بنو نصر/النصريون/بنو الأحمر في غرناطة
By 1250 the greater part of the Iberian Pensinsula had come under the rule of the kings of Aragon, Castile, and Portugal. Only one remaining Moorish principality would survive for the next two and a half centuries --the Emirate of Granada.
"Garnata" or "Garnata al-Yahud" was a settlement next to the town the Christians called "Elvira", after the former Iberian name "Ilbira". Elvira became the capital of the Al-Andalus Caliphate of Córdoba province, but was destroyed in civil wars in 1010. Zawi ben Ziri founded the first Taifa of Granada kingdom and moved the capital from Elvira to Garnata al-Yahud.
With the Reconquista in full swing after the conquest of Cordoba in 1236, the Moorish Nasrid dynasty aligned themselves with Ferdinand III of Castile, officially becoming a tributary state in 1238. The state officially became the Kingdom of Granada in 1238. The Nasrid emirs and kings were responsible for building most of the palaces in the Alhambra. The taifa became a vassal state of the Christian kingdom of Castile for the next 250 years. The Nasrid emirs and kings paid tribute to the Christian kings and collaborated with them in their battle against rebellious Muslims under Christian rule.
Granada provided trade links to the Muslim world, particularly the gold trade with the sub-saharan areas of Africa. The Nasrids provided troops for Castile and was a source of mercenary fighters from North Africa. However, Portugal discovered direct African trade routes by sailing around the coast of West Africa. Thus Granada became less and less important for Castile, and with the union of Castile and Aragon in 1479, those kingdoms set their sights on annexing Granada and thus ended the last Moorish kingdom, leaving a lasting heritage of the the Alhambra palace complex built under their rule.
List of emirs of Granada
- Muhammed I ibn Nasr (1238-1272)
- Muhammed II al-Faqih (1273-1302)
- Muhammed III (1302-1309)
- Nasr (1309-1314)
- Ismail I (1314-1325)
- Muhammed IV (1325-1333)
- Yusuf I (1333-1354)
- Muhammed V (1354-1359, 1362-1391)
- Ismail II (1359-1360)
- Muhammed VI (1360-1362)
- Yusuf II (1391-1392)
- Muhammed VII (1392-1408)
- Yusuf III (1408-1417)
- Muhammed VIII (1417-1419, 1427-1429)
- Muhammed IX (1419-1427, 1430-1431, 1432-1445, 1448-1453)
- Yusuf IV (1432)
- Yusuf V (1445-1446, 1462)
- Muhammed X (1446-1448)
- Muhammed XI (1453-1454)
- Said (1454-1464)
- Abu l-Hasan Ali, known as Muley Hacén (1464-1482, 1483-1485)
- Abu 'abd Allah Muhammed XII, known as Boabdil (1482-1483, 1486-1492)
Abd Allāh Muhammed XIII, known as El Zagal (1485-1486)
- Moorish Spain, Richard Fletcher. Chapter 8: Nasrid Granada.University of California Press. 2006.
- Wikipedia article on the Nasrid dynasty
- "Granada: A Case Study in Urbanism in Muslim Spain," by James Dickie (Yakub Zaki), pp. 88 - 111, in The Legacy of Muslim Spain (Studien Und Texte Zur Geistesgeschichte Des Mittelalters), edited by Salma Khadra Jayyusi. Brill Academic Publishers; 2nd edition, 2000.
- Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus, Hugh Kennedy. Longman, 1996. Chapter 11: The Nasrids of Granada.
- Nasrid Dynasty, Arabic names