- History of The Clan Finley
Part 1: In The Beginning
In her unpublished genealogy, written between 1938 and 1941, the late Carrie Alexander WOOD gives quite a detailed sketch of the earliest FINLEY family history. Dating from Adam and Eve, she lists among her sources The Chart of Descent of House of FINLEY, from Manuscript Pedigrees at the Society of Genealogists, London, derived from Annals of Four Masters; CRONNELLY's Irish Families; and KEATING's History of Ireland. Somewhat less detailed, but which would tend to confirm most of WOOD's lineage chart, is a chart entitled, House of FINLEY Traced Back To ADAM and EVE, submitted by Ruth MOORE, with information taken from the Holy Bible and the Pedigree Chart of Queen ELIZABETH and the Royal Family of Great Britain.
This chart can be found on a microfilm entitled, FINLEY Family, which may be obtained from the LDS Church Library in Salt Lake City. The microfilm also contains the entire text of Albert Finley FRANCE's The Clan FINLEY, as compiled by Lillian Hicks FRANDSEN, with additional information added by FRANDSEN. The microfilm may also be leased through Mormon stake libraries by requesting MISC Film Area, #0560192, Item 12 (which means you will have to search through unrelated items on the microfilm until you come to the 12th item, which is the FINLEY section).
According to the Bible, ADAM (meaning "red earth") was the first man and was created on the sixth day. He died when he was 930 years old. EVE was the first "woman," so called because she was taken out of "man," created from ADAM's rib. Tempted by the serpent to eat the forbidden fruit, she and ADAM were cast out of the Garden of Eden.
CAIN was the first child born and later he became a farmer. When God rejected CAIN's first offering in favor of one presented by his brother, ABEL, who was a shepherd, CAIN committed the first murder in history and slew his brother, later moving to the Land of Nod, east of Eden. The Bible identifies one more son of ADAM and EVE by name, SETH, from whom our second generation begins. SETH was born when his father was 130 years old and SETH died at age 912.
Generations 3-9 are as follows: ENOS, b when father was 105, d at 905; CAINAN, b when father was 90, d at 910; MAHALALEEL, b when father was 70, d at 895; JARED, b when father was 65, d at 962; ENOCH, b when father was 162, said to have walked with God for 300 years and when he was 365, disappeared, for God took him; METHUSELAH, b when his father was 65, d at 969, said to have been the oldest person who has ever lived; LAMECH, b when his father was 187, d at 777.
NOAH was born when his father, LAMECH, was 182. He built the Ark and was 600 when it was loaded. When the 40 days and 40 nights of rain began, he was 600 years, 2 months and 17 days old. After the flood, he became a farmer and died at 950. His children identified in the Bible were SHEM, HAM and JAPHETH. It is at this point that WOOD and MOORE's genealogies differ.
WOOD's lineage chart comes through JAPHETH, whose children were GOMER, MAGOG, MADAI, JAVAN, TUBAL, MESHECH and TIRAS. The Bible lists GOMER's children as ASHKENAZ, RIPHATH and TOGARMAH, but WOOD adds BAOTH. She then gives the following outline of the Milesians:
"After the flood, the population of the world assembled to raise the Tower of Babel in 2247 B.C. Of these, the Scythians descended from GOMER settled in the north of Egypt. GOMER's grandson, FENIUS, or PHOENIUSA, son of BAOTH, was King of the Scythians and was a prince who applied himself to the study of letters. He left his kingdom, having placed his son, NIUL, on the throne as Regent.
"During his absence, he proceeded with 72 learned men to the plains of Shenaar and founded a school of languages. While FENIUS presided over his school, his second son, NEULL, was born and on the death of FENIUS, the elder son, NIUL, succeeded to the throne.
"NEULL was left with no riches other than his learning. Therefore, the King of Egypt induced him to go thither to instruct the Egyptians, and was so well satisfied with him, that he gave his daughter, SCOTA, as NEULL's wife. The Godelians, as the people were now called (from GODELAS, son of NEULL), proceeded to a country which the Irish annals named "Gothland," or the country of the Goths, where they remained 150 years before proceeding to Spain."
From NEULL, WOOD's lineage gives generations 16-33 as follows: GAODHAL, a quo the Clann, na GAODHAIL or the Gaels; ASRUTH; SRUTH; HEBER SCUTT (SCOTT); BEOUMAN; OGHAMAN; TAIT; AGNAN; LAMHFIONN; HEBER GLUNFIONN; AGNAN FIONN; FEBRIC GLAS; NENUALL; NUADHAD; ALLADH; ARCADH; DEAGH; and BRATH.
MOORE, as quoted by FRANDSEN, includes the following statement at the end of her chart:
"Queen VICTORIA, by whose command the original compilation of the British Royal Family's Genealogical Chart was made, once expressed the hope that she would be the monarch who would hand over the sceptre when the King of Kings returns. The original chart is in the Library of Windsor Castle. The original copy is in the British Museum."
The chart lists the following generations: ADAM and EVE; SETH; ENOS; CAINAN; MAHALEEL; JARED; ENOCH; METHUSELAH; LAMECH; NOAH; SHEM (note the deviation from WOOD's chart); ARPHAXAD; SALAH; EBER; PELEG; REU; SERUG; NAHOR; TERAH; ABRAM (ABRAHAM); ISSAC; JACOB; JUDAH.
At this point, branches are given from twin sons of JUDAH, ZARAH and PHAREZ. ZARAH's line includes: ETHAN; MAHOL; CALCOL; GADHOL (GAODHAL); EASRU (ASRUTH); SCRU (SRUTH); HEBER SCOT; ROAMHAIN (BEOUMAN); AYBAIMHAIN (OGHAMAN); TAIT; AGHENOIN (AGNAN); LAMH FIONN; HEBER (HEBER GLUNFIONN); AAHNOIN (AGNAN FIONN); EOABHLA GLAS (FEBRIC GLAS); NEIN NUAIL (NENUALL); ALLOID (ALLADH); EARCHADA (ARCADH); DEAGFATHA (DEAGH); BRATHA (BRATH); BREOGAN (BREOGHAN); BILLE (BILE); GALLAM; and EOCHAIDH.
PHAREZ's line is as follows: EZROM; ARAM; AMINADAB; NASHON; SALMON; BOAZ (m RUTH); OBED; JESSE; DAVID; SOLOMON; REHOBOAM; ABIJAM; ASA; JEHOSOPHAT; JEHORAM; AHAZIAH; JOASH; AMAZIAH; UZZIAH (or AZARIAH); JOTHAM; AHAZ; HEZEKIAH; MANASSEH; AMON; JOSIAH; ZEDEKIAH (name changed from MATTANIAH); and TAMAR (TEA TEPHI), who MOORE says m EOCHAIDH (EOCHAIDH BUADHACH; generation 58 on WOOD).
This is where the lines of ZARAH and PHAREZ are said to join together again as EOCHAIDH is said to be ZARAH's descendant and TAMAR is PHAREZ's descendant. Both WOOD and MOORE list UGAINE MOR as the son of EOCHAIDH.
While there seems to be some agreement between the two charts as to generations 1-10 and 16-35, there are major discrepancies in the rest of the lineage. MOORE's lineage chart basically follows the lineage shown in the Bible, as far as PHAREZ's branch is concerned. In fact, in FRANDSEN's narrative, she says the British Royal Family points to their descent through this line as proof of their claim to the throne, through the Davidic Covenant, which states that David's descendants shall forever possess the throne.
WOOD's commentary, on the other hand, continues the lineage through the Milesians, as follows:
"One of the most distinguished princes in the direct line from NEULL was the grandson of DEAGH, BREOGHAN, who defeated the Spaniards in many battles and built a city named Bregantea (afterwards known as Brogansa).
"His grandson, MILESIUS, son of BILE, collected his kinsmen and returned to Scythea and became Prime Minister. His popularity in the sequel excited the king's jealousy and he only escaped death by invading the palace with his faithful Godelians and slaughtering the king.
"Disgusted with the ingratitude of the Scythians, they returned to their fleet and proceeded to the shores of Egypt. Here, MILESIUS soon gained the affection of PHARAOH, who gave MILESIUS his daughter in marriage, who, like the wife of NEULL, bore the name of SCOTA. (It is this SCOTA for whom Scotland is named).
"MILESIUS, after remaining seven years in Egypt, again put to sea and landed at length in northern Spain on the coast of the Bay of Biscay. When the age of the world was 3501 B.C., MILESIUS, a mighty warrior of renown, saw a green island from the top of a tall tower in Spain and chose the most stalwart from among his splendid band of 32 sons to conquer the distant land. They made the dangerous journey in 30 ships, vanquished the race then in possession and seized upon the country which was divided between HEBER and HEREMON, sons of MILESIUS.
"Irish genealogy begins with this legendary settlement and the four great race stems, to which the leading families of Ireland converge, are HEBER, ITH, IR and HEREMON. It is from HEREMON that the FINLEYs claim ancestry, but it is not until the reign of FEREDACH the Just, 102nd Ard-Rich, or High Monarch of Ireland, that authentic history begins.
"The old and historic name is pure Milesian in origin through the House of HEREMON. Its foundation is co-equal with that of the HyNialls Sept of Ulster, the chief families of which for nearly 600 years ruled as Ard-Rich of Erin (Ireland).
"From HEREMON were descended the kings, nobility and gentry of the kingdoms of Connaught, Dalriada, Idenster, Meath, Orgiall and Ossary; of Scotland since the fifth century; of Ulster since the fourth century; and of England from the reign of King HENRY II, down to the present time.
"He and his brother, HEBER, began to reign in 1699 B.C. and were, jointly, the first monarchs of Ireland. HEBER was slain in 1698 B.C. HEREMON reigned 14 years and died in 1683 B.C."
I would like to add one final note on the line of HEREMON. The time span between MILESIUS' vision and the beginning of the reign of HEREMON and HEBER should be questioned. FRANCE, in his The Clan FINLEY, states that MILESIUS' vision came in 2934 B.C., not in 3501 B.C. as WOOD and STOUT have claimed. In either case, there is a gap of over 1,000 years between his vision and the time that HEREMON and HEBER began their reign.
Also, consider this: MOORE's chart shows the possibility of a gap between BILLE (BILE on WOOD's chart) and GALLAM (who is not shown on WOOD's chart). GALLAM is said by MOORE to be the son of BILLE, with EOCHAIDH shown as the next generation after GALLAM, but with an arrow bringing EOCHAIDH down to the generation level of TAMAR.
Also confusing is that TAMAR is shown as the daughter of ZEDEKIAH, who, according to a biblical chart that I have, reigned from 598 to 587 B.C. Both WOOD and MOORE show UGAINE MOR (or HUGONY) the Great as the son of EOCHAIDH, but WOOD states UGAINE was slain in 593 B.C., which would put it during the reign of his grandfather.
Another discrepancy is found in the fact that MOORE lists ANGUS the Prolific as son of UGAINE the Great. As seen earlier, WOOD shows UGAINE MOR as generation 59, while AONGUS TUIRMEACH-TEAMRACH, the Prolific, is in generation 66.
So, it can be seen that both charts have some historical corroboration. It is entirely possible that each chart is accurate, with certain exceptions, and chose to go down separate branches, converging at some points and going on separate, but parallel, tracks at other junctions. If any of our members are going to the British Isles, perhaps clues may be found in the original documents to determine the authenticated line. As for now, I will accept WOOD's lineage chart as the proven line until other evidence surfaces.
Part 2: Our Royal Ancestry
Of Ireland and Scotland
This section begins with generation 79, as shown in my lineage chart, with the following commentary from WOOD: In the years A.D. 14 to 36, Feredach FION-FEACHTNACH, the True, Just and Sincere, ruled as king, and on his death, was succeeded by his son, Fiacha FIONN OLA (Fiacha of the White Oxen), who had married EITHNE, the daughter of IMGHEAL, King of the Picts. Fiacha lost his throne to ELIM, King of Ulster, who had wrestled the Crown of Ireland from its rightful owners. Young TUATHAL, son of Fiacha, who was looked upon as the next heir, was carried back to Albain (Scotland), where he received the protection of the King of the Picts, his maternal grandfather.
Encouraged by the representation of the Milesians, who had become weary of the reign of ELIM, in A.D. 76, TUATHAL returned to Ireland with a small army raised in Scotland and landed at Jorrus Domhrionn, where he joined his Irish adherents, who had already risen in arms and were plundering the possessions of their enemies.
The young prince lost no time in marching to Tara, where he found the principal men of the Milesian race assembled to welcome him and he was proclaimed King, under the title of Tuathal TEACHTMAR, the Acceptable, or Legitimate. He died A.D. 106 and had married BAIN, daughter of Sgaile BALBH, King of Finland.
Three kings now reigned and slew each other in succession and then came Fedhlimidh (Felim) RACHTMAR, the Legislator, son of Tuathal, and under whom the laws of Ireland were again revised and reformed. He was one of the few Irish kings who was permitted to die in peace, as he died of thirst. He ruled from A.D. 110 to 119 and had married UGHNA, daughter of the King of Denmark.
Then came CONN of the Hundred Battles, son of FEDHLIMIDH, a prince whose long reign was devoted, as his distinctive title imparts, to a series of conflicts. He had married LANDABAND, daughter of CRIMTHAN, King of Leister, Ireland. In A.D. 173, he fell by the hands of assassins. However, from the family of this hero descended the race of chieftains, who, under the title of Dalriadic Kings, supplied Albain, the modern Scotland, with the first Scottish rulers.
CONN was succeeded on the throne by his son-in-law, CONARY II, a descendant of Cairbre FIONN, or CONARY the Great, King of Munster, also of the House of HEREMON, and therefore, of the Milesian race. Cairbre RIADA, son of CONARY II by SARAD (SOADIA), daughter of CONN of the Hundred Battles, in the third century had established the first Irish settlement at Argyleshire, Scotland. He became so important as to found a dynasty. The people governed by his descendants were called Dalriadians and their territory formed the northern part of the present County Antrim, Ireland.
The event of high political importance took place in the fifth century and this was the establishment under the sons of ERC of the Scotch-Irish monarchy in Albain. The colony planted there by Cairbre RIADA, though constantly fed with supplies from the parent stock, the Dalriadians of Antrim, had run frequent risks of expiration from the superior power of their neighbors, the Picts.
When, therefore, a certain youth called LORNE, noble and with unbounded power, begotten of a race of kings, heard this, that a nameless tribe of his own country was wandering through the vast solitude of Albain, living in misery among the Picts without a ruler, he was stimulated by these exhortations and by ambition of reigning, and aided by the all-powerful influence of the Hy-Niall family, he proceeded to Albain and there constituted himself the first king.
Three brothers who were paramount chiefs in the territory known as the Kingdom of Dalriada, Ireland, LORNE, ANGUS and FERGUS, with a strong army of followers, crossed into Scotland. They were sons of ERC, who was the son of EOCHAIDH the Valiant, who in turn was the son of Colla UAIS, King of Tara, who was the son of Cairbre RIADA.
On leaving Ireland, LORNE, the eldest brother, occupied the territory in western Scotland which still bears his name. He may be counted as the first king, as his reign began in A.D. 470, though his brother, ANGUS, possessed the islands of Islay, Jura and Iona, and other relatives of LORNE were more or less endured.
