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Fathers of Confederation - Canada

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  • Sir George Brown (1818 - 1880)
    George Brown Canadian Statesman, Journalist. In 1837 he emigrated from his native Scotland to New York City, New York, where after a five year stay he settled in Toronto, Ontario. In 1844 he founde...
  • Sir Adams George Archibald (1814 - 1892)
    Sir Adams George Archibald, KCMG, PC (May 3, 1814 – December 14, 1892)was a Canadian lawyer and politician, and a Father of Confederation. He was based in Nova Scotia for most of his career, tho...

Fathers of Confederation

The Fathers of Confederation are the people who attended the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences in 1864 and the London Conference of 1866 in England, preceding Canadian Confederation. There were 36 original Fathers of Confederation. Hewitt Bernard, who was the recording secretary at the Charlottetown Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation. The later "Fathers" who brought the other provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as Fathers of Confederation. In this way, Amor De Cosmos who was instrumental both in bringing democracy to British Columbia and in bringing his province into Confederation, is considered by many to be a Father of Confederation As well, Joey Smallwood referred to himself as "the Last Father of Confederation", because he helped lead Newfoundland into Confederation in 1949.

Different opinions


There are different opinions on who should be considered Fathers of Confederation. For the purposes of this project , the term refers to the people who attended one or more of the three conferences held at Charlottetown, Quebec, and London to discuss the union of British North America

Lists of the participants

  • Sir Adams George Archibald
  • George Brown
  • Sir Alexander Campbell
  • Sir Frederick Carter
  • Sir George-Étienne Cartier
  • Sir Edward Barron Chandler
  • Sir Jean-Charles Chapais
  • Sir James Cockburn
  • George Coles
  • Robert B. Dickey
  • Charles Fisher
  • Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt
  • Sir John Hamilton Gray
  • Sir Thomas Heath Haviland
  • William Alexander Henry
  • Sir William Pearce Howland
  • John Mercer Johnson
  • Sir Hector-Louis Langevin
  • Andrew Archibald Macdonald
  • Sir John A. Macdonald
  • Jonathan McCully
  • William McDougall
  • Thomas D'Arcy McGee
  • Peter Mitchell
  • Sir Oliver Mowat
  • Edward Palmer
  • William Henry Pope
  • John William Ritchie
  • Sir Ambrose Shea
  • William H. Steeves
  • Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché
  • Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley
  • Sir Charles Tupper
  • Edward Whelan
  • Robert Duncan Wilmot