This project is for people who have tested and been assigned the paternal haplogroup G2a3b1a (L140) and also for people who are believed to have belonged to this paternal haplogroup based on tests done on descendants.
G2a3b1a men will be positive for other genetic markers:
- G (M201), about 17,000 years ago
- G2 (P287), about 15,000 years ago
- G2a (P15), about 15,000 years ago
- G2a3 (U8 or S126 or L30), about 10,000 years ago
- G2a3b (L141), about 10,000 years ago
- G2a3b1 (P303 or S135), about 9,300 years ago
- G2a3b1a (L140), about 3,500 years ago
The origin of haplogroup G is controversial. The most recent study (2010) estimates the common ancestor of all men in haplogroup G lived in Asia about 17,000 years ago, and the ancestor of the G2 subgroup lived about 15,000 years ago.
Men with the haplogroup G marker moved into Europe in Neolithic times. It is one of the least common haplogroups in Europe. Haplogroup G2a might have been the main Neolithic link that ties the farmers that went north across the Balkans to Central Europe, and those that followed the western, maritime route to the Western Mediterranean. See Dienekes Anthropology Blog, Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal DNA from Treilles (5,000 years ago, Neolithic France).
The oldest skeleton confirmed by DNA testing as carrying haplogroup G was found at the Neolithic cemetery of Derenburg Meerenstieg II in north central Germany. Burial artifacts in the cemetery belong to the Linear Pottery culture. This skeleton could not be dated by radiocarbon dating, but other skeletons there were dated to between 5,100 and 6,100 years old. This skeleton's DNA was found to belong to subgroup G2a3. (Origins of Haplogroup G.)
Subclades of G
- G2a – G-P15
Update October 15, 2010: The presumptive haplogroup of Louis XVI was G2a, the same as 2 of 5 warriors from Merovingian Bavaria (7th c. AD). See Dienekes Anthropology Blog, Y chromosome and mtDNA of Louis XVI of France, Oct. 15, 2010. This family is likely to be G2a3b1a6 - DYS643=9. See Haplogroups of European kings and queens.
Update January 1, 2013: A team of scientists have said they believe an old gourd contains the blood of French King Louis XVI. See BBC News, Blood of Louis XVI 'found in gourd container', Jan. 1, 2013.
Update January 1, 2013: DNA extracted from the mummified head of Henri VI shows that he belonged to Haplogroup G2a. The results support the presumptive haplogroup of Louis XVI. See Dienekes Anthropology Blog, Y chromosome and mtDNA of Henri VI, Jan. 1, 2013.
Update October 9, 2013: Using DNA samples from three living members of the House of Bourbon, a new study shows the family belonged to R-Z381* (a subgroup of R-106), not G2a. See Dienekes Anthropology Blog, House of Bourbon belonged to Y-haplogroup R1b1b2a1a1b* (R-Z381*), Oct. 9, 2013.
How to Participate
To participate in this project, join or follow the project, then add your oldest known ancestor who belonged to this haplogroup. The profile must be set to public in order to add it.