It was the youngest son, Fergus MC ERC, who succeeded LORNE as king. Though, as we have seen, the eldest brother, LORNE, ruled before him, Fergus holds a more conspicuous position as father of the dynasty, since it was his descendants and not those of LORNE who afterwards ruled in Scotland.
In A.D. 501, Fergus was crowned king and he consolidated the three territories into one kingdom which he named "Dalriada," after his native territory in Ireland. The Lia Fail, or "Stone of Destiny," used in the election of Irish monarchs, was brought from Tara in order that Fergus might be crowned king upon it, and was never taken back to Ireland. Eventually, it was brought to England by EDWARD I in 1300 and deposited in Westminster Abbey. In A.D. 506, Fergus, at a late period of his life, decided to revisit his native country. On the way over, his ship was wrecked and he drowned. His body drifted ashore on the strand by the rock on which the Castle of Carrickfergus (Rock of Fergus) now stands.
Fergus was succeeded by his son, DOMANGART, who died A.D. 508, and who was succeeded, in turn, by his son, CONGALLUS I (COMGALL), who reigned from A.D. 508 to 537. CONGALLUS was succeeded by his brother, GABHRAN, who reigned A.D. 537 to 560, and who had married LLEIAN, daughter of Brychan BRECHENA, King of Brecknoch, South Wales.
After the Dalriadic Scots had firmly settled in Scotland, their possessions seem to have been divided among four tribes. These were the Cinal Lorne, descended from LORNE; Cinal Gabhran and Cinal Comgall, descended respectively from the two sons of DOMANGART; and the Cinal Angus, descended from ANGUS. Cinal Lorne occupied that part of Argyleshire now known as Lorne; Cinal Gabhran had the district of Argyll proper and Kintyre; Cinal Comgall had the territory of Comgall, now known as Cowal; and Cinal Angus had for its share the islands of Islay, Jura and Iona.
In accordance with the Laws of Tanistry, GABHRAN was succeeded by his nephew, CONALL, son of CONGALLUS I, and who, as King of Dalriada, ruled over the united land of Gabhran and Comgall. In A.D. 574, CONALL died (STOUT names him as CONGALLUS II and lists reign of A.D. 560 to 570) and in the same year, his hosts, led by DUNCAN, his son, were destroyed at the Battle of Delgin against the Picts in Kintyre. It is said the king perished there as well.
This opened the throne to Aedhan MC GABHRAN, son of GABHRAN. St. COLUMBA ordained Aedhan as king at Iona, which was the first consecration of a Christian king in Scotland. This evolution of political events in Britain, Albain and Erin (Ireland) had opened up a brilliant future for the proper man, Aedhan, as the man of destiny.
His lineage was right royal, as on his father's side he had the blood of the Nealls in his veins, and on his mother's side that of King COYL, through LLEIAN, daughter of King BRYCHAN, who gave his name to Brecknoch, South Wales. Aedhan was connected with one of the three holy families of Britain and also with many powerful reigning families among the Cymry and Gall, who had married the men of the north, Goglia, as the Cymreck bards styled the chieftains who afterwards became the allies of Aedhan when he combined the Dalriadians and Brychans against the Picts of the north.
(Charles HANNA, in The Scotch-Irish Families of America, Vol. I, p. 203, states the following: "Aedan ascended the throne of Dalriada in 574, or perhaps it would be more correct to say he became chief of the Dalriad tribe. In 603, he led a numerous force -- recruited largely from the Britons of Strathclyde -- against AETHELFRID, the Anglican King of Bernicia.
;"Meeting him in Liddesdale, near the frontier line of the kingdoms of Bernicia and Strathclyde [in the present Roxburghshire], a decisive battle was fought at Degsastan, which resulted in the utter defeat and rout of Aedan's army, and the extension of the western boundary of the Anglican kingdom to the River Esk. The annalist, TIGHERNAC, records Aedan's death in 606, at the age of 74.
"He was succeeded by his son, Eocha BUIDHE, who resigned the throne to his son, Conadh CERR. In the year 629, the latter was slain in the Battle of Fedhaeoin, fought in Ireland between the Irish Dalriads and the Irish Picts, or Cruithne. Both parties to this contest received auxiliaries from Scotland. Eocha BUIDHE appears also in this battle, on the side of the Picts, and opposed to his son, CONADH, the leader of the Dalriad Scots. Mr. SKENE infers from this, and other confirmatory circumstances, that Eocha, at this time having withdrawn from Dalriada, must have been ruler of the Galloway Picts. He died later in the same year.
"Domnall BRECC, or BREAC, brother to Conadh CERR, succeeded to the throne of Dalriada on the death of the latter. In 634, he fought the Northumbrians at Calathros (now Callender, in Stirlingshire), and was defeated. Three years later, he was again defeated with great loss in the Battle of Mag Rath in Ireland, whither he had gone as an ally of the Cruithne, or Irish Picts, in their contest with Domnall MAC AED, King of the Irish Dalriads.
In 638, TIGHERNAC records another battle and defeat, being that of Glinnemairison, or Glenmureson, which name has been identified with that of the present Mureston Water, south of the River Almond, in the parishes of Mid and West Calder (Edinburghshire). As the siege of Etin (Edinburgh) is mentioned in the same reference, and as this was the second defeat which the Dalriad king had suffered at the hands of the Angles within the space of four years in contiguous territory, it is to be supposed that these battles may have resulted from the efforts of Domnall BRECC to dispossess the Angles of that portion of their dominions in or near which the battles were fought.
"The Battle of Degsastan, near the Esk, in 603, and these fights on both sides of the Avon in 634 and 638, would seem to fix these streams as at that time marking the extremities of the frontier line between Northumbria and Strathclyde.
"While the Britons were naturally allied with the Scots in these wars against the common enemy of both, it appears that the circumstances of their union were not otherwise sufficiently favorable to insure more than the temporary ascendancy of the Dalriad chief as their leader at this time. It is possible he may have taken the opportunity of his leadership as an occasion for seeking permanent rule. But if this were so, he could not have met with much encouragement from the Britons, for in the year 642, TIGHERNAC tells us he was slain at Strathcawin (or Strath Carron) by OAN, King of the Britons.")
The race of MC GABHRANs experienced repeated reverses. With a feud between the two kindred races of LORNE and FERGUS, the Crown of Dalriada passed for a time to the Clan of LORNE, although it returned to the Clan of GABHRAN upon the death in A.D. 676 of Mailduin, line of FERGUS.
By a revolution, the sceptre was transferred to Fearchar FADA the Long, the great-great grandson of LORNE, and who reigned from A.D. 677 to 697. From his line, some of the most powerful thanes and clans of Scotland trace their descent, with the most famous being MACBETH, who, on his mother's side, is traced back to Aedhan MC GABHRAN.
During the whole of this state of affairs, in A.D. 736, a series of conflicts between the Scots and Picts commenced that ended after a long struggle with alternate success in placing a Scotch-Irish prince on the throne of the Pictish kings. With the expectation of softening by a family alliance the mutual hostility of the two kingdoms, a marriage was contracted between EOCHAID, or AYCHA II, and a Pictish princess, URQUSIA, daughter of URQUIS, King of the Picts. EOCHAID was the son of Aodh FIONN, who ruled from A.D. 748 to 778, and ETHELBAYA, daughter of CATHNEA, King of West Saxon.
However, this marriage led to disputes over succession of the Pictish Crown and in the struggle that followed, ALPIN, son of AYCHA II, who ruled over Scotland Picts from A.D. 833 to 836, was slain in a battle with the Picts on 20 July 836. The whole matter was finally decided by the victory of ALPIN's son, Kenneth MC ALPIN, who urged his rights of inheritance by defeating WRAD, the last of the Pictish monarchs, who died at Fortivet in A.D. 842, in defense of his kingdom. Eight years later, Kenneth MC ALPIN succeeded to the throne, thus uniting Scotland into one kingdom. He had married CINAITH, daughter of ANICUM of the Isles. He was succeeded by his brother, Donald, who died in A.D. 863.
HANNA provides the following commentary on the next few kings:
On Donald's death, CONSTANTINE, the son of KENNETH, came to the throne. After a reign of some 15 years, he was killed in battle with the Norsesmen, who fought the Scots at Inverdufatha (Inverdovet) near the Firth of Forth, in 877. CONSTANTINE was succeeded by his brother, AEDH, or HUGH, who reigned as King of the Picts for one year, when he was killed by his own people. While under the Law of Tanistry, which governed the descent of the crown among the Scots, DONALD, son of CONSTANTINE, was entitled to rule, yet by the Pictish law (Oadh) EACHA (son of CONSTANTINE's sister and of RUN, King of the Britons of Strathclyde) was the next heir, and as the Pictish party at this time seems to have been in the ascendancy, EACHA was made king.
Being too young to reign, however, another king was associated with him as governor. This governor, or regent, was GRIG, or CIRIC, son of DUNGAILE. While the earlier "Pictish Chronicle" gives no account of this reign beyond the statement that after a period of 11 years, EACHA and GRIG were both expelled from the kingdom, the later writers have made a popular hero of GRIG, and his virtues and achievements are magnified to most gigantic proportions. GRIG, having been forced to abdicate, was succeeded in 889 by DONALD (IV), son of CONSTANTINE, who reigned for 11 years. DONALD was also chosen as King of Strathclyde, which henceforth continued to receive its princes from the reigning Scottish family until it was finally merged into the Scottish kingdom.
During DONALD's reign, his kingdom ceased to be called Pictland or Pictavia and became known as the Kingdom of Alban and Albania, and its rulers were no longer called Kings of the Picts, but Kings of Alban. DONALD was slain in battle with the Danes, probably at Dunotter in Kincardineshire.
His successor was CONSTANTINE, son of OADH and great-grandson of Kenneth MC ALPIN, and who ruled from A.D. 900 to 942. CONSTANTINE then became a monk and was succeeded by MALCOLM I, son of DONALD IV, and who ruled from A.D. 943 to 954. MALCOLM I had married BEATRICE of the Isles.
Between A.D. 954 and 971, MALCOLM I was succeeded by INDUFF, son of CONSTANTINE (who became a monk), and then by DUBHE, son of MALCOLM I. KENNETH II, also a son of MALCOLM I, came to the throne in A.D. 971. He came to his end by female treachery, as he was assassinated in A.D. 995 by FENELLA, daughter of CUNCHAR, Thane of Angus.
He was succeeded by another CONSTANTINE, son of CALEN, who, after governing a short time from A.D. 995 to 997, was slain by KENNETH III, son of DUBHE, and who, in turn, was dethroned and slain by MALCOLM II, son of KENNETH II, in 1005.
After the death of MALCOLM II, there was no powerful adult collateral to seize upon the succession. He is said to have provided for this by putting to death the grandson of KENNETH III, who was a brother of GRUOCH, who married MACBETH. This later would come back to haunt MALCOLM II, as we shall see in the next section.
Part 3: The Most Famous
Finley Of Them All
Elmer CROCKETT, who lived in Yankton, SD in 1964 (whereabouts unknown today), states the following: "In the year 1009, Momaar FINLEIGH or FINLEY of Moray, father of MACBETH, was the overlord of the tributary of the Manor of Morey or Moray." WOOD quotes the following from Pinkerston's History of Scotland, Vol. II, p. 333: "During this early period in Scotland, there were two kings, for Finlay MC RUAIDHRI, who ruled over western Scotland, was murdered in 1020 to make MALCOLM II the sole king, and when MACBETH, son of FINLAY, succeeded to the throne after the death of DUNCAN, he came into his lawful heritage."
WOOD adds the line of descent of Finlay MC RUDIDHRI or MC RUARI is as follows: son of RUDIDHRI or MC RUARI, who was the son of FERGUS, who ruled in Dalriada from A.D. 778 to 781; and who was the son of EAGEN, who ruled from A.D. 741 to 747; and who was the son of Fearchar FADA, who ruled from A.D. 677 to 695; and who was the son of FERADACH, a powerful chief of Clan LORNE; and who was the son of LORNE, first King of Albain from A.D. 470 to 500.
MALCOLM II, King of Scotland from 1005 to 1034, married as his second wife AELIFU, by whom he had three daughters but no sons. The eldest daughter, BETHOC, or BEATRICE, married CRINAN, Lay Abbott of Kunkeld and head of the House of Atholl. Her son, DUNCAN, was regarded as the king's heir, if not by all of Scotland, at least by the king himself.
The second daughter, ALICE, married SIGURD, Earl of Orkney, who died in 1014. Her son, THORFINN, a boy of 5 at the death of his father, was named Earl of Sutherland and became a powerful Thane of Moray.
The third daughter, DONADA, married Finlay MC RUARI, Earl of Moray, son of MC RUARI, Thane of Moray and Ross, a powerful chief of Clan FIONNLAOICH, who not only ruled over the present Shire of Ross, but over a much larger portion of northwest Scotland.
From Agnes Mure MACKENZIE's The Foundations of Scotland (Edinburgh and London: Oliver and Boyd Ltd., 1957), Second Edition, p. 95 and 96: "The first years of the reign of MALCOLM II were marked by unsuccessful foreign war. FINLAEC of Moray, brother and successor of the Mormaor MAELBRIGHDE, who had been defeated by LIOTR of Orkney, now challenged LIOTR's nephew and successor, Sigurd LODVARSON, to a formal battle. Sigurd accepted, and fighting under a magical raven banner, made by his mother, defeated his challenger. MALCOLM made peace with Sigurd, and gave him the youngest of his three daughters."
However, as WOOD and FRANCE tell us, "Frequent battles followed and FINLAY defeated Sigurd and gained possession of Moray and continued as Mormaer of that district until the year 1020, when he was slain by his nephews, MALCOLM, who died in 1029, and GILLACOMGAIN, who was assassinated by the orders of MALCOLM II in 1032.
"From this union of Princess DONADA, daughter of MALCOLM II, and Finlay MC RUARI, was born ca. 1005, MACBETH, or MacBida MC FINLAY (MACKENZIE calls him MAELBEATHA), who in 1039 became King of Scotland, and who had married earlier, in 1032, GRUOCH, daughter of BODHE and the widow of GILLACOMGAIN. From this line, the FINLAYs and FINLEYs of Scotland are descended.
"WYNTON, the most veracious chronicler of the earlier history of Scotland, styles MACBETH as Thane of Crumbacty, which is Gaelic for Cromarty, where Macbeth Castle stood. The union of Ross and Cromarty under one sheriffdom as at present, seems to be the boundaries of the ancient kingdom.
"GRUOCH (Lady MACBETH) was a lineal descendant of that Kenneth MC ALPIN, who, in the ninth century, had united Scotland into one kingdom. She was the daughter of BODHE, who was the son of KENNETH III, who was the son of DUBHE, who was the son of MALCOLM I, who was the son of DONALD IV, who was the son of CONSTANTINE, who was the son of Kenneth MC ALPIN.
"Her grandfather, KENNETH III, had been dethroned and slain by the cousin now ruling, MALCOLM II, who, having waded through blood to seize the throne, had determined to secure peaceful succession of his own descendants, so since GRUOCH's brother was regarded as the rightful heir under the old laws of Scotland, he had to be assassinated.
