THE GREAT MIGRATION: SHIPS TO NEW ENGLAND 1633-35
It an amazing story of Providence and the skill of English seamen that dozens of Atlantic ocean passages were made in little wooden ships bringing our Puritan ancestors to America almost without mishap in the 1630's; the unhappy exception being the harrowing story of the Angel Gabriel, 1635, which met a terrible storm and cast up on the coast of Maine with only a few survivors.
There were perhaps 30,000 emigrants from England to New England before the English Civil War. These folks were mainly from the English middle-class, self-reliant and motivated to find a place where they might live, worship, and raise their families without government harassment. This movement of people is called the Great Migration.
The Elizabeth left Ipswich, Suffolk, England on April 10, 1634.
The ship's "master" was William Andrews (Andrewes) (Andres), arriving in Massachusetts Bay. The date of record, in this case, is some six months after the ship departed. The ship arrived safe at Massachusetts Bay. Both the master and ship are known to have made subsequent trips although no record (other than departure) of this particular voyage remains.
Typically, ships making this voyage weighed between 10 and 100 tons (the Mayflower was quite big at 180 tons) and traveled at 7 - 10 knots with a passenger load of around one hundred. Interestingly, Master William Andrews was known to be an Ipswich man and he eventually settled in New England, on or after 1635.
Most were from the East Anglia region northeast of London which was then known as the Eastern Association. This pattern is consistent with what is known of the more general immigration patterns of the "Great Migration."
There were a few key factors that caused so many of our ancestors to leave East Anglia. The region had been the economic power house of England but it was hard hit by an economic depression in the first half of the 1600s. Perhaps not coincidentally, the Puritan movement developed deep roots in East Anglia and its bordering counties. Dedham, Essex, for example, was considered a "hot bed" of Puritan agitation. The Church of England eventually tired of this and helped drive the militants to the new world.
- 04 Feb 1634 Henry Dade writes from Ipswitch to the Archbishop of Canterbury that the Francis and the Elizabeth with 60 men in each intend to sail for New England on about March 10 and he supposes they are debtors or persons disaffected with the established church. Note: These ships and nine others bound for New England were stayed but on 28 Feb allowed to proceed on condition that the passengers took the oath of allegiance. Colham pg 111.
- 12 Nov 1634: John Cutting and William Andrews pray to be released from bonds of presentation of certificates, enclosing that passangers of the 30 May 1634 Francis and 30 May 1634 Elizabeth did not take the oaths.
- 21 Jan 1635: John Cuttinge, Master of the Francis and William Andrewes, Master of the Elizabeth, both of Ipswitch, have brought a list of all the passengers that went in their ships to New England in April 1634 with certificates of their having taken the Oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance.
- This table details the roll of passengers of the Elizabeth, which sailed from Ipswich, Suffolk, mid-April 1634, bound for New England. The date of record, in this case, is some six months after the ship departed. The ship arrived safe at Massachusetts Bay, although some of the persons listed below may not have arrived there. Some may have decided not to sail. Some servants may have run away. And there usually was some loss of life among the passengers from disease and malnutrition during the passage.
- This information was transcribed in the 19th century by Michael Tepper from records found in London, at Her Majesty's State Papers Office. For each common date of record, groupings of persons in consecutive order in the roll often indicate some relation by kinship, household or town origin. Either the persons were present in person before the scribe at that time and queued up naturally to enroll, or the documents of fealty arrived to him from particular sources and were registered in order as received.
Spelling and Abbreviations:
- The surnames are spelled as Savage, Tepper and their English collaborators could best decipher the old handwritten passenger rolls. Expect a few mistakes in interpretation, as well as errors by the original 16th century scribe. Savage's later corrections have been used. These spellings are antique and often curious, so if you are searching a particular name, try all imaginable variations.
- We have generally given prenames their modern spelling. In many cases the spelling of a prename was unusual or doubtful, or the interpretation of the original abbreviated form is uncertain. If so we have left it as originally recorded. This is most notably the case for the abbreviation "Jo:" which can mean either John or Joseph or perhaps other names. Where a given name beginning with the letters "Jo..." is fully spelled out here, it was found that way in the original, or the intention is otherwise certain. Variants of "Anne" have been left as in the original, since many times "Hannah" is meant. Elisa may mean Elizabeth. "Francis" was nearly always spelled the same and might be male or female. Recall that Christian and Bennett were usually female names in those times.
The following alphabetical roll is from her departure point, not necessarily who landed.
