore to be broken, or made loose, and hereupon we give two peices of blew cloth.

The Great King, and the Cherrokee Indians, being thus fast'ned together by ye Chain of Friendship, He has ordered his people and children ye English in Carolina to trade with ye Indians, and to furnish them with all manner of goods that they want, and to make hast to build houses, and to plant corn, from Charles Town, towards ye town of the Cherrokees behind ye Great Mountains. For he desires that ye Indian and English may live together, as ye children of one family, where ye Great King is a kind and loving Father. And as ye King has given his land on both sides of ye Great Mountains to His own children ye English, so he now gives to ye Cherrokee Indians, ye priviledge of living where they please.

And hereupon we give one peice of red cloth. That the great Nation of the Cherrokees, being now the children of the Great King of Great Britain, and He their Father, the Cherrokees must treat the English as brethren of ye same family, and must be always ready at ye Governor's command to fight agt. any Nation, whether they be white men, or Indians, who shall dare to molest them, or hurt ye English. And hereupon we give twenty guns. The Nation of ye Cherrokees shall on their part take care to keep ye trading path clear, and that there be no blood in the path where the English white men tread, even tho' they should be accompany'd by another people, with whom the Cherrokees are at war, whereupon we give four hundred pounds of gunpowder. That the Cherrokees shall not suffer their people to trade with the white men of any other Nation but ye English, nor permit white men of any other Nation to build any forts, cabins, or plant corn amongst 'em, or near to any of ye Indian towns, or upon the lands which belong to the Great King, and if any such attempt shall be made, you must acquaint the English Governor therewith, and do whatever he directs, in order to maintain and defend the Great King's right, to the country of Carolina. Whereupon we give five hundred pounds weight of swan shot five hundred pounds weight of bullets. That if any negroe slaves shall run away into ye woods from their English masters, the Cherrokee Indians shall endeavour to apprehend them, and either bring them back to ye Plantation from whence they run away, or to ye Governor. And for every negroe so apprehended and brought back, the Indian who brings him, shall receive a gun and a matchcoat.

Whereupon we give a box of Vermillion, 10,000 gun flints, and six doz. of hatchetts. That if by any accidental misfortune, it should happen that an Englishman should kill an Indian, the King or Great Man of the Cherrokees, shall first complain to the English Governor. And ye man who did it shall be punished by ye English laws, as if he had killed an Englishman. And in like manner if any Indian shall kill an Englishman, the Indian who did it, shall be deliver'd up to the Govr. and punished by the same English law, as if it was an Englishman. Whereupon we give twelve dozen of spring knives, four dozen of brass kettles, and ten dozen of belts. You are to understand, all that we have now said, to be ye words of ye Great King, whom you have seen. And as a token that his heart is open and true to his children and subjects ye Cherrokees, and to all their people, He gives Hand and this Belt, which He desires may be kept and shewn to all your people, and to their children and children's children, to confirm what is now spoken. And to bind this agreement of Peace and Friendship, between ye English and ye Cherrokees, as long as ye Mountains and Rivers shall last, or ye sun shine. Whereupon we give this Belt of Wampum. [C.O. 5, 400. pp. 388–394.]

from The British Press:

12 June 1730 Seven Kings or Chiefs of the Chirakee Indians, bordering upon Carolina, are come over in the Fox Man of War, Capt. Arnold, in order to pay their duty to his Majesty, and assure him of their attachment to his person and Government, &c. [Daily Journal]

20 June 1730 ’Tis remarkable that the 7 Chiefs of the Chirakee Indians, lately arrived from South Carolina, in the Fox Man of War, as mentioned in one of our former, were introduced to his Majesty, before whom they all kneeled, and were present at the Installation, and stood near the King when at dinner, being dressed in their country habits, having in their hands, one a bow, another a musquetoon, &c. [Daily Journal]