"Being merely a woman, GRUOCH was of scant importance, despite her august presence and queenly dignity, so she was left alive to carry her royal blood, her heritage of vengeance, into Moray, where she married GILLACOMGAIN, son of MAELBRIGDI, a powerful chieftain of that district. DUNCAN, MACBETH and THORFINN, three sons of three sisters, were all related to GRUOCH. Her husband, GILLACOMGAIN, was a cousin of MACBETH.
"Presently, another blow was to fall upon GRUOCH as a result of this blood feud, for a punitive party succeeded in pinning her husband into his fortress and fired it, and he was burned to death with some 50 of his men in 1032. By some miracle, GRUOCH escaped, but it is small wonder that the child she carried (MACKENZIE tells us he was later known as LULACH the Fool) became mentally unhinged. She fled from Moray into Ross, filled from crown to toe with cruelty and appealed to MACBETH for help. He, fair, yellow-haired and tall, having some claim to the crown, made his claim effectual by espousing the heiress of line.
"Thus, when death had released the strong grasp of Malcolm II, this lineal race of Kenneth MC ALPIN had become extinct and the succession reverted to DUNCAN, the son of CRINAN, who had married the daughter of MALCOLM II. DUNCAN, the people held, was soft and gentle of nature -- strangely different from his cousin MACBETH, who was a valiant gentleman.
"DUNCAN ruled with a light hand and after enjoying the throne for about 5 years, his people took advantage of the absence of THORFINN, Thane of Moray, on an expedition to England, and placing DUNCAN at their head, forced their way into the district of Moray. But the Pictish natives of the north refused to recognize his rights to the crown, and at least looked upon him as an usurper, and headed by MACBETH, attacked DUNCAN in the neighborhood of Elgin, routed his army, and DUNCAN, being severely wounded by MACBETH or his adherents, was carried to Elgin, where he died of his wounds."
MACKENZIE adds the following: "In 1040, the sixth year of DUNCAN's reign, MAELBEATHA carried his wife's feud into action and avenged her brother on his slayer's heir. DUNCAN was killed, not, apparently, by murder at Glamis or Inverness, but in battle at Bothgowanan, and MAELBEATHA took the throne by right of his young stepson, and was accepted, for the only other grown man with any claim was THORFINN of Orkney."
WOOD and FRANCE continue: "No satisfactory evidence exists of the cause of this hostile meeting nor why the king invaded the territory of his sub-king. All this is obscure but the result is shown by unquestionable evidence existing in the Chronicum Rythmecum, preserved in the Melrose Chronicle and embodied by WYNTON in his early historical works. In a former number of that provincial newspaper, the Kelmarnock Journal, in which a vast mass of interesting antiquarian information is from time to time preserved, there occurred a very learned and ingenuous argument, the object of which was, if not fully to vindicate the character of MACBETH, at least to remove much of the obloquy thrown upon his memory.
"Some historians tell us that MACBETH was a murderer and usurper, and the genius of England's great dramatist has so immortalized the fictions of BOICE, that it is doubtful if ever they will be eradicated from the popular mind. Desirous to arrive at the truth, we have ventured to state what occurs to us to be pretty near the real facts of the case, that DUNCAN was not murdered under trust by MACBETH at Glamis; instead, he died of wounds received in a conflict at a place near Elgin, that he was carried to Elgin by the victor, where he died and that his conqueror transplanted his reamins to the Royal Cemetery at Iona.
"The leniency of MACBETH contrasts to advantage with the bloody steps which marked the descent of MALCOLM II. Even DUNCAN's sons were allowed to escape to England. The death of BANQUO and others are mere fiction of BOICE, originating, no doubt, under the CANMORE rule, being desirous to blacken the reputation of MACBETH.
"MACBETH pursued his success and made himself master of the whole kingdom. He was proclaimed King of the Scots at Scone, under protection of the Clans of Ross and Moray, and representing the northern and Celtic elements of the public by birth and marriage, had the most powerful interests in the country behind him. GRUOCH was Queen of the Scots at last, and her dead brother was avenged, for she sat on the throne in his stead. MACBETH and GRUOCH set themselves to reign well. He made laws for the common will, which were most benign and liberal."
Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 6, gives the following insight into MACBETH's reign: "MACBETH's victory in 1045 over a rebel army, perhaps led by DUNCAN's father, CRINAN, near Dunkeld, Perth, may account for the later references (in SHAKESPEARE and others) to Birnam Wood, for the village of Birnam is near the town of Dunkeld. In 1046, SIWARD, Earl of Northumbria, unsuccessfully attempted to dethrone MACBETH in favor of MALCOLM (afterward, King Malcolm III CANMORE), eldest son of DUNCAN I.
"By 1050, MACBETH felt secure enough to leave Scotland for a pilgramage to Rome (MACKENZIE says while there, MACBETH made great gifts to the poor). But in 1054, he was apparently forced by SIWARD to yield part of southern Scotland to MALCOLM. Three years later, MACBETH was killed in battle by MALCOLM, who, as SHAKESPEARE indicates, had assistance from the English. MACBETH was buried on Iona, an island off Scotland's west coast regarded as the resting place of lawful kings, but not of usurpers."
As WOOD and FRANCE state, "His subsequent defeat and death in Aberdeenshire (MACKENZIE says the actual location in Aberdeenshire was Lumphanan on Deeside) on 5 Dec 1057 was calamitous to his family. His clan name ceased and for a time, the FARQUHARSON took its place."
Part 4: Origins of Farquharson
MACBETH's death ended a dynasty which began with the earliest foundations of Ireland and Scotland, as we have already seen. At the time of his death, his children were young, so the Clan FIONNLAGH placed his stepson, LULACH, on the throne. However, he reigned only 6 months, being defeated and slain at Eske in Strathbogie by the Saxon invaders and the rebellious adherents of Malcolm CANMORE. After LULACH, no other member of the Clan FIONNLAGH has been on the throne of Scotland to the present day. Members of the clan became hunted outlaws, long before religious persecution drove them from the British Isles.
Because of this the Clan FIONNLAGH took on the name of the Clan FARQUHARSON, so named because of the Farquhar SHAW of Rothiemurchus. WOOD and FRANCE state: "In 1236 in the Braes of Mar at the head of Aberdeenshire, Scotland, there was a certain chief named FEARCHAR, son of FARQUHAR, who was the fourth son of Shaw DUBH of Rothiemurchus, who was head of a powerful clan known in the Highlands as Clan FIONNLAGH, a sept of the great confederation, Clan CHATTAN, which held large possessions which were acquired by marriage with the heiress of Invercauld and from this FEARCHAR.
"The clan also took the name of MC EARACHAR or FARQUHARSON. The chiefs were lineal descendants of the ancient Thanes of Ross and Moray, of whom the most famous is MACBETH, the progenitor of this clan. The descendants of this FEARCHAR had moved and settled on the borders of Perth and Angus; some took the name of MC EARACHAR or FARQUHARSON; others, the name of MC FINLAY or FINLAYSON, and of this branch, FINLAY and FINLEY."
Brig. Gen. (Retired) George HIGGINSON forwarded a copy of an article which appeared in the April 1987 issue of Scottish Field, entitled, "Clan Gathering," by Dr. Emilio COIA and Roddy MARTINE. In it, it states the Clan FARQUHARSON is composed of the septs of COUTTS, FARQUHAR, FINDLAY, FINDLAYSON, GREVSACH, HARDIE, HARDY, LEYS, LYON, MAC CAIG, MAC CARDNEY, MAC EARACHER, MAC FARQUHAR, MAC GRUAIG, MAC HARDIE, MAC KERRACHER, MACKINLAY, REACH and RIACH.
The article also states: "FARQUHAR, son of Alexander CIAR, third Shaw of Rothiemurchus, is believed to be the ancestor of this clan. His descendants settled in Aberdeenshire, and FARQUHAR's son, DONALD, married Isobel STEWART, heiress of Invercauld. Their son, Finlay MOR, first of the House of FARQUHARSON, fell at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547, fighting for Mary, Queen of Scots."
Donna MC CALLON claims descent from Findlay MOR, although she incorrectly states he was born about 1620, when in fact, his presence as Deputy Royal Standard Bearer at the Battle of Pinkie, where he died, was in 1547.
The Scottish Fieldarticle also gives a brief sketch of Capt. Alwyn Compton FARQUHARSON of Invercauld, who is currently the 16th chief of Clan FARQUHARSON and who owned about 12,000 acres on the River Dee. He states his father's surname was COMPTON, but when he inherited the Invercauld estate, he took his mother's name of FARQUHARSON. He has a twin sister and a brother.
Mary HEPLE also sent an article which appeared in The Weekly Scotsman, on 19 Aug 1965. It refers to Finlay (or Findlay) MOR, translated as the "Big FINLAY," and gives the following history:
"Among the latter-day heroes of the clan were such figures as John FARQUHARSON, third Laird of Invery, known as
The Black Colonel.' whose Jacobite exploits are among the legends of Deeside, and who once rode his horse up the steep side of the Pass of Ballater to escape the Hanoverians; John FARQUHARSON of Invercauld, who, as lieutenant-colonel, led four officers and 140 men in the Clan CHATTAN Regiment in the Uprising of 1715 and was captured at Preston, Lancashire.
"But perhaps the most colourful and best known of all was Anne FARQUHARSON of Invercauld, known to historians of the '45 as
Colonel Anne' or Lady MACKINTOSH.' She was the wife of Angus or Aeneas MACKINTOSH of Mackintosh, 22nd chief of the MACKINTOSHES of Moy Hall and Clan CHATTAN. Her husband, accompanied by several men of his clan, was serving the Hanoverian Government in the Black Watch at the time of the last great anti-Union Uprising."
The article goes on to describe how Anne, who was the daughter of FARQUHARSON of Invercauld, used a ruse to save the life of Prince Charles when she was 20 years old, in January 1746. The Hanoverians were gathering their troops to capture or kill the prince, when Anne FARQUHARSON MACKINTOSH gathered a blacksmith and four men and fired weapons into the air, yelling commands which made the Hanoverians think there was a great army present, and causing their defeat.
Part 5: Through The Middle Ages
In the above section, there appears to be some inconsistency, which I hope to clear up. WOOD and FRANCE have an heiress of Invercauld in the early 13th century; the Scottish Field article has an heiress of Invercauld in the early 16th century. To further complicate the issue, consider the fact that the lines of descent shown by FRANCE, WOOD and STOUT are each completely different, as follow: At the point in question, FRANCE starts with RORY or RUARI, Thane of Cromarty in 1162; his son, Shaw FARQUHAR of Rothumurchus, Aberdeenshire, Scotland; his grandson, Farquhar SHAW or Shaw DUBH of Aberdeenshire, m the heiress of Invercauld, Aberdeenshire; and his great-grandson, FEARCHAR, Chief of Clan FINLAY, Aberdeenshire, 1236, m daughter of Patrick MC DONACHADH.
WOOD starts with RORY or RUARI MC FINLAY, Thane of Crumbacty (Gaelic for Cromarty), 1100 to 1152; his son, SHAW or Farquhar SHAW of Rothumurchus, ancestor of the FARQUHARSON; his grandson, FEARCHAR, Chief of Clan FIONNLOAH, Aberdeenshire, 1236, m the daughter and heiress of Patrick MAC DONACHADH, ancestor of the ROBERTSON of Lude, by whom he had a large family.
STOUT shows RORY or Ruari MC FINLAY was Thane of Cromarty, 1152; his son, Fergus MC FINLAY, also known as Farquhar SHAW of Rothumerchus, was a tenant of Rossen, Cromarty, 1210, m the heiress of Invercaula, Aberdeenshire; his grandson, Eugenius MC FINLAY, a fourth son, also known as Shaw FARQUHAR(SON), was murdered by WALTER, Seneschal of Scotland, 1223. This is the claimed origin of the Clan FARQUHARSON in Aberdeenshire; his great-grandson, Fearchar MC FINLAY, lived in Aberdeenshire in 1236 and was recognized as the chief of the proscribed Clan FIONNLADH, fourth son of Shaw DUBH of Rothmurchus, m MAC DONACHADH.
As can be seen, there are several inconsistencies, both in spellings of names and in facts. However, careful examination reveals a common thread, and this appears to be the factual record:
(116) Rory or Ruari MC FINLAY, Thane of Crumbacty (Cromarty), 1100 to 1152; (117) Fergus MC FINLAY, fourth son of Rory, and also known as SHAW or Farquhar SHAW of Rothumerches, a tenant of Rossen, Cromarty, 1210; (118) Shaw DUBH, also known as Eugenius MC FINLAY or Shaw FARQUHAR(SON), murdered by WALTER, Seneschal of Scotland, 1223. This is the claimed origin of the Clan FARQUHARSON in Aberdeenshire; (119) FEARCHAR, Chief of Clan FIONNLAGH, lived in the Braes of Mar, the head of Aberdeenshire, Scotland, in 1236, m the daughter and heiress of Patrick MAC DONACHADH, ancestor of ROBERTSON of Lude.
The Scottish Field article would seem to point to later generations of this branch, but I have not seen anything yet which would show the generations in between. However, it does appear that the heiress of Invercauld (unless reference is made to more than one person) did not marry into any of the generations of the 1200s, but rather, should be placed in the early 1500s.
The rest of the records of FRANCE, WOOD and STOUT are fairly consistent, as follows:
The second son of Fearchar MC FINLAY was Archibald FINDLA or FINLAY, who distinguished himself at the Battle of Largs in Ayrshire, Scotland against the Norwegians on 21 Oct 1263. In a charter dated 12 Nov 1314, Archibald FINLAY is mentioned as occupying one-half portion of land in the Parish of Rousnot, Perthshire, Scotland. He married Margaret ROBERTSON, daughter of William ROBERTSON of Lude. Archibald FINLAY evidently died prior to 1337, as on 12 Nov 1337, Margaret FINLAY, relict (widow) of Archibald FINLAY, is mentioned as occupying one-half portion of land in Rousnot. They had three children: Roger, Richard and William.
In a charter of King Robert I in 1323, Roger FINLAY was granted the lands of Clifton in Roxburgh, Scotland, forfeited by Euan DE RUTHERFORD and his sister, Marjorie DE RUTHERFORD. In a charter dated 12 Nov 1342, Richard FINLAY is mentioned as occupying one-half marcate of land in Nether, Balliwich of Cunyngham, Scotland.
The third son of Archibald FINLAY, William, became the Royal Forester of King Robert I. He is mentioned in the Aberdeen Charter No. 18 of the Prior of Rousnot Abbey, concerning the purchase by the king of lands in Rousnot and Perth, acquisition having been made by William FINLAY the Forester and others of the king's tenants in Chuf; confirmed at Dundee, Scotland, 16 Mar 1307. William had married Isabel DEMPSTER, daughter of Thomas DEMPSTER, Laird of Murish, and the former Eleanor FORBES, niece and co-heir of Viscount FORBES. They had two sons, Andrew and John.
There is a Royal Charter of 3 Aug 1366, confirming a Charter of the Prior of Rousnot, stating that Andrew, son of William FINLAY the Forester, and Andrew DEMPSTER, uncle of said Andrew and John FINLAY of Cutlace, partitioners of Menmur, Perth, confirm the annual gift of 8 pounds of goods as tithe of Menmur to the Prior of Rousnot Abbey, given at Kennelli on 8 Oct 1360. The Royal Charter was confirmed at Sane, Scotland on 3 Aug 1366.
