History of the County of Northumberland - England
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The purpose of this project is to give a historical background to Northumberland, to provide information about those individuals of Historic importance linked to the county and to add links to any profiles of significant people linked to Northumberland who have profiles on GENi.
See also Northumberland Main Page
History - over view
Northumberland was once part of the Roman Empire and was the scene of many wars between England and Scotland. As evidence of its violent history, Northumberland has more castles than any other county in England, including the castles of
- Newcastle and
- Pre-History (Wiki) There are many instances of rock art in the Northumberland region. There is a Mesolithic structure at Howick, which dates to 7500 BC. They have also found Tools, ornaments, building structures and cairns dating to the bronze and iron ages have also been found, at which time the area was occupied by Brythonic Celtic peoples who had migrated from continental Europe.
- 43-130AD Roman settlements, garrisons and roads were established throughout the Northumberland region. The northern frontier of the Roman occupation fluctuated between Pons Aelius (now Newcastle) and the Forth. Hadrian's Wall was completed by about 130 AD
- 547 Conquests by Anglian invaders led to the establishment of the kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia. The first Anglian settlement was effected in 547 by Ida King of Bernicia, who, accompanied by his six sons, pushed through the narrow strip of territory between the Cheviots and the sea, and set up a fortress at Bamburgh, which became the royal seat of the Bernician kings.
- ca 600 About the end of the 6th century Bernicia was first united with the rival kingdom of Deira under the rule of Æthelfrith, King of Bernicia and the district between the Humber and the Forth became known as the kingdom of Northumbria.
- 616, Edwin of Deira became king of Northumbria.
- 633 Cadwallon ap Cadfan defeated Edwin at Hatfield Chase and Northumbria was divided into the former kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira and Christianity suffered a temporary decline.
- 634 Oswald, King of Northumbria defeated Cadwallon ap Cadfan at the Battle of Heavenfield. This resulted in the re-unification of Northumbria. He re-established Christianity in the kingdom and assigned a bishopric at Hexham, where Wilfrid erected a famous early English church. Reunification was followed by a period of Northumbrian expansion into Pictish territory and growing dominance over the Celtic kingdoms of Dál Riata and Strathclyde to the west.
- 685, when Ecgfrith of Northumbria suffered complete defeat by a Pictish force at the Battle of Dun Nechtain Nechtansmere/Dunnichen.
- 1513 Battle of Flodden
References, Sources and further reading
- The visitation of Northumberland in 1615
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Members of Parliament
For Biographical articles go to - http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/research/members
Lord Lieutenants of Northumberland.
- Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland
- Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland ?–1489
- Henry Algernon Percy, 5th Earl of Northumberland 28 April 1489 – 19 May 1527
- Henry Hastings, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon 20 August 1586 – 14 December 1595
- George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland 1603–1605
- Francis Clifford, 4th Earl of Cumberland 27 October 1607 – 31 August 1639 jointly with
- George Home, 1st Earl of Dunbar 27 October 1607 – 20 January 1611 and
- Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk 27 October 1607 – 31 August 1639 and
- Henry Clifford, 1st Baron Clifford 27 October 1607 – 31 August 1639 and
- Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel 23 July 1632 – 31 August 1639 and
- Henry Howard, Lord Maltravers 23 July 1632 – 31 August 1639
- Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland 13 November 1626 – 1642
- Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland 12 September 1660 – 13 October 1668 jointly with
- Joceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland 12 September 1660 – 31 May 1670
- William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 13 July 1670 – 25 December 1676 jointly with
- Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 13 July 1670 – 20 April 1689
- Richard Lumley, 1st Earl of Scarbrough 20 April 1689 – 17 December 1721
- Richard Lumley, 2nd Earl of Scarbrough 24 January 1722 – 29 January 1740
- Charles Bennet, 2nd Earl of Tankerville 6 March 1740 – 14 March 1753
- Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland 23 March 1753 – 6 June 1786
- Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland 16 September 1786 – 1798
- Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland 4 June 1802 – 10 July 1817
- Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland 18 August 1817 – 11 February 1847
- Henry Grey, 3rd Earl Grey 13 March 1847 – 1 January 1877
- Algernon Percy, 6th Duke of Northumberland 1 January 1877 – 2 January 1899
- Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey 1 March 1899 – 13 December 1904
- Henry Percy, 7th Duke of Northumberland 13 December 1904 – 14 May 1918
- Alan Percy, 8th Duke of Northumberland 19 July 1918 – 23 August 1930
- Sir Charles Trevelyan, 3rd Baronet 7 November 1930 – 28 April 1949
- Wentworth Beaumont, 2nd Viscount Allendale 28 April 1949 – 16 December 1956
- Hugh Percy, 10th Duke of Northumberland 16 May 1956 – 3 January 1984
- Matthew Ridley, 4th Viscount Ridley 3 January 1984 – 25 August 2000
- Sir John Buchanan-Riddell, 13th Baronet 25 August 2000 – 11 May 2009
- Jane Percy, Duchess of Northumberland 12 May 2009 - present
This list is very extensive - please add those that have GENi profiles if you can.
Where given, dates in [...] are for years in office
- William FitzEustace de Vesci (De Vescy), Sheriff of Northumberland, Lord of Alnwick, Lord of Knaresborou [1155-1170]
- Roger de Stuteville, of Burton Agnes [1171-1184]
- William de Stuteville, Sheriff of Northumberland [1189 -1193]
- William de Stuteville, Sheriff of Northumberland 
- John FitzRobert of Clavering, 3rd Baron of Warkworth. [1224-1227]
- Henry de de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy of Alnwick [1355-1356]