27 June 1730 On Monday last the Indian King, and the Prince, and five of the chiefs of his Court (all blacks) were introduced to his Majesty at Windsor, the King had a scarlet jacket on, but all the rest were naked, except an apron about their middles, and a horse’s tail hung down behind; their faces, shoulders, &c. were painted and spotted with red, blue, and green, &c. they had bows in their hands, and painted feathers on their heads; a dinner, viz. a leg of mutton, a shoulder, and a loin of mutton was provided at the Mermaid at Windsor for them; the King lies on a table in a blanket; but the Prince, and the chief of his Court, lie on the ground. [Weekly Journal, or The British Gazetteer]

30 July 1730 The six Indian chiefs having quarrelled, and beat one another, at their quarters, the Mermaid inn at Windsor, they have been order’d to leave the town. — The St. James’s Evening calls them Indian Kings; but this is not the first time that Kings have been confounded with their Ministers. [Grub-street Journal]

3 August 1730 On Saturday last the two Indian Kings, with 5 Indians of their attendants, came from Windsor to Mr. Arne’s, an undertaker in King street by Covent-Garden, where they had taken lodgings, being recommended there, when they set out on their voyage, by the 4 Indian Kings that came over to England in the year 1710, and lodged at the same place. [Daily Journal]

6 August 1730 We are assured, that the report of the Indian chiefs quarrelling among themselves at the Mermaid inn in Windsor, and were said to have been forbid the town, is entirely without foundation, they still continuing at the same place in a very peaceable manner, and are daily visited by a great many people, who resort from all parts adjacent. Courant. — I must own ingenuously, that I was apprised of this mistake, before the publication of our last Journal, but, having made a remark on it, was loth to lose my joke.

Yesterday the 7 Indian Princes took leave of their Majesties, and the rest of the Royal Family at Windsor, and will this day come from thence to town, where we hear they intend to stay for some time, to see all the curiosities here, before they return home. [Grub-street Journal]

15 August 1730 The Indian Chiefs lately brought over from South Carolina are now distinguished by the following names and titles, viz. King Ouka, Prince Catorgusta, General Tethtow, General Clogoitta, General Calannah, General Unnowconnowe, Capt. Owcan Nakah.

Mr. Robert Bunning, born at Spalding in Lincolnshire, is their interpreter, who hath been 14 years in their country.

The day before the Indian Chiefs left Windsor, they went to take their leave of the Court, at which time his Majesty was pleased to present them with a purse of one hundred guineas.

On Wednesday the Indian King and his retinue, in their return from the Tower, were regaled in an handsome manner by several merchants of this City trading to South Carolina, at the Carolina Coffee House in Birchin-Lane, where a great number of gentlemen resorted to see them, they being on their return home, which it is believed will be in about three weeks time; and his Majesty’s ship the Fox is now refitting at Deptford in order to receive them.

On Thursday the Indian Princes went to Tottenham-Court Fair, and were entertained with the several diversions that place afforded. (London Journal)

29 August 1730 On Thursday the ancient Society of Archers that meets weekly at the Three Tons in Lamb’s-Conduit-Fields, invited the Indian King, &c. to come and see them shoot with bows and arrows at targots [sic], when every man performed with great dexterity and judgment. The King and those of his attendants did also shoot, but they did not perform so well as was expected, it being the weapon of war used in their country; but they said that our bows and arrows differed from theirs. (London Journal)

10 September 1730 We hear that the Indian Princes were highly diverted at Mr. Fawkes’s Booth in Smithfield Sat. last; but more especially with his dexterity of hand, at which they expressed the greatest admiration and pleasure imaginable, as was plainly perceived by their gestures and countenances, as well as by the interpreter, who told Mr. Fawkes that the King and Prince declared, that they had never yet been so agreeable diverted, and desired to see it over again; but, above all, they were surprized at the calling the cards down one by one; and when the King had viewed one of the cards, and saw nothing fastened to it, he was amazed; and all of them went away with a generous acknowledgement of the pleasure they had received. [Grub-street Journal]