Also recorded is a grant of King Robert II to Andrew FINLAY of certain fees for exercising the office of sheriff of Perth, with amercements granted to Andrew and his heirs, to be held as their fee, hereditary forever, confirmed at Kyndroct on 9 Jul 1379. Andrew FINLAY married Marjorie MC DONALD, niece and co-heir of John MC DONALD of Perthshire. Their children were William, John, Andrew and Marjorie.
The latter child, Marjorie FINLAY, married John BALBERNEY on 7 Dec 1394, as in a charter of that date, given in Edinburgh, Scotland, the king confirmed to John BALBERNEY and to Marjorie FINLAY, his wife, the lands of Balberney in Fife, to them jointly and to their heirs (STOUT incorrectly lists the date of the charter as 1428). Her brother, Andrew FINLAY Jr., was witness to a charter dated 15 Jul 1428 (purpose of charter not specified). He married Marjorie BALBERNEY. Another brother, William FINLAY, owned land and houses in Edinburgh, as mentioned in a charter dated there on 2 Sept 1473 (FRANCE says 1476), and confirmed by the king on 27 Oct 1477.
John FINLAY, second son of Andrew FINLAY Sr., became the Bishop of Dumblane in 1406. In 1425, he was the tutor of James, son of Murdoch, Duke of St. Alban's. For these services, he became the Thane of Glentilt and received three devoches of land, to be held by him in fee, heritage forever, for the payment of 11 merks and a carriage of four horses once a year for hunting in the Forest of Bencromby. He married Eleanor STEWART, daughter of John STEWART of Fothergill. Their children were John FINLAY Jr., Andrew, William, Alexander, Robert and Margaret. (Although STOUT lists the life of John FINLAY, Thane of Glentilt, as being from 1356 to 1445, this is incorrect, as both FRANCE and WOOD state he died in 1456.)
There is a record at Logyrate in the Court of JOHN, Earl of Atholl, by which on 29 Jul 1457, he granted to his son, John STEWART, the Thanage of Glentilt, which consisted of 17 townships and which formerly belonged to John FINLAY Jr., who voluntarily resigned it on 19 Jun 1457 (STOUT incorrectly states that John FINLAY Jr. transferred this land to his son, John). On 29 Jul 1457, John FINLAY Jr. was served, as heir to his father, of the lands of Pebnacrefe in Strothquay, Scotland.
He evidently sold this land or transferred it to his brother, Andrew, as he is represented in the rental books of Cupar Angus, Cistercian Abbey, as living in the township of Kethyk, Cupar Grange, Forfarshire, from 1457 to 1461, having obtained on 10 Oct 1457, 1/12th portion of the Grange for 5 years. He married Mary MAC RAE, who was a widow. As the relict of John FINLAY Jr., she is described on 20 Jan 1462 as obtaining from Cupar Angus Abbey a renewal of 1/12th portion of land in Cupar Grange for 5 years, paying an entry fee of five merks. They had one son, John FYNLAY.
In 1463, John FYNLAY had 1/6th portion of Combryeland in Pentecost, Forfarshire. He figures in different rentals up to 1497. He married Joneta ROGERS (Janet ROGER in STOUT), daughter of William ROGERS. Her father was a renter of Cupar Angus, who in 1454 had leased 1/12th portion of the Grange for 7 years (5 years in FRANCE). He died in 1467 and the lease was renewed the following year by his son, William ROGERS Jr., who died in 1508. His son, William ROGERS III, married Marjory BLAIR, daughter of William BLAIR, Bailiff of Cupar Angus. On 1 May 1542, he obtained from Abbott Donald CAMPBELL a life lease of that portion of land leased by his father and his grandfather. He appears on 23 Apr 1544 as Sheriff Deputy.
John FYNLAY died prior to 1507. His children were John and Andrew FINLEY. On 9 Mar 1507, Joneta FYNLAY, as relict of John FYNLAY, is described as obtaining a lease of a portion of the lands of Downy in the Barony of Glenisla.
John FINLEY was a witness to a charter on 4 Mar 1543 of Father Robert CUNYNHAM, Provincial of the Order of Holy Trinity. The wife of John FINLEY is not known, but in a charter of 2 Jul 1547 to John HAMILTON and his wife, Helen CUNYNHAM, John FINLEY and his sons, Luke, William and William Roger, are mentioned as occupying land in Drumelog and Brintenot in the Barony of Avondale, County Lanark, Scotland. William FINLAY (so spelled in STOUT) married Margaret HAMILTON, daughter of John and Helen CUNYNHAM HAMILTON. William FINLEY became a weaver and settled in Carluke, County Lanark. Their children were John, Thomas, George, William Jr., David and Marion.
David FINLAY moved to Carluke, County Lanark, Scotland, and although his wife is not known, he is known to have had a son, William FINLAY, b Carluke. He later moved to Whitehaven, York, England, and had one son, Edward, b 1759; m 19 Jun 1778 w Mary WILSON.
Andrew FINLEY, son of John and Joneta ROGERS FYNLAY, had, according to the rental books of Cupar Angus, a one-quarter portion of land of Aughenlyth in Pentecost. He figures in different leases up to 1546. In 1507, he appears as Bailiff (Sheriff Deputy) of Cupar Angus, and in 1542, as Sheriff of Cupar Angus.
In the latter capacity, he was associated with Donald and David CAMPBELL, grandsons of the Earl of Argyle. There is a charter of sale in 1491 by Andrew FINLEY to John STEWART of Fothergill of the lands of Achnamarkmore. The seal of John STEWART, Earl of Atholl, and the seal of Andrew FINLEY were appended at Dunkeld on 31 May 1507.
On 13 Aug 1507, there is a charter of sale by Andrew FINLEY to Eleanor, Countess of Atholl, of Kincraigy. There is also a precept of sasene by Andrew FINLEY in favor of Neill STEWART Jr., as son and heir of Neill STEWART of Fothergill, of the lands of Achnamarkmore, given at Glentilt, 4 Jun 1545, in the presence of John FINLEY, son and heir of Andrew FINLEY.
Andrew FINLEY died at Aughenlyth, Forfarshire prior to 27 Apr 1547, as there is a notorial instrument taken by John FINLEY, son and heir of the late Andrew FINLEY, on that date, of the rights and reversion of the lands of Achnamarkmore for 20 pounds, payable in 1 day, between sunrise and sunset. In 1523, Andrew FINLEY married Janet HAY, daughter of John HAY of Erroll, Perthshire, and Janet DOUGLASS, a lineal descendant of William DE HAYA, Cup Bearer to MALCOLM IV. Their children are recorded in the Register of Cupar Angus Abbey.
Their first child, John FINLEY, was baptized 9 Nov 1524. He fought in the Battle of Langside on 13 May 1568. The Battle of Langside, now Battle Abbey, was fought 2 miles from Glasgow, Scotland, and lasted 1 hour. In it, the Regent Moray defeated the forces of Queen Mary. Many who fought in the army of Queen Mary were forced to flee to England and Ireland, and so John FINLEY fled to England, where he died, and was buried in the Parish of Howden, York, on 18 Aug 1578. His wife, Susannah, was buried on 18 May 1591 (WOOD says Susannah was buried 8 May 1591). Their children were Andrew, b 1548, m Mary THOMPSON; Thomas, b 1550, m Sarah MEDWOOD; Christopher, b 1552, m Elizabeth CLARKSON; and Elizabeth, b 1554, m Thomas CLARKSON.
Andrew FINLEY Jr., second son of Andrew and Janet HAY FINLEY, was baptized 6 Mar 1526. His sister, Joneta, was baptized 28 Jan 1529; m Jun 1549 w Thomas BELL of Cupar Angus. The next child, James, was baptized 15 Sept 1530 at Cupar Angus, according to Baron's Court Book, Vol. II, p. 86. This reference also states that prior to 1576, he married Elizabeth WARRENDER, daughter of William and Christina WARRENDER.
The last son of Andrew and Janet HAY FINLEY was Alexander, baptized 27 May 1534. He also fought for Queen Mary at Langside and after the battle, fled to England, then to Killashandra, County Cavan, Ireland, where he died in 1627. Although his wife is not known, it is known that he had a son, Richard, who m Fanny MC DONNELL, who was related to the Earl of Antrim. They had a son, John, b Killashandra; m Mary SAVAGE; who had children: Abraham; John FINLEY Jr., who moved to Scotland; and William, who lived in Dublin, Ireland.
James FINLEY, son of Andrew and Janet HAY FINLEY, and partitioner of Balchrystie, County Fife, Scotland, received a grantor's bond on 27 Jan 1574. In a Royal Charter given at Edinburgh, Scotland on 29 Apr 1574, the king confirmed to James FINLEY, partitioner of Cupar Angus, now partitioner of Balchrystie, County Fife, a moiety of land in Newburn, Parish of St. Andrew, County Fife. James FINLEY's name appears in different leases up to 1596. He died at Newburn on 26 Mar 1597. His children are shown in the baptismal records of St. Andrew's Church as shown below:
Andrew FINLEY was baptized 15 Apr 1576; m Jun 1602 (STOUT incorrectly says 1610) w Christine FORBES, b 1589. Andrew FINLEY d 1654, Newton Rires, County Fife, Scotland. They had one son, Arthur FINLAY, b 1611, Newburn Parish, Balchrystie, County Fife, Scotland; m Margaret BRUCE, who d 1693. They had two children: Christine, and Robert FINLAY, who d 1722 (he appears as XIIc in STOUT, Vol. I, Second Edition, who continues the lines of two of his sons, Robert FINLAY Jr. and John FINLAY).
On 29 Apr 1613, by Royal Charter at Edinburgh, the king confirmed to Andrew FINLEY, partitioner of Balchrystie, a moiety of land in Newton Rires, County Fife, Scotland, which Patrick HUNTAR, son of the late William HUNTAR, with consent of David HUNTAR, apparently resigned.
The second son of James and Elizabeth WARRENDER FINLEY was John, baptized 8 Jun 1579, St. Andrew's Parish, County Fife; d 6 Oct 1670, Incharvie, County Fife. He was known as John of Fife and was a partitioner of Balchrystie, County Fife, in 1629. He inherited land in Incharvie, County Fife, from his brother, James. John FINLEY's name appears in records from 1629 to 1668.
He m Eleanor FORBES, daughter of John FORBES, who d without issue. On 3 Oct 1630, he m Sarah CRAIGIE, who d 1669. She was the daughter of John CRAIGIE (STOUT incorrectly says Hugh CRAIGIE) of Dumbarnie, and Christine SMYTH, who was the daughter of Patrick SMYTH and Katherine COCHRAN, who in turn, was the daughter of William COCHRAN of Kilmarnoc, Ayrshire, and Lady Grizel GRAHAM, who was the daughter of James, Marquis of Montrose.
Buren's History of Commoners, p. 229, lists the children of John and Sarah CRAIGIE FINLEY: 1. James, bapt. 9 Sept 1631; d 16 Feb 1681; m (1st) 1649 w Barbara HENDERSON, who d 1665 (STOUT says 1658), no issue; m (2nd) 10 Sept 1666 w Margaret MACKIE, who d 1672; 2. Robert, bapt. 4 May 1634; d 1712, County Armagh, Ireland; m Margaret LAUDER; 3. John FINLEY Jr., bapt. 9 Aug 1636; d 1704, County Antrim, Ireland (WOOD says he d 1714); m Jane THOMPSON, who d 1714; 4. Margaret, bapt. 2 Jul 1637; d County Antrim, Ireland; m George THOMPSON; 5. Euphan, bapt. 16 Jun 1639; d 1657.
Christina FINLEY was the third child of James and Elizabeth WARRENDER FINLEY. She was bapt. 6 Aug 1580; m 22 Jun 1602 w Thomas ABERCROMBIE Jr. The fourth child was William FINLEY, bapt. 4 Nov 1582; d 1665, County Antrim, Ireland; followed by James FINLEY Jr., bapt. 25 Oct 1583; d 1620, Incharvie, County Fife, Scotland; m 14 Jul 1603 w Barbara HUNTAR, daughter of William HUNTAR and Grizelda TRAILL.
The last child of James and Elizabeth WARRENDER FINLEY was Alexander, bapt. 10 Nov 1584; d 1644, Stenton, Barony of Abercrombee, County Fife, Scotland; m Grissell HUNTAR, sister of Barbara HUNTAR. The marriage records have been printed by the Scotch Record Society of Edinburgh.
These generations of the 1600s and early 1700s show evidence of the move of the FINLEYs out of Scotland into Ireland and, finally, in the early 1700s, to America. Part of the reason for this was the extreme religious persecution suffered by the Presbyterians in Scotland, as we shall see in the next section.
Part 6: Paying The Price
For Religious Freedom
The FINLEYs have always had strong religious beliefs. As we have already seen, one John FINLAY became the Bishop of Dumblane. Several famous Presbyterian ministers have also come from the FINLEY line. But, alongside with the pride taken in their religion, the tragic side of the FINLEYs' religious struggles must be examined.
In the Handbook of Denominations in the United States, a commentary on the influence John CALVIN had upon Presbyterianism says, "He gave courage to British Presbyterians in their bitter struggle against Catholic Bloody Mary. To him came Scots who became Covenanters; to him came John Knox, who went home to cry, `Great God, give me Scotland, or I die.' Knox and the Covenanters set Scotland afire and made it Protestant and Presbyterian."
John FOX, who lived in England from 1517 to 1587, gave graphic accounts in his Book of Martyrs of several Protestants who were burnt at the stake in Scotland in the 1500s. One of the first martyrs was said to be Patrick HAMILTON, who became acquainted with Martin LUTHER and professed his doctrines, much to the disapproval of the Catholic Bishop of St. Andrew's. His crimes were said to be "publicly disapproving of pilgramages, purgatory, prayers to saints, for the dead, etc." FOX describes his torture as follows:
"When he arrived at the stake, he kneeled down, and for some time prayed with great fervency. After this, he was fastened to the stake, and the fagots placed round him. A quantity of gunpowder, having been placed under his arms, was first set on fire, which scorched his left hand and one side of his face, but did no material injury, neither did it communicate with the fagots.
"In consequence of this, more powder and combustible matter were brought, which being set on fire, took effect, and the fagots being kindled, he called out, with an audible voice: `Lord Jesus, receive my spirit! How long shall darkness overwhelm this realm? And how long wilt thou suffer the tyranny of these men?'
"The fire, burning slow, put him to great torment, but he bore it with Christian magnanimity. What gave him the greatest pain was the clamor of some wicked men set on by the friars, who frequently cried, `Turn, thou heretic; call upon our Lady; say, Salve Regina, etc.'
"To whom he replied, `Depart from me, and trouble me not, ye messengers of Satan.' To one CAMPBELL, a friar, who was the ringleader, still continuing to interrupt him by opprobrious language, said to him, `Wicked man, God forgive thee.' After which, being prevented from futher speech by the violence of the smoke, and the rapidity of the flames, he resigned up his soul into the hands of Him who gave it. This steadfast believer in Christ suffered martyrdom in the year 1527."
I point out the above to set the context in which STOUT, in The Clan Finley, Vol. 1, First Edition (1940), says, "One Rev. John FINLEY, the last martyr to Christ's Crown and Covenant, was burned at the stake in Edinburgh just prior to the expulsion of James II."
