Convicts transported to Australia
When Captain Arthur Phillip and the First Fleet arrived at Port Jackson in 1788, 751 convicts and their children disembarked, along with 252 marines and their families. They made the eight month voyage from England, where the industrial revolution, overcrowding and unemployment had made life for the ordinary person very difficult and lead to poverty and increased crime rates.
People could be deported for crimes such as vagrancy (being homeless and unemployed) or robbery of goods less than a shilling (about $50 today), while stealing goods worth more than a shilling meant death by hanging. Between 1788 and 1868, 165 000 convicts were transported to Australia and formed the majority of the population for the first few decades of this penal colony. Under Governor Phillip, convicts were put to work according to their skills, building bridges, roads, hospitals and courthouses.
Governor Lachlan MacQuarie was the first Governor of New South Wales (1810-1821) to envisage the country as more than a penal colony, and encouraged reformed convicts to take up roles of responsibility within the community. Good behaviour meant many convicts were granted a Ticket of Leave before their full sentence was served.
Aim of this project
The aim of this project is to create a collection of profiles of people who were transported to Australia as a convict.
Top 10 reasons why people were convicted
- 1.Stealing an animal
- 2.Stealing food
- 4.Stealing from a person
- 6.Robbery of arms
- Life on a convict ship
- First Fleet database
- A day in the life of a convict
- Convict life in NSW
- Images of convict life
- An account of the English Colony in New South Wales
Convict databases and registries
- Irish convicts to NSW 1788-1849
- British convict Transportation register
- Tasmanian convicts
- Western Australian convicts
- Overview of available records
- Index to convict records
- A brief history of Norfolk Island
- Ireland Australia transportation database
- Convict records Australia