10 September 1730 Tuesday, Sept. 8. Yesterday the Indian King, Prince, &c. went in 2 coaches about 1 o’clock to the Plantation-office, Whitehall, where the Lords Commissioners sat, to acquaint them with some articles that had been drawn up for trading with their country. They were attended by a serjeant of the foot-guards, and a file and a half of grenadiers; and at the Plantation-office attended 2 serjeants and 2 files of grenadiers. They staid about an hour, and were shewed several things designed for them as presents, viz. several fine firelocks, with shot, powder and ball, in casks, and many other things, with which they seemed to be mighty well pleased. And on Wednesday next the articles are to be signed. — Our mercurial brethren [i.e. newspaper journalists] have used great variety of expression in relation to this Indian Monarch and his Court: they have called them The Indian King, the Prince, and Generals; &c. But our advertising Brother, The Daily Post, has been most exact; and given us the particular names of every one, in his paper of Aug. 11 which are here subjoined, as proper for all curious persons to get by heart: King Ouka, Prince Catergusta, Chief-General Tethtow, General Clogoitta, Gen. Calanah, Gen. Unnowconow, and Capt. Oucounakah. [Grub-street Journal]

12 September 1730 On Wednesday the Indian Chiefs were carried from their lodgings in King-street, Covent Garden, to the Plantation Office at Whitehall, guarded by two Files of Musqueteers: When they were brought up to the Lords Commissioners, they sang four or five songs in their country language; after which the interpreter was ordered to let them know, that they were sent for there to join in peace with King George and his people; and were desired to say, if they had any thing further to offer relating to the contract they had before entered into. Upon which, the Kings tood up and gave a large feather that he had in his hand to the Prince, who thereupon spoke to the Lords Commissioners to this effect: That they were sensible of the good usage they receiv'd since they came here, and that they would use our people always well; that they came here like worms out of the earth, naked, and that we had put fine cloaths on their backs, (pointing to the cloaths) and that they should never forget such kind dealings, but should declare the same to their countrymen; and thereupon the Prince laid the feather with a bit of skin upon the table, saying, It should be as good as the Bible to bind the contract with King George; and said also, that a father should not better love his son, than they would us: So made a peace. The Commissioners then told them they should have a copy of the contract, with the King’s Seal to it; and the Governor should entertain them; upon which the King got up and kiss’d the Commisioners, as the Prince had done before; the other Chiefs also did the same; whereupon they sung some more songs, and then returned home, after about two hours stay with the Comimissioners in making the contract. The interpreter was sworn before the Commissioners, to speak the truth after the Prince. (London Journal)

17 September 1730 On Friday last a female spectator, who went out of curiosity to see the Indian Chiefs, watched her opportunity to go off with the King’s fine sword belt; but carrying it to a pawn-broker’s, she was detected, and the belt being restored the King ordered the woman to be discharged out of custody. [Grub-street Journal]

24 September 1730 Friday night about 11, the Indian Prince walking in Covent Garden, was pick’d up by the infamous Jenny Tite, who took 2 rings off his fingers, and made off with them. — I think this Lady for the future deserves the title of the famous Jenny Tite, on account of this amour with his R. Highness, who not knowing the use of money on these occasions, might present her with these 2 rings. [Grub-street Journal]

3 October 1730 Yesterday about 8 o’clock in the morning the Indian Chiefs set out from their lodgings in King-Street, Covent-Garden, for Portsmouth, where they will go aboard his Majesty’s Ship the Fox, Capt. Arnold, which is to carry them to Carolina.

We are told that on Teusday evening last, when the time of their departure drew near, Oukah Ulah, the Chief of them, expressed a great inclination to stay with Sir Alexander Cuming; and when Sir Alexander told him that it would not be proper, he wept, and said he should mourn always till he saw him again, and that he had not slept for three nights, but walk’d about the streets, for thinking on parting with Sir Alexander, for whose sake he had left both his wife and children: But Sir Alexander telling him, that he would be of more service to his Majesty King George and the English, by returning to his own country, he answered, That as Sir Alexander desired it, he would do as he bid him, whose memory would always be preserved among them: But after consulting among themselves, they all insisted that one of their number should stay with Sir Alexander, to teach him the language, and pitched upon Onnakannoy, who was very unwilling to go, until Sir Alexander laid his commands upon him, and then he said, that if Sir Alexander would command him to die, he would do it, and as it was his pleasure he should return with the rest, he went away chearfully. The Prince and Onnakannoy went yesterday about 7 o’clock in the morning, and took leave of Sir Alexander. [Daily Journal] [On 8 Oct. the Indian Chiefs returned to Carolina; on 18 Feb. 1731 the newspapers reported that they had safely reached Charleston, South Carolina mid-December 1730, but were delayed in returning to their homelands because of a war between the Cherokees and the Americans.]