Charles A. HANNA, in The Scotch-Irish Families in America, Vol. 2, Appendix R, p. 237, confirms this fact, as he includes an account of the confession of the Rev. John FINLAY of Kilmarnock, which he says is taken from a book published in 1714, A Cloud of Witnesses.
The account states that John FINLAY lived in Muirside, Kilmarnock Parish, and suffered in the Grass-market of Edinburgh on 15 Dec 1682. By giving his lengthy testimony, he states to his oppressors that he is "Shewing you that I am condemned unjustly by a generation of bloody men, who is thirsting after the blood of the saints of God, and upon no other account, but for my being found in the way of my duty in the sight of God; glory to his holy name for it, though gone about with many failings, much imperfections, for adhering to Christ and all his offices, as Prophet, Priest and King; and for my following him in all his persecuted gospel truths."
During this same period in our history, the first of the FINLEYs migrated to America. It is certain that in view of such persecution, one of the reasons for the exodus from Scotland was the degree of religious tolerance allowed in the New World.
Part 7: Last of the True Scotch-Irish
From all available records, it appears the first FINLEYs in America reached the New World in the mid- to late 1600s. As we saw above, there were martyrs among our ancestors in Scotland and they had very good reasons to leave the homeland in which they had been a vital part of its history. However, there were some FINLEYs who were able to amass some land holdings throughout the 1600s in Scotland and Ireland, and it is evident that not all FINLEYs came to America, as some of these holdings were passed on to other relatives.
John FINLEY, who was baptized 8 June 1579, St. Andrew's Parish, County Fife, Scotland; d 6 Oct 1670, Incharvie, County Fife; m (1st) Eleanor FORBES; m (2nd) 3 Oct 1630, Sarah CRAIGIE, d 1669; and he appeared in different leases up to 1668.
According to FRANCE, Buren's Book of Commoners," P. 229, shows baptisms of St. Andrew's Church, including John and Sarah CRAIGIE's children.
Their first son, James, was baptized 9 Sept 1631, St. Andrew's Parish, County Fife; d 16 Feb 1681, Incharvie, County Fife. On 14 July 1670, he was served as heir to his father.
In a Scotch Deed, James FINLEY, partitioner of Incharvie, County Fife, has a grantor's bond dated 22 June 1652 and 10 Aug 1670. Margaret MACKIE, spouse of James FINLEY, partitioner, has a grantor's bond dated 1 Aug 1669 and 18 Jan 1670. STOUT says James FINLEY was granted land in 1652 in Newburn Parish, Balchrystie, County Fife, Scotland, and appears in Newburn Parish records up to 1679.
james FINLEY m (1st) 1649 Barbara HENDERSON, who d 1665 (WOOD's date; STOUT says 1658), with no issue; m (2nd) 10 Sept 1666, Margaret MACKIE (WOOD says MOCKIE; TORRENCE says MC KAY; FRANCE says MCKIE), daughter of Alexander MACKIE. She d 1672 with a will dated June 1672.
The second son of John and Sarah CRAIGIE was my direct ancestor, Robert FINLEY, baptised 4 May 1634, Incharvie, County Fife, Scotland; d 18 June 1712, Mullaghabrac Parish, County Armagh, Ireland; m 1680, Mullaghabrac Parish, County Armagh, Ireland, w Margaret LAUDER, daughter of Julian LAUDER of Kellyreiadin, County Armagh.
FRANCE, TORRENCE and STOUT give much information on this family. Although Robert FINLEY was born in Incharvie, County Fife, Scotland, records show he sold his lands there to his cousin, Thomas FINLEY (son of James and Barbara HUNTAR FINLEY) about 1678, or the date on which he went to Ireland. STOUT says Robert FINLEY graduated from the University of Glasgow, Scotland, in 1658.
He first settled in Hamilton Bann and later went to Mogharunter, Parish Mullaghabrac. FRANCE and STOUT say in Deed Book 187 (TORRENCE says Irish Deeds, Book 262), P. 42, is found: "Admor (administration) of the land and goods of Robert FINLEY, of the Parish of Mullaghabrac, County Armagh, Ireland, John FINLEY, lawful son of said deceased Robert FINLEY, July 20, 1712, for the sole use of said Michael, Robert, Samuel, Archibald and John FINLEY, children of the said deceased."
In Irish Deeds, Book 262, P. 630, is found: "A memorial of deeds of lease and release, dated the 16th and 17th of January 1732, Robert, Samuel and John FINLEY, of the Parish of Mullaghabrac, Armagh, of the one part, and Michael FINLEY, of the said Parish, of the other part, reciting that the said Robert, Samuel and John, in consideration of Pounds 50, did convey to the said Michael, land and buildings in the said parish and county, bounded on the south by a house, then in possession of said Michael, to hold during the lives of the said Robert, Samuel and John, with proviso for redemption."
The baptismal records of Robert FINLEY's children are inscribed in the Parish Register in Mallaghabrac, County Armagh, Ireland. More on this line will appear in a minute, but first, let's go back to the children of James and Margaret MACKIE FINLEY:
Alexander FINLEY was baptized at St. Andrew's Church, County Fife, Scotland, on 30 July 1667; d 28 Jan 1736, Dublin, Ireland; m 10 Jan 1687, County Derry, Ireland, w Margaret JENNINGS, b 1668, d 1742, Dublin, Ireland, daughter of William and Margaret MORDUCK JENNINGS. In 1688, he became a freeman by birth and then in 1690, he fought in King William's War. He was a woolen merchant in Dublin from 1691 to 1736. Records published by the Dublin Parish Society, St. Peter's Church, Dublin, Ireland, include: Alexander FINLEY, buried 28 Jan 1736; Chancery Bill, Dublin, dated 12 May 1736; letters of administration granted Margaret FINLEY, relict of Alexander FINLEY, deceased, merchant of Little Green Street (the latter gives names of heirs; more on this line will follow).
The second child of James and Margaret MACKIE FINLEY was Margaret FINLEY, baptized 8 Aug 1668. No other information is available on her.
The next child was James FINLEY JR., baptized 10 June 1670; d 1738, Incharvie; m 14 June 1693 (STOUT incorrectly says 10 Oct 1693), St. Andrew's Church, Glasgow, Scotland, w Isabella INGLIS. He was a farmer at Paisley, Scotland. Their children were Margaret, b 1694; Ann, b 1695; John, b 1696; Rachel, b 1697, d 1720; Andrew, b 1700; Isabella, b 1701; Robert, b 1704, d before 1744 in the Carolinas (on 8 Sept 1744, administration of his goods were granted to creditors, Thomas WILLY, merchant of London, and David CORREA, merchant of Glasgow, though plenty of assets); Alexander, b 1706; James, b 22 Aug 1708, Paisley, Scotland, d 1768, Glasgow, Scotland, m 26 June 1734, Ann MC DONALD (he was co-owner of wool firm of FINLEY and MC DONALD); and Richard, b 1709.
The fourth child was John FINLEY, baptized 11 Apr 1672; d 12 Sept 1758, Dublin, Ireland; m Elizabeth POWER, who was buried 8 Dec 1732. John and his brother, Alexander, moved from County Fife, Scotland, to County Derry, Ireland, prior to 1687. John FINLEY also served in King William's War. Upon restoration of peace, he was engaged in the woolen trade.
The children of Alexander and Margaret JENNINGS FINLEY appear in the baptismal records of St. Peter's Church, Dublin. It is through them that the way to the New World was paved:
James FINLEY was baptized in St. Peter's Church, Dublin, Ireland on 4 Dec 1687; d 10 Feb 1753, Cumberland County, PA; m 10 Jan 1706, St. Peter's Church, Dublin, w Elizabeth PATTERSON, b 1690, d 1755, daughter of Robert and Margaret FULLERTON PATTERSON.
Samuel FINLEY was baptized 10 Oct 1689; d 1751, West Nottingham Township, Cecil County, MD; m 10 May 1709, St. Andrew's Church (STOUT says St. Audon's), Dublin, w Jean WHYTE.
John FINLEY was baptized 23 Aug 1691; d before 1764, Shrewsbury Township, York County, PA; m 9 Feb 1711, St. Andrew's Church, Dublin, Ireland, w Eliza Marie MC NEALE (STOUT incorrectly lists his marriage to Alice MITCHELL on 18 Feb 1711. However, TORRENCE says that John FINLEY was the grandson of James and Barbara HUNTAR FINLEY).
William FINLEY was baptized 6 May 1694; d 1772, Ardstraw, County Tyrone, Ireland; m Agnes (last name unknown). He came to America but returned to Ireland.
Alexander FINLEY JR. was baptized 10 March 1696; d 25 Feb 1774, Dublin, Ireland; m Mary (STOUT says Jean) PATTERSON.
Margaret FINLEY was baptized 20 May 1697; m 28 Jan 1716, St. Peter's Church, Dublin, w Thomas PARNHAM.
In Dublin Deed Book 221, on 18 Jan 1720, James FINLEY gives a letter of attorney to his brother, Alexander FINLEY. In March 1720, there is an action of James FINLEY vs. Alexander FINLEY, elder, concerning a house on George Lane. There is a memorial of surrender of lease dated 16 March 1720 between James FINLEY and Alexander FINLEY JR., whereby, for certain consideration, the said James FINLEY did surrender a house on Cornmarket Street. Both John and Samuel FINLEY gave power of attorney to their brother, Alexander.
WOOD says James FINLEY, his wife and seven sons (STOUT lists nine sons); Samuel FINLEY, his wife and five sons; and John FINLEY, his wife and six children, all immigrated to America on the ship, Eagle Wing, landing at Newcastle, DE, on 22 May 1720.
STOUT adds the following information: "Maryland and Pennsylvania because of their guarantee of religious freedom were attractive to the Celts and to these colonies, the tide of Scotch-Irish immigration quickly turned. To the rising effects of this immigration many ships were built for the purpose of carrying passengers and goods to America.
"Among the ships built for this purpose was the brig Eagle Wing, launched at Belfast, Ireland, in the year 1714 and in constant service for more than 35 years between that port and the ports of Newcastle, DE, or Philadelphia. It was a fast-sailing vessel, modern for the times, making the trip to America, if all went well, in seven to 10 weeks.
"This ship is of importance in our history since so many of the Clan were numbered among its passengers on its many voyages to our shores. It is a tradition, likely, though without documentary proof, that on several voyages the Scots chartered the brig in order to obtain thereby reduced wares. Even in those days, our ancestors were given to being cautious with their cash."
James and Elizabeth PATTERSON's first son, John, m Thankful DOAK. This line leads to Polly FINLEY, who m Davy CROCKETT. Carmen FINLEY has commented on one of John and Thankful DOAK's children, William Joseph, and that information will be presented later. But, for now, let's return to the children of Robert and Margaret LAUDER FINLEY:
Robert FINLEY JR. was baptized 9 May 1681, Mullaghabrac, County Armagh, Ireland; d 1741, West Nottingham Township, Chester County, PA; m 2 Aug 1718, Ireland, w Sarah PATTERSON, daughter of John PATTERSON. His will was dated 10 Oct 1739, proved 20 July 1741 and filed 30 Nov 1742. Robert and Sarah PATTERSON FINLEY's children were Mary, b 1719, m John JOHNSTONE; and Robert FINLEY III, baptized 11 Feb 1720, County Antrim, Ireland, d 21 April 1808, Rising Sun, Cecil County, MD, m Frances BOYD. The family moved from Ireland to America in 1732 and settled in Chester County, PA.
Michael FINLEY was b 10 Feb 1683; baptized 7 May 1683, Mullaghabrac, County Armagh, Ireland; d 1750, Salisbury Township, Chester County, PA; m 12 July 1712, Ireland, by the Rev. George Hall w Ann O'NEILL, daughter of Samuel O'NEILL. Michael FINLEY and his family, and his brother, Archibald FINLEY, and his family, immigrated on the Eagle Wing, arriving in Philadelphia, PA on 28 Sept 1734.
Michael FINLEY first settled in Bucks County, PA, and then to Salisbury Township, Chester County, PA, where his name and that of Michael FINLEY JR. appear on the 1747 tax list. Michael and Ann O'NEILL FINLEY were the ancestors of the Rev. Samuel FINLEY, president of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University); Henry Agard WALLACE, Vice President of the United States under Franklin Delano Roosevelt; the Colgate family; Samuel Finley Breese MORSE, inventor of the telegraph; and Major Albert Finley FRANCE.
Samuel FINLEY was baptized 4 May 1684; d 1737, West Nottingham Township, MD. He immigrated in 1732 and died unmarried.
Archibald FINLEY was baptized on 8 Jan 1686; d 11 March 1752, New Britain Township, Bucks County, PA; m 10 Aug 1721, Ireland, Margaret KELSO, daughter of Henry KELSO. They immigrated in 1734.
John FINLEY was baptized on 14 June 1688; d 9 Dec 1760, Hopewell Township, York County, PA; m 22 Nov 1714, Ireland, w Mary Ann BARCLAY. They immigrated in 1732 and first settled in Nottingham Township, then moved to Chester County, where they lived from 1739 to 1744. He was an elder in Rock Presbyterian Church, organized in 1714. Prior to 1751, John FINLEY and two of his sons, Andrew and John JR., moved to Hopewell Township and on 1 Apr 1751, John FINLEY SR. received a warrant for 50 acres of land and on 4 Apr 1754, received a warrant for 100 acres. He became a member of Donegal Presbyterian Church and helped to organize the Lower Chanceford Presbyterian Church in 1757. His son, John JR., was a trustee. His wife, Mary Ann BARCLAY, was baptized 6 May 1692, Glenarn Parish, County Antrim, Ireland; d before 1760, Hopewell Township, PA. She was the daughter of James and Mary STEEL BARCLAY and the granddaughter of John and Mary CAMPBELL BARCLAY.
The Finleys of Bucks, written by Warren S. ELY on 5 Mar 1902, gives a fairly complete history of Archibald FINLEY's family, as follows:
"Archibald FINLEY, Archibald KELSO, Thomas KELSO and Henry KELSO contracted with George FITZWATER about the year 1736 for a tract of 500 acres of land in New Britain Township, Bucks County, lying along the Northwest side of the present Upper State Road and extending from the Bristol Road 550 perches toward the county line.
"George FITZWATER died before any conveyance in fee was executed and directors his executors to convey when the balance of the purchase money was paid. By mutual agreement, this tract was partitioned between the parties above mentioned and the part allotted to Archibald FINLEY was 151 acres and 53 perches off the end toward the county line, adjoining John FOREMAN, the greater part of which was recently the property of Elias SELLERS.
"Archibald FINLEY died in a house he had erected on this tract on March 11, 1749-50 and the deed therefore was made by the executors of George FITZWATER on December 11, 1750 to his widow, Margaret FINLEY, and his two eldest sons, John and Henry FINLEY, as the executors of Archibald FINLEY, deceased.
"The will of Archibald FINLEY was a nuncupative one and is as follows: Memorandum that on the Eleventh day of March Anno Domini 1749-50, Archibald FINLEY of New Britain in the County of Bucks and Province of Pennsylvania, Mason, being very sick in body but of sound mind and memory (to all appearances) Did Declare as his last will and Testament That it was his will that his wife, Margaret FINLEY, and his two eldest sons (that is) John FINLEY and Henry FINLEY, should be his executors and that all his Estate shall be divided and distributed amongst his wife and children as the Law Directs in case of Intestates Estates.