Alphabetical with age and roll number
- Bernard/Barnard John 30, from Dedham #22 From Dedham, Essex, bound Watertown. Ref: Banks Mss. 36 pg 41
- Bernard Phebe 27, wife of John #23
- Bernard John 2, #86
- Bernard Samuel 1, #87
- Blomfield William 30, #32
- Bloomfield, from Suffolk, bound for Cambridge. 36 pg 166
- Blomfield Sarah 25, wife of William #33
- Blomfield Sarah 1 child of William #93
- Bradstreet Humphrey 40, from Capel Saint Mary, Suffolk #29
- Bradstreet Bridget 30, wife of Humphrey #30
- Bradstreet Anna 9, #89
- Bradstreet John 3, #90
- Bradstreet Martha 2, #91
- Bradstreet Mary 1, #92
- Clearke John 22, #51
- Crosse John 50, #26 From Wolpitt, Suffolk, bound for Watertown. 36 pg 164
- Crosse Anne 38, wife of John #27
- Cutting, William 26, Ee'ated to John Cutting, master of the Fortune #48 From Suffolk, bound for Watertown. 36 pg 166
- Cutting, Richard 6, stepchild of Henry Kemball #76 From Suffolk, bound for Watertown. 36 pg 166
- Day Robert 30, #34
- Day Mary 28, wife of Robert #35
- Dorifall Anne 24, listed with John Firmin #54
- Firimin John 46, #52
- Glover Henry 24, #31
- Goodall/Goodale Robert 30, from Dennington, Suffolk #37 From Braxted, Essex, bound for Salem. Ref: Banks Mss. 36 pg 41
- Goodall Katherine 28, wife of Robert #38
- Goodall Mary 4, #98
- Goodall Abraham 2, #99
- Goodall Issacke 6 mos, #100
- Gouldson Henry 43, #46
- Gouldson Anne 45, wife of Henry #47
- Gouldson Mary 15, #101
- Hastings, Thomas 29, #41
- Hastings Susan 34, wife of Thomas #42
- Isaacke Rebecca 36, #53
- Kemball Henry 44, from Rattlesden, Suffolk #13 From Rattlesden, Suffolk, bound for Watertown. 36 pg 159
- Kemball Susan 35, wife of Henry #14
- Kemball Elizabeth 9, child of Henry #74
- Kemball Susan 7, child of Henry #75
- Kemball Richard 39, from Rattlesden, Suffolk #15 Born 1595, from Rattlesden, Suffolk, bound for Watertown, Ipswitch. Ref: NEGR 57/331. 36 pg 159
- Kemball Ursula unk age, wife of Richard #16
- Kemball Henry 15, child of Richard #77
- Kemball Richard 11, child of Richard #78
- Kemball Mary 9, child of Richard #79
- Kemball Martha 5, child of Richard #80
- Kemball John 3, child of Richard #81
- Kemball Thomas 1, child of Richard #82
- Kemball Elizabeth 13, Raynor's step daughter #69
- Kilborne Thomas 24, from Wood Ditton, Cambridge #24
- Kilborne Elizabeth 20, wife of Thomas #25
- King Thomas 15, with John Bernard #88
- Lavericke, John 15, #83
- Lewis Edmond 33, #5 From Suffolk, bound for Watertown. 36 pg 166
- Lewis Mary 32, wife of Edmond #6
- Lewis John 3, #55
- Lewis Thomas 9 mos, #56
- Mixer Issace 31, from Capel Saint Mary, Suffolk, #17
- Mixer Sarah 33, wife of Issace #18
- Mixer Issac 4, #73
- Moose/Moore Joseph 24, #2
- Morse, Joseph, from Essex, bound for Watertown. Ref: Banks Mss. 36 pg 54
- Munninge/s George 37, from Rattlesden, Suffolk #20 From Rattlesden, Suffolk, bound for Watertown. Ref: JGR Hill Gen 49. 36 pg 159
- Munninge/s Elizabeth 41, wife of George #21
- Munninge/s Elizabeth 12, #84
- Munninge/s Abigail 7, #85
- Munson Susan 25, #43
- Palmer John 24, #49
- Pierce Daniel 23, #50
- Raynor Thurston 40, from Elmsett, Suffolk #9
- Rayner, Edward, from Elmsett, Suffolk, bound for Hempstead, Ref: NEGR166/164. 36 pg 152
- Raynor Elizabeth 36, wife of Thurston #10
- Raynor Thurston 13, # 63
- Raynor Joseph 11, # 64
- Raynor Elizabeth 7, #65
- Raynor Sarah 9, #66
- Raynor Lydia 1, #67
- Raynor Edward 10, #68
- Reynolds Sarah 20, #36
- Scott Martha 60, #19
- Sherin Robert 32, #28
- Sherman John 20, #1 From Dedham, Essex, bound for Watertown. 36 pg 48
- Skott Thomas 40, from Rattlesden, Suffolk #11
- Scott, from Rattlesden, Suffolk, bound for Ipswitch. Ref: NEGR 53/248. 36 pg 159
- Skott Elizabeth 40, wife of Thomas #12
- Skott Elizabeth 9, #70
- Skott Abigail 7, #71
- Skott Thomas 6, #72
- Smith Samuel 32, #39 From Elmsett, Suffolk, bound for Watertown, Wethersfield, CT. Ref: Banks Mss. 36 pg 153
- Smith Elizabeth 32, wife of Samuel #40
- Smith Samuel 9, #94
- Smith Elizabeth 7, #96
- Smith Mary 4, #95
- Smith Philip 1, #97
- Spring John 45, #7 From Suffolk, bound for Watertown. 36 pg 166
- Spring Elinor 46, wife of John #8
- Spring Mary 11, #59
- Spring Henry 6, #60
- Spring John 4, #61
- William 9 mos, #62
- Underwood Martin 38, from Elmham, Suffolk #44 From Suffolk, bound for Watertown 36 pg 165
- Underwood Martha 31, wife of Martin #45
- Woodward Richard 45, miller #3 From Suffolk, bound for Watertown. 36 pg 166
- Woodward Rose 50, wife of Richard #4
- Woodward George 13, #57
- Woodward John 13, #58
- Justinian Holding/Holden (c1612 - 1691). Bond's Watertown places him on The Elizabeth.