(Texts have been modernized with regard to capitalization, italicization, and punctuation, but original spelling has been retained. This edition copyright Rictor Norton. All rights reserved. Reproduction for sale or profit prohibited. These extracts may not be archived, republished or redistributed without the permission of the compiler.)

CITATION: Rictor Norton, Early Eighteenth-Century Newspaper Reports: A Sourcebook, "Cherokee Indians visit London, 1730", 18 November 2001, updated 28 November 2001, expanded 25 July 2002 <http://grubstreet.rictornorton.co.uk/indians1.htm>

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"Journey of Sir Alexander Cuming, And the ungenerous TREATMENT he met with" http://trailofthetrail.blogspot.com/2009/12/journey-of-sir-alexander-cuming-and.html

(This excerpt comes from The London Magazine, or Gentleman’s Intelligencer, Vol. XXVI, for the Year 1757, pp. 281-283. )

Presently after this new form of government was established in the Carolinas, Sir Alexander Cuming, Bart. a gentleman of Scotland, went over to South Carolina, upon a project of establishing a bank there, in order to lend money upon mortgages, or other good securities, not only in that province, but in every one of our other colonies and plantations in America; and for circulating such bank-notes as should be issued, some gentlemen here at London had promised to furnish him with a sufficient fund in ready money. As registers have been established in every one of our colonies, almost from their very first settlement, which tender most gentlemens titles to their estates clear and indisputable, and as there is a continual intercourse of trade among all our colonies, and generally a great scarcity of current cash in all our colonies upon the continent, this project might have proved of great advantage, both to the undertakers, and to our trade in general, had it been carried into execution; but as Sir Alexander had depended entirely upon the honour of his friends here at London for the performance of their promise, he met with the same fate people generally do who rely on the honour of mankind, in any case where their own interest does not come necessarily in aid of their honour: His friends here had, probably, in the mean time, found some other way for employing their money, which they thought more secure, or more profitable, therefore they refused to fulfill their engagement, which put an end to his project, and made him resolve to return to London.

But news having been, at that time, brought down by some of our Indian traders, that the Cherokees (at the instigation of the French, who about ten or eleven years before had planted themselves upon the river Mississippi, without any opposition from us) seemed resolved to take up the hatchet against our people of Carolina, this gentleman, from a curiosity to see the country, and a desire to prevent, if possible, his countrymen of Carolina from being involved in a war with such a powerful nation of Indians, resolved, at the risk of his life, to pay them a visit, tho' the nearest part of the country inhabited by them was almost 300 miles distant from Charles-town, and a great part of that distance a perfect desart. In pursuance of this resolution, he set out from Charles-town on the 22d of March 1730, N. S. accompanied only by a Mr. George Hunter the county surveyor, and attended by two packhorsemen, whom he had hired for the purpose, but with hopes to prevail upon some of the inhabitants, or Indian fur traders, who understood the Indian language, and had been, or were then in their country, to accompany him; and with hopes only, for he had no power to compel, and much less wherewithal to bribe any of them to undertake such a dangerous and fatiguing journey, as he had been furnished with nothing at the publick expense, no not even with any presents to the Indians, which are so necessary in all treaties with those savages, he having carried nothing along with him for this purpose, but what he had purchased with his own money.

However, by his own example, the most powerful sort of eloquence, he inspired our people with so much courage and publick spirit, that some of them who understood the Indian language, and had been in their country, joined him upon the road; and such of them as still remained in that country, gave him all the assistance in their power, which the latter, indeed, might perhaps think themselves obliged to do, for their own security as well as interest; because, if the Indians had declared war, at the instigation of the French, they would, by the same instigation, have begun with murdering every Englishman who was among them.