"And further that he named and Appointed Simon BUTLER of New Britain, aforesaid Esqr., and Isaac JAMES of Montgomery in the County of Philadelphia to be Trustees to See and take Care that not any of his children should be wronged, Which verbal Will the above said Archibald FINLEY made and published in the hearing of us the under subscribers. As witness our hands this Twelveth Day of March A.D. 1749-50. Robert LALOR, Henry KELSO, James FINLEY.
"This will was proven on March 27, 1750 by the above witnesses who state in their affidavits that FINLEY died soon after making the declaration and that the declaration was reduced to writing after his death. Letters testamentary were issued to the widow, Margaret FINLEY, and the eldest son, John. The Inventory of the Goods and Chattels of Archibald FINLEY, deceased, was made by Benjamin SNODGRASS and Hugh BARKLEY on March 23, 1749-50.
"Archibald FINLEY left to survive him at least two other sons, Alexander FINLEY, and Archibald FINLEY (JR.), and a daughter, Agnes, wife of Henry KELSO.
"Alexander FINLEY purchased on January 1, 1749-50, a tract of 78 acres on the opposite side of the State Road from that of his father, now in the township of Warrington, the present Whitehall Turnpike being its eastern boundary. The farm was late the property of Nathan HOUPT. Alexander FINLEY died on this farm in 1779, leaving a widow, Mary, an only son, James, who died on the same farm in 1836, and daughters, Jane, Mary, Martha and Sarah.
"Archibald FINLEY JR. became the landlord of the old hotel at the present borough of Chalfont in 1763, succeeding Arthur THOMAS who had been there since 1751. FINLEY was succeeded by Nicholas KOOKER in 1765, though FINLEY again obtained the license in 1766. This is the latest record we have of Archibald FINLEY and he probably removed with the rest of the family to Loudon County, Virginia at about this date.
"Henry FINLEY, the second son of Archibald, married Elizabeth, daughter of William WALKER, who owned several large tracts of land in Warrington, lying along the county line and the Lower State Road. He joined in the conveyance of the paternal acres in 1752. In 1758, he was living in Hilltown Township at the present site of Dublin as shown by a petition to the Court of Quarter Sessions in June of that year. He soon removed with his family to Loudon County, Virginia, and from there into Kentucky in 1788 as recited in the
American Ararat.' Little is known of his family except that one of his daughters married Lieut. John WALLACE, who removed with his family to Kentucky."
One thing which should be noted in the above section (which came from a publication of the Bucks County Historical Society, Doylestown, PA) are the dual dates. In "Tracing Your Ancestry," by HELMBOLD, as quoted in the Ashley County, AR Genealogical Society's Spring 1988 issue of "Kin Kollecting": "In 1752, the Julian calendar was supplanted by the Georgian calendar. However, the other change made at that time is a little more difficult to perceive. Because of differing customs among the settlers, the new year began on 25 March or on 1 January. When the calendar was changed, the Parliament also established 1 January 1752 as the legal New Year's Day.
"Birthdays of people then had to be expressed as old style or new style. For example, a date would be written as 14 February 1727/8. This means that the event took place in 1727 if the year was thought to begin on 25 March, but the birthdate was in 1728 if the year was thought to begin on 1 January. Since the 25 March date is the turning point, only dates from 1 January to 24 March have to be indicated in the above way."
Part 8: John Findley, The Pathfinder
In a footnote to ELY's previous narrative, he states, "The memory of John FINDLEY (so spelled by DRAPER), the precursor and pilot of BOONE to Kentucky, merits a brighter page on Western history than the meagre facts will warrant.
Of all the pioneers,' exclaims Ex-Governor Morehead in his Boonesborough address, the least justice has been done to FINLEY.'" The manuscripts of Lyman C. DRAPER, referred to above, reportedly have a wealth of information about John FINDLEY as well as others in our family. They are contained at the Wisconsin Historical Society, as well as at the LDS Library in Salt Lake City. I will give a complete list of the manuscripts' call letters at the end of this section.
DRAPER says that autographs show the spelling of the name as John FINDLEY. Although others use different spellings, the spelling has been changed in this report to reflect DRAPER's account. FRANCE, STOUT and TORRENCE, as well as others, agree that John FINDLEY was the son of Archibald and Margaret KELSO FINLEY, b 27 June 1722, County Armagh, Ireland; m 15 Sept 1744, Paxtang Township, PA, w Elizabeth HARRIS, b 1 June 1720; d 7 Aug 1769, Harris Ferry, PA.
Their first child was Esther FINLEY, b 22 Aug 1745, Paxtang Township, Lancaster County, PA; d 1789. She m Col. William PATTERSON, b ca. 1737, Lancaster County, PA. According to TORRENCE, he had married first Isabella GALBRAITH, b 1744; d 29 Oct 1764, daughter of Capt. John and Dorcas SMITH GALBRAITH. PATTERSON was the son of James and Mary STUART PATTERSON, whose place on the Susquehanna River was known as "Liberty Hall." Col. William and Esther FINLEY PATTERSON had five children: John PATTERSON, b 1767, m Sarah RAY; Isabella PATTERSON, m David HUNTER; William Augustus PATTERSON, b 17 Apr 1772, m Hannah Maria SPENCE; Margaret PATTERSON, died young; and James PATTERSON, b 1776.
The second child of John and Elizabeth HARRIS FINLEY was Martha Finley, b 3 Jun 1747; m William WERTZ. Their children were John Finley WERTZ, b 1768; Isabella WERTZ, b 1770; Martha WERTZ, b 1771; William WERTZ JR., b 1772; and Jane WERTZ.
The third child was John FINLEY JR., b 28 Sept 1760, Salisbury, Lancaster County, PA; d 11 Mar 1846, near St. Charles, Kane County, IL. He m (1st) 14 Sept 1780, Washington County, PA, w Priscilla HAYS, b 1761; d 4 Feb 1845, near Hardinsburg, Dearborn County, IN. Their children were David FINLEY, b 10 Dec 1781, probably Washington County, PA (birthplace also reported as KY); d 29 Aug 1853, near Danville, Vermillion County, IL; m 1803, Nancy MILLER; and Priscilla FINLEY, b 2 Nov 1783, probably Washington County, PA, d 1803, probably Dearborn County, IN. She is reported to have died from smallpox; also was reported to have gone by the name of MILLER (her mother's second husband). Priscilla HAYS FINLEY separated from John FINLEY JR. when he showed the tendency of his father to wander. She then m (2nd) Thomas MILLER.
John FINLEY JR. m (2nd) 28 Jul 1796, Ohio County, VA (now WV), w Sarah MOORE, b 20 Oct 1765, York County, PA; d 27 May 1823, Delaware County, OH. (It is through this marriage that my line continues. It should be noted that STOUT is incorrect on P. 107, Vol. I, Second Edition, of "The Clan Finley," where he lists John FINLEY (5-02-151) as m (2nd) Sarah MOORE. That John FINLEY is shown as m (1st) Elizabeth ANDERSON.)
Their first child was David F. FINLEY, b 6 Feb 1798, Brooke County, VA (now WV); d 26 Nov 1872, DeKalb County, IL; m 24 Dec 1828, Delaware County, OH, w Mary LOWRIE, b 28 Jul 1796, Ireland; d 9 Mar 1856, DeKalb County, IL; both buried in Ohio Grove Cemetery.
The second child was Agnes (Nancy) FINLEY, b 12 Feb 1800, Brooke County, VA (now WV); d 10 Dec 1830, Delaware County, OH; m 12 Feb 1824, Delaware County, OH, w Joseph HARTER, b 4 May 1799; d 19 May 1831; both buried Oak Grove Cemetery.
My ancestor was the third child, Robert FINLEY, b 12 Nov 1801, Brooke County, VA (now WV); d 17 May 1877, Kane County, IL; m 1829, Delaware County, OH, w Elizabeth RILEY, b 1807, PA; d 19 Jul 1875, Kane County, IL; both buried in Garfield Cemetery.
The next child was Sally (Sarah) FINLEY, b 17 Dec 1804, Jefferson County, OH; d 1872; m probably Delaware County, OH, w John B. LEONARD. The last child was Jane FINLEY, b 27 Aug 1807, Jefferson County, OH; d 11 Mar 1840, near Kilbourne, Delaware County, OH; m probably Delaware County, OH, w Isaac LEONARD, b 7 Jul 1807; d 3 Oct 1844, Delaware County, OH; both buried Old Kilbourne Cemetery, OH; he m (2nd) Nancy THURSTON.
Most of the above information about the family of John FINLEY JR. comes from Rex Bird FINLEY and Mary Louise ALCORN. ALCORN, 2818 119th St., Toledo, OH 43611, although not yet a subscriber, wrote a paper about the ancestors of Sarah MOORE. In this paper, she quotes from the pension papers of John FINLEY JR., who appeared in the Delaware County, OH Court of Common Pleas on 21 Apr 1834, but who was denied a pension because he was unable to provide sufficient proof of his length of service on the Pennsylvania Line from Washington County during the Revolutionary War.
However, in going back to John FINDLEY, the Pathfinder, an extraordinary record of service to the fledging nation is found. According to FRANCE, he grew up in the log cabin that his father, Archibald FINLEY, built.
FRANCE says, "The education of young FINDLEY was necessarily very defective. There were no schools then established in this remote district of log cabins. Thus reared up in the frontier of Pennsylvania, a woodsman and hunter by nature and habits, he was man of strong marked character, shunning the dense settlements and preferring to rove in the solitary wilderness.
"Keen habits of observation, an expert marksman, he soon profited in the pursuit of game which led him on long hunting trips, from which he would return ladened with furs and skins. He became inured to hardship and endurance and to rely on his own resources, with great bodily vigor and to be the first man to appreciate the fertile lands of Kentucky; the first Anglo-Saxon to build a cabin on them and who later was to pilot Daniel BOONE.
"In appearance (from military record) John FINDLEY was well set; five feet, six inches in height; broad shoulders and deep chest with dark complexion; dark hair and blue eyes. FILSON says,
He was not a man to get soured by misfortune, for he looked more kindly on the bright side of life rather than on the dark side of things.
"In the year of 1744 at the age of 22, John FINDLEY had received from the Colony of Pennsylvania a license as Indian Trader; he received licenses in 1745, 1746, 1748, but not in 1747, the year in which he was granted land in Paxtang Township. It may be that he spent that year in hewing out his farm and installing his young wife and their growing family in the home.
"He had become associated with John HARRIS, who was one of the oldest and most active traders on the Susquehanna. HARRIS' settlement was just above the mouth of Paxtang Creek, which during the settlement of Cumberland Valley by the Scotch-Irish, became a place of importance, and here a ferry was established, called,
Harris Ferry,' on the site where Harrisburg, PA now stands.
"John FINDLEY soon fell in love with Elizabeth, oldest daughter of John HARRIS (JR.) and his wife, Esther SAY, and they were married on Sept. 15, 1744 by Rev. John Elder of the Paxtang Presbyterian Church.
"John FINDLEY made raiding trips from Harris Ferry as far west as the present state of Ohio and in time became a famous Indian trader, frontiersman and Indian fighter, experiencing many perils and adventures in his rambles. In 1748 John FINDLEY was trading as far west as the Allegheny, toward which stream the Eastern Indians had been drifting since 1730. He had made his headquarters at Shanopinstown, a small trading post at the site where Pittsburgh now stands.
(In The History Quarterly, published at the University of Louisville, KY in April 1927, sent to me by Ron ROSSI, Lucien BECKNER writes, "Thomas CRESAP, Virginia's agent in the Ohio territory, wrote Governor Dinwiddie in 1751 that
one James FINDLEY and another are suspected to be taken and carried off by the French, who make a practice of carrying off our men every year; therefore, I think it highly necessary to take the French that are at Logstown and detain them till those of ours taken last year, as well as those suspected to be taken this year, are restored.' The above James' is our
John,' and Logstown was a post located a few miles below the present Pittsburgh.")
"We find his name as a witness together with Hugh CRAWFORD, John GRAY, David HENDRICKS and Aaron PRICE to the letter which the Indians sent to the Governor of Pennsylvania.
"In the spring of 1752, FINDLEY, Paul PRICE and William BRYAN were partners in a trading post at Peckawellany, the big Pect-town near the present city of Piqua, Ohio. According to an affidavit made by William BRYAN four years later, the goods were valued at 1,142 pounds. In an attack on this town, where English settlers were being harbored, the French confiscated or destroyed these goods. Whether FINDLEY was here at the time does not appear. After this occurence, being discouraged by his losses, he returned to his home in Paxtang.
"John FINDLEY was now 30 years old. No doubt learning much from the Indians, he described the Ohio River far away in the West, pouring its flood into the impenetrable forest; the amount of game to be found in those realms. By pointing to the leaf of the forests and of an Indian village, the voyage in a canoe, in the language of the Indian, required two paddles, two warriors and three moons.
"With a fortune swept away, and still undaunted, he bought another stock of goods, and with four assistants, he crossed the mountains of the Alleghenies, as far as the Indian village of Logstown and in a canoe, descended the Ohio River as far down as the falls of the Ohio, where now stands the city of Louisville, Kentucky. He met a company of Shawnees at the mouth of Big Bone Creek. These Indians were going to take their fall and winter hunt in the interior of Kentucky, where they assured FINDLEY he would find a rich harvest of furs and skins, promising to assist in the transportation of his cargo of goods and to trade with him as fast as they could obtain pelts. A hatchet, a knife, a string of beads and trinkets that could be bought for a small sum could be exchanged in the wigwam of the Indians for furs and skins of priceless value and sold to foreign shippers at a great profit.
"To this invitation, FINDLEY consented to join the party from Big Bone Creek, along the Indian path through the beautiful valley of Kentucky. They arrived at an Indian village, situated on the Lulbegrud Creek between the Licking and Kentucky River, located in Clark County, about 11 miles from Winchester, KY and called by the Indians by the uncouth name of Eskeppaki, meaning,
Old Corn Fields.' Here, FINDLEY erected a cabin and surrounded it with a stockade. Displaying his gaudy wares to the admiring eyes of the Indian, he soon started a brisk trade and while he was busy gathering furs and skins, other traders from Pennsylvania encamped close by. From these traders and the Indians, he first learned of the great Warriors Path, which ran south to Cumberland Gap. It was this memory of this gateway, from his old cabin on Lulbegrud Creek, that 16 years later helped to fire Daniel BOONE to make his expedition to Kentucky in 1769.
"After awhile, disputes arose between the traders and a party of outlaws, Conewagoes and French Indians, in which several of the traders were made prisoners and three of FINDLEY's men were killed. This occurred on April 10, 1753, but John FINDLEY and John FALKNER made their escape.
(TORRENCE notes that FINDLEY served as a scout under George CROGHAN in 1754; DRAPER, quoted by ELY, says, "FINDLEY was probably one of the party who, under George CROGHAN, had tendered their services to BRADDOCK and were received in a cold, indifferent manner.)
"July 9, 1755 was memorable in the history of the West. General BRADDOCK, fresh from England, had arrived on the Potomac with a large Regular Army. He set out to teach the Frenchmen a lesson. So, on March 10, with 86 officers and 1,373 men, he reached Wills Creek, where WASHINGTON, with some hundred Colonial Militia had been at work during the preceding winter and had built Fort Cumberland.
