Jewish settlements in Ukraine can be traced back to the 8th century. During the period of the Khazar kingdom, Jews lived on the banks of the River Dnieper and in the east and south of Ukraine and the Crimea. The Kingdom was considered the most influential of the medieval period because of its economic and diplomatic standing.
The Khazars, an ancient nomadic Turkic people who reached the lower Volga region in the 6th century, were held in high esteem by the pope and other national leaders and played a major role in solving the region’s conflicts. The Khazars’s Empire, at its height between the 8th and 10th centuries, extended from the northern shores of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea as far west as Kiev. Jewish refugees from the Byzantium, Persia and Mesopotamia regions — fleeing from persecution by Christians throughout Europe, settled in the Kingdom because the Khazars allowed them to practice their own religion.
Over time, Jews integrated into the society and married Khazar inhabitants. At first, Khazars from royal families converted to Judaism. But other citizen from throughout the Kingdom soon followed suit, adopting Jewish religious practices including reading the Torah, observing the Sabbath, keeping kosher and switching to Hebrew as the official written system. At a time of religious intolerance, the Jews of Khazaria contributed to building a powerful nation while living in peace.
The Jews of Khazaria may have been among the founders of the Jewish community of Poland and of other communities in Eastern Europe.
In 965 A.D., however, the Khazar Empire suffered a blow when the Russians ransacked its capital. In the middle of the 13th century (1241), the Khazars were defeated by the Mongol invasion — an invasion that devastated all of Poland. To rebuild the country and defend its cities, Poland recruited immigrants from the west, mainly Germany, promising to help them settle in villages and towns. German Jews, many of whom were massacred by Christian crusaders in the 1200 and devastated by the Black Death in 1300, immigrated to Poland. Jews in Poland shared a heritage with the new immigrants, but not a language. To communicate with one another, Jews in Poland created a common language. Yiddish. Made up of a combination of Middle German, Hebrew, Polish and German-Hebrew, Yiddish became the Ashkenazi national Jewish language.
Later, Jews from the western provinces of Poland moved to Ukraine because of the economic opportunities created by Poland’s expanding influence, which increased even more so in the 16th century with the consolidation of Poland-Lithuania over the region. By the end of the 15th century, between 20,000 and 30,000 Jews were living in 60 communities throughout Poland-Lithuania, most of them in cities. Ukraine became the center of Jewish life in Poland-Lithuania.
- Ukraine Directory - Jewish Web Index
History of Poland (966-1385)
The first Jews arrived in the territory of modern Poland in the 10th century. By travelling along the trade routes leading eastwards to Kiev and Bukhara, Jewish merchants (known as Radhanites) crossed the areas of Silesia. One of them, a diplomat and merchant from the Moorish town of Tortosa in Spanish Al-Andalus, known under his Arabic name of Ibrahim ibn Jakub, was the first chronicler to mention the Polish state under the rule of prince Mieszko I.
The first actual mention of Jews in Polish chronicles occurs in the 11th century. It appears that Jews were then living in Gniezno, at that time the capital of the Polish kingdom of the Piast dynasty. The first permanent Jewish community is mentioned in 1085 by a Jewish scholar Jehuda ha-Kohen in the city of Przemyśl.
From the Middle Ages until the Holocaust, Jews comprised a significant part of the Polish population. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, known as a "Jewish paradise" for its religious tolerance, attracted numerous Jews who fled persecution from other European countries, even though, at times, discrimination against Jews surfaced as it did elsewhere in Europe.
Poland was a major spiritual and cultural center for Ashkenazi Jewry, and Polish Jews made major contributions to Polish cultural, economic, and political life. At the start of the Second World War, Poland had the largest Jewish population in the world (over 3.3 million), the vast majority of whom were killed by the Nazis in the Holocaust during the German occupation of Poland, particularly through the implementation of the "Final Solution" mass extermination program. Only 369,000 (11%) survived. After massive postwar emigration, the current Polish Jewish population stands at somewhere between 8,000 and 20,000.
LIST OF CITIES
Bukowsko ( Bikofsk )
49.31.10 North, 22.02.30 East
[buˈkɔfskɔ] (Yiddish: בוקאווסק Bikofsk, Russian: Буковско) is a village in Sanok County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland. It's in the Bukowsko Upland mountains, parish in loco, located near the towns of Medzilaborce and Palota (in northeastern Slovakia). During the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth it was in Lesser Poland prowincja.
Settled in prehistoric times, the southern-eastern Poland region that is now Podkarpacie was overrun in pre-Roman times by various tribes, including the Celts, Goths and Vandals (Przeworsk culture). After the fall of the Roman Empire, of which most of south-eastern Poland was part (all parts below the San), the area was invaded by Hungarians and Slavs.
The region subsequently became part of the Great Moravian state. Upon the invasion of the Hungarian tribes into the heart of the Great Moravian Empire around 899, the Lendians of the area declared their allegiance to Hungarian Empire.
The region then became a site of contention between Poland, Kievan Rus and Hungary starting in at least the 9th century. This area was mentioned for the first time in 981 (by Nestor) , when Volodymyr the Great of Kievan Rus took the area over on the way into Poland. In 1018 it returned to Poland, 1031 back to Rus, in 1340 Casimir III of Poland recovered it.
In historical records the village was first mentioned in 1361. During 966 - 1018, 1340 - 1772 (Ruthenian Voivodeship) and during 1918 - 1939 Bukowsko was part of Poland. While during 1772 - 1918 it belonged to Austrian empire, later Austrian-Hungarian empire when double monarchy was introduced in Austria. This part of Poland was controlled by Austria for almost 120 years.