April 3d, he arrived at Keeowee, the first Indian town in his rout, where the report was confirmed, that the lower Cherokees were inclined to revolt from our interest, and go over to the French, nevertheless he refused to proceed, taking case to make the conjuror and chief warrior of every town he passed his friends, by little presents, and every other means he could think of, and to give them a high notion of the courage and warlike power of the people of Great-Britain. And having desired the Indians of Keeowee to send messengers throughout their nation, to invite their head warriors to meet him the 14th at Nequassee, he, in the mean time, paid a visit to those of Telliquo, Tanassee, and the several other Indians towns that lay in his route.

As the Indians of Keeowee had, according to his desire, sent messengers to all the Cherokee villages, and as some of their conjurors had taken it into their heads to declare, that he was the warrior pointed out by one of their old prophecies who was to come among them, and to make them a victorious, great and happy people; he was accordingly met on April the 14th at Nequassee, by the head warriors and conjurors of the whole nation; and so strongly were they possessed with this enthusiastical notion, instilled by their conjurors, that they would then have created him their sole and absolute sovereign, had he been pleased to accept of it; but he chose to make them declare themselves subjects of the king of Great-Britain, and to send proper tokens of their submission to his Britannick majesty, whose faithful subject he declared himself to be, and that therefore he could accept of their submission to him, only as a delegate, or substitute under his own sovereign. This they all unanimously agreed to; and, at his desire, they also agreed that, until his return from England, they would all submit to Moy-Toy, the chief of Telliquo, as their sovereign. At the same time they delivered to him their crown, and other ensigns of royalty, to be carried over and presented by him to the king of Great-Britain, as the tokens of their submission; and as a further proof of the same, six of their warriors were deputed, and readily agreed to go over with him to England, to declare and testify the submission of their whole nation, and to promise their future fidelity, and allegiance to the British crown.

April 16th, Sir Alexander, and those who had attended or accompanied him, set out upon their return to Charles-town, together with the six Indian chief who were to go over with him to England; and on the 24th he arrived at Charles-town, where he and the six Indian chiefs, together with another who joined them upon the road, embarked for England in the Fox man of war, which sailed soon after; and, upon their arrival in England, he, by his majesty's order, carried his seven Indian chiefs to Windsor, where they declared the submission of their nation, and he presented their crown, and other ensigns of royalty to his majesty on the 22d day of June, 1730. He was most graciously received by his majesty, and in a manner very proper for improving that influence which he had thus providentially gained over this savage nation, which might have been turned so much to our advantage in America; but our ministers acted in a very different manner: So far, from throwing any regard to him for this piece of publick service, they seemed resolved to shew those savages, that the man whom they had chosen as their chief governor under his majesty, was a man of no consequence in this kingdom. They even did not so much as desire him to be present when they were to conclude what they called a treaty with the Indians he had brought over; but these honest Indians continued to shew him so much respect, that they disdainfully refused to approve, or what was called sign, the treaty, until he was called, and gave them orders to do so; and tho’ our ministers had this proof of the fidelity of these Indians to this gentleman, they neither encouraged nor enabled him to return to the Cherokee country, in order to confirm the friendship which he had restored, and to endeavour to civilize that people, by instructing them in the principles of natural religion and morality, as confirmed and established by the Christian dispensation, which is all our missionaries should ever attempt; and by convincing them of the many advantages accruing to every individual from industry, personal property, and civil government, which are so intimately connected, that no one of them can ever exist without the other two.

On the contrary, our ministry took care to send these Indians back, and to commit them entirely to the care of Robert Johnson, Esq; whom they had got appointed governor of South Carolina; and by their behaviour since that time, to the gentleman who brought them over, they seem to have taken care, that no man shall ever hereafter undertake any publick service, without first stipulating or contriving to make a job of it, because they know how to make a tool of a selfish man, which they never can of a man directed chiefly by publick spirit; and as this has been the maxim of ministers in this country for too many years, it is, perhaps, one of the principal causes of our present distress; for no nation ever has, or ever will be, well advised or well served, by men who are actuated by nothing but pecuniary considerations, and such advisers, or servants, will always be most expensive to the publick.