"With BRADDOCK's army were 100 hardy frontiersmen under Captain Edward B. DOBBS and with him was Daniel BOONE. Here, also, came George CROGHAN and his men and among them was John FINDLEY. Under what circumstances FINDLEY and BOONE met, we do not know. Over the campfire, amidst the din and clangor of war, FINDLEY found in the hardy North Caroliniana frontiersman a kindred spirit. Fascinated, BOONE absorbed the tales of this Scotch-Irishman, his recitals of his explorations of that country called Kentucky, the ideal hunter's paradise, richness of soil and abundance of game. BOONE was possessed with the desire to gaze with his own eyes on this wonderful land. Both of them were young and neither of them realized in the light of the campfire that they were making history of worldwide interest.
"BOONE had been assigned to the duties of a wagoneer and mechanic on the strength of his blacksmithing experiences. The wagon train was the center of a fierce attack of the howling Indians. Troops of BRADDOCK staggered under the cruel fire. They seemed to be confused by the fiendish clamor and the invisibility of the foe. ST. CLAIR's working force came up on a run, to pile confusion on confusion and the head of the column was speedily wiped out. Then BRADDOCK's mechanical discipline began to give ground before the marksmanship of the enemy. With the ancient forest hemming in the road with no visible foe, the army was as helpless as a blind man.
"The best-equipped and proudest army that England had ever sent over to North America was a rabble of crazy men. The Virginian fighting from tree to tree, behind a barricade of a fallen tree, soon cleared the side of the road and drove the savages from the terrible ravine. When BRADDOCK ordered the retreat, only a third of the army was left. Once the retreat was sounded, those who could walk, began an insane rush to reach the river.
"Colonel WASHINGTON now had all the riflemen fighting in Indian fashion and on this manuever, saved them from being annihilated, as 450 officers and men were slain outright. What BOONE and FINDLEY were doing all this time, history does not tell us. Being expert riflemen, they no doubt were doing their share of fighting, side by side, and in the retreat on the backs of wagon horses, they arrived safely at Wills Creek.
"The whereabouts of John FINDLEY for the next two years is lost to history. As war had put an end to his trade, he doubtless spent these years in becoming better acquainted with his family and protecting his home from the savages. The next we hear of him is a record in the Pennsylvania Archives, Sixth Series, Vol. 1, where on May 9, 1759, age 36 years, he had enlisted as a Scout in a regiment under Captain Charles MC CLUNG to protect the frontier from the Indians. After the French had been driven out of Fort Duquesne, it was renamed Fort Pitt. In the census of Fort Pitt, July 1760, we find John FINDLEY and 80 Pennsylvania traders had settled there.
"In 1763, he was with Colonel BOUQUET as interpreter, understanding the Indian language, in his fight with the Indians at Turtle Creek. Under date of March 9, 1766, he commanded a batteau called
The Otto' with a cargo of goods for Fort Chartres. (BECKNER writes that this was part of a fleet of five boats from the Philadelphia trading house of Baynton, Wharton and Morgan, and that the fleet reached the fort around April 1. On the way down, "The Otto" had trouble and had to be lightened.) He returned to Lancaster County and outfitted a new business (horse trading), as he was in the Yadkin Valley, North Carolina late in 1768.
"Daniel BOONE, from his home in North Carolina, made long excursions in western Carolina and Tennessee, but it was his secret ambition to scale the mountain or through the Cumberland Gateway to the mysterious country, Kentucky. During the winter of 1768 to 1769, Daniel BOONE was agreeably surprised by the arrival of his old comrade-in-arms, and throughout the winter, John FINDLEY was Boone's guest. During that cold winter, uppermost in the minds of both was the thought of the new country that FINDLEY had explored.
(BECKNER adds, "Judge Moses BOONE, a son of Squire BOONE, in a statement to Dr. DRAPER, told how FINDLEY used to leave his spare horses with the BOONEs while he went out to trade; and how upon his return, he sat around the fire and told about the wonder-place, Kentucky, where he had traded with the Indians.")
"To them, there were no hardships in the journey and the idea of a journey of a few hundred miles in the wilderness was not one to be regarded by them with any special solicitude. Daniel BOONE soon formed a plan for organizing a small party for the expedition with his friend, Judge HENDERSON, who was head of a land company and by whom BOONE was encouraged to make the expedition as confidential agent for the land company.
"On May 1, 1769, a date memorial in the annals of American exploration, this company of rugged backwoodsmen, Daniel BOONE, John STUART, Joseph HOLDEN, James MOONEY and William COOLEY, under John FINDLEY's guidance, left their home on the Upper Yadkin and began that historical journey into the unknown country; each man fully equipped in the deerskin costume of that period, mounted on a good horse and leading a pack horse with a stock of provisions, blankets and bearskins, traps, rifles and ammunition, started on the long journey into the wilderness.
"Proceeding over Stone Mountain, through the valley of the Holston, over Iron Mountain, they passed through the Clinch across the Walden's Ridge, crossing rivers and dense forests. They came to Powell Valley, which at that time, was the farthest settlement of white men. Here, they found a hunters' trail, which led them to Cumberland Gap. They soon came to the Warriors Path, trodden by the Indians for generations. Following this for many miles, a fatiguing journey, which took them a full month, they at last reached what is now called Station Camp Creek, a tributary of the Kentucky River, in Estill County, so named because here was built their principal or Station Camp.
"In BOONE's account, DRAPER's manuscript, he said he and FINDLEY at once proceeded to take a more thorough survey of the country, and on 7 June 1769,
we found ourselves on the Red River,' where John FINDLEY had formerly been trading with the Indians on Lulbegrud Creek, where nothing remained but charred embers of the Indian huts and part of the stockade built by FINDLEY still standing, which fully corroborated in his mind all that FINDLEY had related of Kentucky, and from the top of an eminence, they saw the beautiful level country of Kentucky. This was Pilot Knob, a few miles north of the present Clay City, Powell County. On Dec. 22, 1769, BOONE and John STUART set out on a hunting and exploring trip, when suddenly, a large party of Shawnees sprang from their concealment and seized them both as captives and forced STUART to lead them to their camp, where FINDLEY and the others were made prisoners.
"The Indians plundered the camp of everything it held: horses, furs, traps, rifles and ammunition. They were told they were trespassing on land which belonged to the red man, after which, to their infinite relief, they were released, given enough food to carry them back to the settlement and ordered to leave Kentucky at once. But BOONE and STUART infuriated at the idea of returning home poorer than they had left, and after a cautious pursuit, succeeded in entering the Shawnees' camp and made away with the horses. Two days later, the Shawnees having given chase, BOONE and STUART were captives once more.
"Meanwhile, FINDLEY, COOLEY, MOONEY and HOLDEN were homeward bound and after waiting several days, were convinced that BOONE and STUART had perished. At the same time, Squire BOONE and a hunter named NEILEY were hurrying westward, bringing horses and supplies, sent by the land company, and they were not far from Cumberland Gap. The two parties met and Squire learned from FINDLEY the news of the supposed death of BOONE and STUART. It was decided to return home. However, they had gone but a short way when they were halted by the sudden appearance of BOONE and STUART, who had succeeded in making their escape.
"Now, with fresh supplies, BOONE, STUART, Squire BOONE and NEILEY decided to remain longer. FINDLEY and the others decided that, for the present, they had enough of Kentucky and leaving these four men, started for home. Nothing happened to the homeward party and on reaching the Holston Valley, FINDLEY took the blazed trail through the frontier of Virginia, finally reaching his home in Lancaster County and found his wife had died 7 Aug 1769, while he was in Kentucky.
"In 1772, again the dauntless old trader fitted out for a trip into the wilderness, selling the Indians trinkets, for in a collection of newspaper records, under the date of June 3, 1772, is said:
Several Senecas have been lately killed by our people and the Indians in revenge have murdered a whole family on Buffalo Creek and four families on the Youghighany and likewise killed Robert PARSONS and robbed John FINDLEY of about 500 pounds worth of goods.'
"After this loss, he must have returned to his home to try to raise another stake, as records of Cumberland County show a deed made by John FINDLEY, as acknowledged before William PATTERSON under date of Sept. 20, 1772 and signed by John FINDLEY, which speaks of Elizabeth, his late wife, formerly Elizabeth HARRIS. It releases to John FINDLEY's daughter, Esther, wife of William PATTERSON, and to Margaret and John FINLEY JR., his life estate of land of 200 acres in Newberry Township and 162 acres in Paxtang Township. It is believed that John FINDLEY sought further adventure in Virginia in 1775, where he met Nicholas CRESWELL and gave CRESWELL, who was starting on an Indian trading expedition to Ohio, a letter of introduction and advice on the trade in Ohio.
"Whether he died alone, somewhere in the valley of the Ohio, or in the wilds of the West, tradition does not tell us."
Ron ROSSI, in notes along with BECKNER's article, states FINDLEY was wounded in a battle with Cherokees in 1776. Charles A. HANNA, in a letter to ELY, quotes John P. Hale's Trans-Allegheny Pioneers, P. 267, as saying, "John FINDLEY, the long-time frontiersman and wilderness pilot, being old and poor and wounded, asks Washington County, VA for aid in 1777." ELY also says HOWE's "Virginia" gives the court record under his account of Washington County, as follows, "At a Court continued and held for Washington County, February 26, 1777, John FINDLEY, making it appear to the satisfaction of the court of Washington County that he, upon the 20th day of July 1776, received a wound in the thigh in the battle fought with the Cherokees, near the Great Island (in Holston River, east Tennessee), and it now appears to said court that he, in consequence of said wound is unable to gain a living by his labor as formerly, therefore his case is recommended to the consideration of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia."
Following the above, HANNA writes, "None of the above is inconsistent with the theory that John FINDLEY, the wilderness pilot, might have been the son of Archibald FINLEY."
In The Wilderness Trail, HANNA says, "In Mr. H. Addington BRUCE's recent book on Daniel BOONE and the Wilderness Road (N.Y., 1910), that writer states that one Stephen POMEROY, the first settler in what is now Huntsburg, Geauga County, Ohio, found living there in 1808, when he first went to that country, a trapper and trader named John FINDLEY, whose place of residence was on a stream still known as Finley Creek, and who told POMEROY, according to the account of his great-grandson, that he had been with BOONE in Kentucky, and had fought under WAYNE. Mr. BRUCE states that this John FINDLEY enlisted in the War of 1812, returned to Huntsburg after the war, and, about 1818, removed, it was thought, to Maryland.
"As John FINDLEY, the trader who led BOONE into Kentucky, must have been born about 1720, it is scarcely probable that he could have been in active military service at the age of 90 or more, or that he was a trapper and trader at the age of 88 or thereabouts," comments DRAPER. So, the final resting place of John FINDLEY, the Pathfinder, remains a mystery even today.
However, Clark's Kentucky Almanac and Book of Facts 2006,claims, "FINLEY settled along the banks of the Licking River in 1796 and is buried not far from where he first settled (in Fleming County, KY)." I lived in West Kentucky for a while, but I have not been to Fleming County to confirm this. FRANCE acknowledges use of the works of HANNA, R.G. THWARTE, H.A. BRUCE, archives of various states, colonial records, Maryland Gazette, and Bible records of FINLEY and HARRIS families, plus the DRAPER manuscript narrative of Daniel BRYAN's notes of conversation with Moses and Isaiah BOONE by the Hon. Edward COLES, who visited Nathan BOONE in Missouri. DRAPER's very detailed account of the trip to Kentucky also appears in the chapter of "John FINDLEY and Kentucky Before BOONE," in Vol. II of HANNA's The Wilderness Trail.
Lyman C. Draper's Manuscripts
Lyman Copeland DRAPER was b 14 Sept 1815, New York; d 26 Aug 1891, WI. During his lifetime, he compiled about 50 series and/or sub-series of manuscripts relating to the history of KY, TN and VA. The originals are kept at the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin, 816 State St., Madison, WI 53706. The manuscripts are also available on microfilm from the LDS Library in Salt Lake City, UT. An index to Series CC, "Calendar of the Kentucky Papers of the DRAPER Collection of Manuscripts," is found on microfilm in the MISC Film Area, No. 0823866, Item 2. An index to Series XX and DD, "Calendar of the Tennessee and King's Mountain Papers of the Draper Collections," is found in the U.S. and Canada Film Area, No. 0896963, Item 2.
Other films relating to our history are found in the U.S. and Canada Film Area, with film numbers in parentheses: Series B, Vol. 1-5, "Life of Daniel BOONE--1742-1799" (0889099); Series C, Vol. 4-6, "BOONE Manuscripts" (0889104); Series AA, Vol. 1-2, "IRVINE Papers" (John FINDLEY is in Vol. 1) (0889098); Series CC, Vol. 26-27, "Newspaper Extracts KY--1794-1849" (James FINDLEY is in Vol. 26) (0889119); Series E, Vol. 5-7, "BRADY and WETZEL" (Joseph L. FINLEY is in Vol. 5) (0889133); Series MM, Vol. 1-3, "PATTERSON" (Rev. Robert W. FINLEY is in Vol. 3) (0889177); Series NN, Vol. 1-5, "Pittsburgh and NW VA--1737-1814" (John FINDLEY is in Vol. 5) (0889179); Series U, Vol. 4-7, "Gen. Richard BUTLER, including War of 1812" (letters of Samuel FINLEY, possibly Gen. Samuel FINLEY of Mason County or Fleming County, KY) (0889206); and Series ZZ, Vol. 10-16, "Virginia" (John Evans FINLEY is in Vol. 12) (0889243).
Finley Marriage Records
I currently have almost 18,000 linked marriages stored on computer disks. By linked marriages, I mean that each is linked onto a branch of the FINLEY family tree, with no loose ends. Some of the submitters have not found out yet where they tie in, but eventually, perhaps all FINLEYs can be joined together. In hopes that some links may be found, I am including the following lists of marriage records which have been sent to me:
KENTUCKY: 1780-1900; Submitter: Virginia HANKS
17 May 1838, Fleming County: Andrew FINLEY w Sarah PLUMMER.
30 Dec 1833, Franklin County: Ann FINLEY w James HARDY.
2 Jan 1827, Fleming County: Betsy Ann FINLEY w Joseph B. FARIS.
31 Jan 1815, Lincoln County: Eliza FINLEY w William BAIRD.
22 Jan 1829, Hopkins County: Elizabeth FINLEY w Franklin M. NOEL.
17 Jan 1833, Hopkins County: George FINLEY w Elizabeth H. DOBYNS.
29 Jun 1786, Lincoln County: George FINLEY w Polly GAINES.
1 Oct 1795, Madison County: George FINLEY w Nancy HAGANS.
15 Aug 1812, Christian County: Hampton FINLEY w Nancy TAYLOR.
15 Oct 1839, Fleming County: Hannah S. FINLEY w Abiah DILLON.
11 Oct 1888, Knott County: Henrietta FINLEY w Peter ABLE.
8 Jul 1816, Hopkins County: Howard FINLEY w Nancy MOTT.
8 Jan 1819, Hardin County: Indianna FINLEY w Carter WRIGHT.
17 Nov 1848, Fleming County: James FINLEY w Maranda RICKETTS.
19 Oct 1808, Washington County: James C. FINLEY w Mary RAY.
2 Sept 1824, Adair County: James P. FINLEY w Charity WALBERT.
4 Feb 1814, Hopkins County: James FINLEY w Nancy DOBYNS.
13 May 1801, Garrard County: Jenny Ann FINLEY w Edmond SMITH.
29 Dec 1824, Hopkins County: Jesse M. FINLEY w Elizabeth JONES.
14 Sept 1809, Hardin County: John FINLEY w Polly BOZORTH.
23 Nov 1805, Christian County: John FINLEY w Hester CLARK.
5 Dec 1833, Fleming County: John FINLEY w Margaret DRENNAN.
1 Jun 1799, Fleming County: John FINLEY w Mary LONGHEAD.
28 Feb 1828, Madison County: John C. FINLEY w Arthusa HUFF.
22 Feb 1847, Fleming County: John P. FINLEY w Catharine CALLAHAN.
25 Mar 1830, Madison County: Martha FINLEY w Jonathan STREET.
15 Jan 1818, Hopkins County: Mary FINLEY w James BERRY.
7 Feb 1824, Christian County: Mary FINLEY w Isaac MEACHAM.
23 Sept 1805, Logan County: Mary FINLEY w Hugh ORR.
15 Oct 1821, Mason County: Mary FINLEY w Wallace SHANNON.
27 Dec 1868, Hopkins County: Mary E. FINLEY w James H. LAFFOON.
26 Nov 1857, Fulton County: Mary Jane FINLEY w Richard HARRIS.
5 Feb 1811, Mercer County: Nancy FINLEY w Josiah JONES.
26 Nov 1829, Mason County: Paulina FINLEY w Robert BUTLER.
26 Oct 1815, Christian County: Peggy T. FINLEY w Robert BRITT.
1 Jun 1814, Jessamine County: Polly FINLEY w Banoni P. DOWNING.
17 Feb 1816, Lincoln County: Polly FINLEY w Henry OWSLEY.
26 Apr 1792, Nelson County: Reuben FINLEY w Elizabeth KING.
20 Jan 1839, Lawrence County: Rhoda FINLEY w Henry STRATTEN.
28 May 1874, Casey County: Robert Z. FINLEY w Elizabeth MAY.
6 Jul 1805, Ohio County: Sam FINLEY w Sarah BIGGER.
10 Sept 1822, Fleming County: Samuel FINLEY w Mary PURDUM.
16 Jan 1804, Fayette County: Samuel FINLEY w Patsy WARDLOW.
15 Nov 1838, Pike County: Sophia FINLEY w James MAYNARD.
18 Dec 1813, Christian County: Thankful FINLEY w Joseph MEACHAM.
3 Jan 1828, Hopkins County: Thomas H. FINLEY w Maria MALIN.
23 Mar 1817, Lincoln County: William FINLEY w Sally BAIRD.
17 Sept 1817, Hopkins County: William FINLEY w Leah DOBYNS.
15 Aug 1851, Caldwell County: William FINLEY w D.A. MONEYMAKER.
27 Oct 1790, Mercer County: William FINLEY w Martha MC BRIDE.
GEORGIA MARRIAGES; Submitter: Florence NELSON
4 Feb 1838, Butts County: Thomas P. FENDLEY w Mary Ann MC LANE.
2 Jun 1835, Coveta County: Michael FENDLEY w Mary GRAY.
3 May 1804, Greene County: John FENDLEY w Mary RAY.
23 Jan 1840, Greene County: Leroy I. FENDLEY w Hannah WOODHAM.
1 Jan 1840, Greene County: Norwood H. FENDLEY w Cynthia CALDWELL.
26 Nov 1802, Greene County: Robert FENDLEY w Jane FINDLEY.
18 Aug 1802, Greene County: Robert FENDLEY w Lucinda FINDLEY.
5 Feb 1801, Greene County: Thomas FENDLEY w Margaret ALLEN.
9 Nov 1823, Greene County: Thomas FENDLEY w Ann WAGGONER.
3 Aug 1846, Greene County: Thomas FENDLEY w Nancy GREGORY.
17 Aug 1869, Greene County: Thomas L. FENDLEY w C.A. CRAWFORD.
29 Jun 1805, Greene County: William FENDLEY w Polly SHARP.
8 Dec 1812, Oglethorpe County: L.H. FINDLEY w Elizabeth SMITH.
13 Sept 1810, Oglethorpe County: Rainey FINDLEY w Nancy MARTIN.
17 Feb 1817, Oglethorpe County: Samuel FINDLEY w Sally MITCHELL.
29 May 1821, Oglethorpe County: James FINLEY w Mary WRAY.
22 Oct 1849, Oglethorpe County: Oliver FINLEY w Margaret CAMPBELL.
10 Mar 1831, Fayette County: James FENLEY w Martha YATES.
11 Apr 1847, Gilmer County: James J. FENDLEY w Elizabeth STEPHENS.
10 Jun 1830, Henry County: Ackeson FENDLY w Rebecca CLEMENTS.
6 Jul 1837, Henry County: Robert FENDLY w Tabitha HILL.
7 Apr 1839, Henry County: Samuel FENLEY w Ann DAVIS.
21 Mar 1833, Jackson County: Dempsey FENLEY w Judith S. VENABLE.
13 Dec 1836, Jasper County: John M. FENLEY w Eda HOLLAND.
4 Jul 1827, Jasper County: Alfred FINLEY w Ruth HOWARD.
10 Oct 1833, Jasper County: Riley FINLEY w Margaret Eliza CURRY.
5 Oct 1803, Jasper County: Richard FINDLEY w Matilda ELLENSON.
19 Sept 1811, Jasper County: Henry FINDLEY w Mary BARRETT.
According to Stout there was an ancient "Clan Fionnladh" (Fionnlaigh) predating Clan Farquharson from which we are descended. Some say the name Finley is derived from the Gaelic names Fionnlaoch or Finlocha meaning "Fair hero." It first appeared according to the Ancient Genealogies around 200 BC. Stout says it is derived from the Gaelic Finnladh which meand "son of Fergus".
Stout's source for the ancient genealogies was the manuscript "Pedigrees" at the Society of Genealogy, London. According to him the clan Finley was outlawed after Macbeth was killed and as a result took on the name Farquharson for several generations. Eugenius MCFINLAY, a fourth son of Macbeth born around 1200 in Aberdeenshire , also known as Shaw Farquhar(son), was chief Clan Finley. This was the first use Farquharson in the ancient genealogies. I couldn't find any other use of the name Farquharson before or after this until the 1400's when the descendants of Ferquhard Shaw took the name of Farquharson from Ferquhard. The current Clan Farquharson is descended from this line.
In "Scottish Clans and Regiments", Sir Thomas Inns states: "The old Clan Fionnladh reemerged in the early part of the thirteenth century as one of the original 16 Clans of the "Hail Kin Clan Chattan"
Vol I of FINLEY FINDINGS INTERNATIONAL states: Because of this [Finley being outlawed] the Clan FIONNLAGH took on the name of the Clan FARQUHARSON, so named because of the Farquhar SHAW of Rothiemurchus. WOOD and FRANCE state: "In 1236 in the Braes of Mar at the head of Aberdeenshire, Scotland, there was a certain chief named FEARCHAR, son of FARQUHAR, who was the fourth son of Shaw DUBH of Rothiemurchus, who was head of a powerful clan known in the Highlands as Clan FIONNLAGH, a sept of the great confederation, Clan CHATTAN, which held large possessions which were acquired by marriage with the heiress of Invercauld and from this FEARCHAR.
Clan Farquharson was part of the Clan Chattan confederation which included Clan Shaw, Clan Macintosh, Macpherson, Macbean, Davidson and Clan Farquharson. The genealogies get very complicated at this point.
Shaw "Mor", great-grandson of Angus, 6th Chief of MacKintosh and Eva of Clan Chattan was, by tradition, the leader of Clan Chattan. His son, James, was killed at Harlaw in 1411 but his heir, Alasdair "Ciar" succeded him.
The Clan Farquharson page at tartans.com says: Clan Farquharson, of Celtic origin, derives from Farquhar, fourth son of Alexander "Ciar" Mackintosh of Rothiemurchus, 5th Chief of Clan Shaw. A grant of arms made by Lord Lyon in 1697 stated that John Farquharson of Invercauld was lawfully descended of Shaw son of MacDuff, Thane of Fife whose successors had the name Shaw until Farquhar Shaw, son to Shaw of Rothiemerchus, Chief of the whole name came to be called Farquharson. Thus the Farquharsons branched from Clan Shaw. Farquhar settled in the Braes of Mar and was appointed baillie or chamberlain thereof. It was Donald Farquharson who married Isobel Stewart, heiress of Invercauld and their son Finlay Mór, 1st of the House of Farquharson of Invercauld, who gave to the Farquharson Chiefs their style MacFionnlaidh (siol Fhionnlaidh or descendents of Finlay).
At Clan MacKintosh it states: "Angus [the 20th chief of MacKintosh], married Anne, daughter of Farquharson of Invercauld, a lady who distinguished herself greatly inthe rebelion of 1745."
William McKinley, 25th president of the United States, ancestors were also MacIntosh of clan Farquharson.
History of the Shaw/Seath Clan states: Shaw Macduff, a younger son of Duncan, Thane of Fife (a descendant of Kenneth mac Alpin) assisted King Malcolm IV in putting down a rebellion in Moray and he was made keeper of Inverness castle. Shaw's grandson was granted land in Rothiemurchus (in Strathspey). His son married a daughter of the Macdonald Lord of Islay in 1291.
Patricia Myers wrote: Farquhar Shaw, the fourth son of Alexander III, Shaw of Rothiemurchus, was the ancestor of Clan FARQUHARSON. His son married the heiress of Invercauld and the Clan gained its lands on Deeside. Its most famous chief was Farquhar, Finla Mor who consolidated the Clan and who carried the Royal Standard at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547 fighting for Mary, Queen of Scots." Castles Braemar Castle, was owned by the Farquharson family in 1731 and Invercauld Castle still is owned and occupied by the Farquharson family.
Invercauld Castle Braemar Castle Scotland Near Braemar, Aberdeenshire - Royal Deeside. The Farquharson estate which included both castles covers about 200,000 acres of forest and moor in the Grampian Highlands. Breamar castle sits across the River Dee from INVERCAULD Castle. The Clan Chief today is Capt. A. Farquharson of Invercauld, the 16th Chief. He and his wife live in Invercauld Castle. His wife is former Frances Rodney who use to be editor of Harper's Bazaar magazine and fashion editor of Vogue magaizine.
Directions: Braemar Castle, located ½ mile north of Braemar on the A93, is open April 10 to October 31, Saturday through Thursday from 10 to 6. To reach Braemar from Edinburgh follow the A90 over the Forth Road Bridge to the M90 heading north to Perth. Just before Perth take junction 10 to junction 11; then take the A93 exit to Braemar (approximately 90 miles from Edinburgh) Balmoral Castle, the summer home of the Royal Family, is 8 mi. North on A93.
Braemar Info. at Travel Lady, Invercauld Estate at SportingEstates.com Castle of Invercauld at scottishcastles-info, at Scottish-Castle-Holidays. Braemar Map at MultiMap, Aberdeenshire Map at Univ. of Edinburgh Roots A possible genealogy may go something like this. This is pieced together from several other histories Shaw, Mackintosh and Farquharson and cannot be confirmed.
Shaw MacDuff, son of the third Earl of Fife . Duncan (4th Earl of Fife) MacDuff (d. 1154) .. Shaw Mackintosh, the first Chief of the Clan, died in 1179 ... Shaw (d. 1210) .... William ..... Shaw (d. 1265) ...... Farquhar MacKintosh ....... Angus ("Mor" Mackintosh) 6th Chief of MacKintosh (d. 1345) ........ +Eva, (m. 1291) descended from Gillichattan Mor and her father
was Gilpatric, or Dougal Dall
........ Ian- ......... Gilchrist- .......... Shaw "Mor" Mackintosh (fought at Perth in 1396) ........... James (d. 1411) ............ Alexander Cier (Alister "Ciar")(Shaw) of Rothiemurchus,
5th chief of Clan Shaw
... owner of the Braes of Mar in Aberdeenshire. ............. Farquhar .............. Donald Farquharson ............... +Isobel Stewart, heiress of Invercauld ............... Farquhar, Finla Mor (b. abt. 1487; d. 1547)
Consolidated the Clan and was killed at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547.
................ William Farquharson ................. Janet Farquharson .................. Alexander McComie ................... John McIntosh (d. 12 JAN 1676 in Crandart)
The Farquharson History at fiss.com. says they took the name Farquharson from Ferquhard Shaw and gives the following lineage: ......... Shaw MacDuff .......... Shaw Corshiacalich (d. 1405 Rothiemurchus)
(Led the Chattan men in the Great Clan Battle on the North Inch of Perth in 1396) +daughter of Clinie MacPherson
........... Ferquhard Shaw (settled in the Brae Mar)
+ daughter of Patrick Donnacha
............ Ferchar Chief of Clan
+ daughter of the Chisholm of Strathglas
.............. ? ............... Finnula Mor, or Great Findlay, (b. abt. 1487; d. 1547)
died in Battle of Pinkie + Beatrice Gordon
See also: Finley Findings International , Finley Ancient History, Clan Farquharson pages at tartans.com. fiss.com/chattan, ElectricScotland.com and at clan-farquharson.com , ScotClans, Finley Farquharson Discussions, The Clan Farquharson of Invercauld, Clan Shaw and Shaw History. .
Thanks go to Virginia C. HANKS for providing a copy of Carrie Alexander WOOD's genealogy, which she obtained from WOOD's niece, Carolyn SYSKA. WOOD quotes the following sources for her work: The Chart of Descent of House of FINLEY, from Manuscript Pedigrees at the Society of Genealogy, London, derived from Annals of Four Masters, CONNELLY's Irish Families and KEATING's History of Ireland.
History of Ireland, by Standish O'GRADY.
History of Ireland, by Thomas WRIGHT.
History of Ireland, by Thomas MOORE.
Annals of Ulster. Irish Antiquarean Research.
History of Scotland, by John Hill BURTON.
Lands and Their Owners, by P.H. MC KERLIE, Scotland.
Prehistoric Annals, by Daniel WILSON.
Isle of Bute, by James King HEWESON.
Celtic Scotland, by William F. SKINE.
The Highland Clans, by EYRE.
Clans, Septs and Regiments of the Scottish Highlands, by Frank ADAM.
Their Majesties of Scotland, by E. Thornton COOK.
Cupar Angus Cistereian Abbey.
Register of St. Andrew's Parish, Fifeshire, Scotland.
House of FINLEY Castle Toward, by George FINLEY, LLD.
House of FINLEY, by the Rev. John Borland FINLEY.
Various Presbyterian parish records of Scotland.
Various Presbyterian parish records of Ireland.
Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography.
Prerogative Wills, Scotland and Ireland.
Presbytery of New Castle, DE.
Scotch-Irish in Cumberland Co, PA.
Virginia wills and deeds.
CHALKEY's Augusta County Records, Vols. 1-3.
History of Tinkling Springs Presbyterian Church. JILLSON's Kentucky Land Grants.
Jefferson Co, KY Marriages From Feb. 16, 1784 to June 28, 1826, Vols. 1-2.
Virginia Military Warrants, by Willard R. JILLSON.
Early Kentucky Wills and Marriages, by Mrs. William Breckenridge ARDERY.
Family Bible records.