This journey deep into Cherokee territory, and then to England, took place in 1730. You can read more about it in William O. Steele's The Cherokee Crown of Tannassy, or in the Historical Register of London, Volume XLI, 1731. See also the Journal of Cherokee Studies, Vol. XXII. Posted 22nd December 2009 by W. Jeff Bishop http://trailofthetrail.blogspot.com/2009/12/journey-of-sir-alexander-cuming-and.html

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The unification of the Cherokee "empire" was essentially ceremonial, with political authority remaining town-based for decades afterward. In addition, Sir Alexander Cuming's aspirations to play an important role in Cherokee affairs failed.[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherokee_military_history]

While the journey to London and the treaty were important factors in future British-Cherokee relations, the title of Cherokee Emperor did not carry much clout among the Cherokee. Although Moytoy's son Amouskosette attempted to succeed him as "Emperor" in 1741, the power in the Overhill country had shifted to Tanasi, then to Chota. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherokee_military_history]

Moytoy's son, Amo-sgasite (Dreadful Water) attempted to succeed him as "Emperor" in 1741, but the Cherokees elected their own leader, Cunne Shote (Standing Turkey) of Chota. [http://cherokeeregistry.firstlightonline.org/]

However, by 1753 Kanagatucko (Old Hop) of Chota in the Overhill Towns had emerged as the dominant leader in the area.[4] [http://cherokeeregistry.firstlightonline.org/]

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A delegation of Cherokee leaders returned to London in 1762. This has been captured in an engraving with the original caption: "The Three Cherokees came over from the head of the River Savanna to London, 1762. 1: Their Interpreter that was Poisoned. 2: Outacite or Man-killer; who Sets up the War Whoop, as, (Woach Woach ha ha hoch Waoch) with his Wampum. 3: Austenaco or King, a great Warrior who has his Calumet or Pipe, by taking a Whiff of which, is their most sacred emblem of peace. 4: Uschesees y Great Hunter, or Scalpper, as the Character of a Warrior depends on the Number of Scalps, he has them without Number. "[http://cherokeeregistry.firstlightonline.org/]

Since most people consider Outacite to be the same as Ostenaco, other sources say the three delegates were Ostenaco/Outacite, Oconostota (Conne Shote) and Pidgeon.

Ostenaco ( Cherokee )

Ostenaco was a war chief who, in 1756, joined the English in a campaign against the French-allied Shawnee during the Seven Years War ("French and Indian War). His warriors were abandonned by the British troops when their provisions were lost while crossing a swollen river. His band "confiscated" horses from the ungrateful Virginians who retaliated by killing 24 of his party. A period of retaliatory raids begain between the Cherokee and colonists. In 1762, the Cherokee captured Fort Loundon (near present Venore TN). Eventually, devastation of the Cherokee country by large colonial armies forced the Cherokee to sue for peace. Lt. Henry Timberlake volunteered to stay with the Cherokee to improve Cherokee-English relations. Ostenaco, along with Stalking Turkey and Pouting Pigeon, visited London in 1762 to see King George III accompanied by Lt. Henry Timberlake and interpreter, William Shorey, who died in route. [http://echotacherokeetribe.homestead.com/Chiefs.html]

See Oliphant, John. The Cherokee embassy to London, 1762. The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, Volume 27, Issue 1, 1999, pp. 1-26.

Picture Credits:

  • Engraving of the 1730 Cherokee Delegation to London made by Issac Basire. This group of seven Cherokee Indians travelled to London to meet George II and discuss relations between the two nations. The group is shown standing near the woods and dressed in European clothing. Individuals are shown carrying a bow, ax, rifle, sword and a gourd rattle. The man standing at the far right is believed to be Attakullakulla, a Cherokee chief in the 1760s. Trustees of the British Museum.
  • Drawing of the 1762 Cherokee Delegation to London. The three pictured are Ostenaco, Oconostota, and Pidgeon. This group travelled to London to meet George III and discuss relations between the two nations. BAE GN 01063 H1, Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives.
  • Engraving of Ostenaco made in 1762 and based after the portrait of Ostenaco painted by Joshua Reynolds. Ostenaco is shown wearing a gorget given to him by the British. The caption reads, “Outacite/Chief of the Cherokees.” Tennessee State Museum Collection, 84.11.1.