At that time the area (including west and east of Subcarpathian Voivodship) was known as Galicia. It was given the Magdeburg law in 1768. In 1785 the village lands comprised 6.5 km2 (2.5 sq mi). There were 700 Catholics. In 1864 Rabbi Shlomo Halberstam was appointed as rabbi of the Jewish community of Bukowsko. He held this position until 1879. 
After the Nazis had captured the town, Jewish homes and shops were robbed by the Ukrainians from neighbouring towns. In the spring of 1942, 804 Jews of Bukowsko and over 300 of the surrounding villages were put into a ghetto. Out of that number over 100 were shot on the local (Jewish) cemetery. The rest were transported to the camp in Zwangsarbeitslager Zaslaw. None of the prayer houses survived the war. Only a few matzevahs remained on the cemetery. Bukowsko also had a labour camp which existed from August to Oct. of 1942. The Jews, 60 on average, carried out road construction.
The village was burned down January, March and November 1946. Only over a dozen years after the war the village started to rebuild
49´15´´94 North, 25´70´´47 East
Budaniv (Ukrainian: Буданів, Polish: Budzanów) is a village in Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine, near Chortkiv, Buchach. Population: 1,634 (2005).
The settlement was founded in 1549 on the banks of the Seret River. The village was named after a Polish nobleman, Jakub Budzanowski, Halitz voevode. Mountainous terrain of the region always attracted new settlers and about 1550 a wooden castle was built up on the peak of one of the hills. The castle was rebuilt in the beginning of 17th century. The castle was ruined by the Turks in 1675. In 1765 Maria Potocka, a Polish countess, founded a Catholic church on the castle's ruins.
Leżajsk, ליזשענסק , Lizhensk [ˈlɛʐai̯sk]
50.16 North, 22.26 East
Full name The Free Royal Town of Leżajsk, Polish: Wolne Królewskie Miasto Leżajsk, Yiddish: ליזשענסק-Lizhensk is a town in southeastern Poland with 14,127 inhabitants (02.06.2009). It has been situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodship since 1999 and is the capital of Leżajsk County. Leżajsk is famed for its Bernadine basilica and monastery, built by the architect Antonio Pellacini.
The basilica contains a highly regarded pipe organ from the second half of the 17th century and organ recitals take place there. Leżajsk is also home of the Leżajsk brewery. The Jewish cemetery in Leżajsk is a place of pilgrimage for Jews from all over the world, who come to visit the tomb of Elimelech, the great 18th century Orthodox rabbi. The town is crossed by a forest creek, ‘Jagoda’.
Lviv, Lwów, Lvov, and Lemberg, Львів
49º 51 North, 24º 01' East.
- Sister cities Corning, Freiburg, Grozny, Kraków, Novi Sad, Przemyśl, Saint Petersburg, Whitstable, Winnipeg, Rochdale
- Website http://lviv.travel/en/index (English)
- http://www.city-adm.lviv.ua (Ukrainian)
The city is regarded as one of the main cultural centres of today's Ukraine and historically has also been a major Polish and Jewish cultural center, as Poles and Jews were the two main ethnicities of the city until the outbreak of World War II and the following Holocaust and Soviet population transfers.
The historical heart of Lviv with its old buildings and cobblestone roads has survived World War II and ensuing Soviet presence largely unscathed. The city has many industries and institutions of higher education such as the Lviv University and the Lviv Polytechnic. Lviv is also a home to many world-class cultural institutions, including a philharmonic orchestra and the famous Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet. The historic city centre is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Lviv celebrated its 750th anniversary with a son et lumière in the city centre in September 2006.
Lviv was founded in 1256 in Red Ruthenia by King Danylo Halytskyi of the Ruthenian principality of Halych-Volhynia, and named in honour of his son, Lev. Together with the rest of Red Ruthenia, Lviv was captured by the Kingdom of Poland in 1349 during the reign of Polish king Casimir III the Great.
Lviv belonged to the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland 1349-1772, the Austrian Empire 1772–1918 and the Second Polish Republic 1918–1939. With the Invasion of Poland at the outbreak of the second World War, the city of Lviv with adjacent land were annexed and incorporated into the Soviet Union, becoming part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic from 1939 to 1941. Between July 1941 and July 1944 Lviv was under German occupation and was located in the General Government. In July 1944 it was captured by the Soviet Red Army and the Polish Home Army. According to the agreements of the Yalta Conference, Lviv was again integrated into the Ukrainian SSR.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the city remained a part of the now independent Ukraine, for which it currently serves as the administrative centre of Lviv Oblast, and is designated as its own raion (district) within that oblast.
On 12 June 2009 the Ukrainian magazine Focus assessed Lviv as the best Ukrainian city to live in. Its more Western European flavor lends it the nickname the "Little Paris of Ukraine".
Bratslav ( Breslov )
Nemirov, Nemyriv , Немирів , Peace Island City
Nemyriv is one of the eldest cities in Vinnytska oblast, Ukraine. It was founded by Prince Nemyr in 1390. It is a minor industrial center with a current estimated population of around 10,000. Nemyriv was built on the site of ancient Scythian settlement Myriv, destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Rus. It was first mentioned under its modern name in 1506.
49´27 N, 27´25 East
Medzhybizh is first mentioned in chronicles as an estate in Kievan Rus. It was given to Prince Svyatoslav by the prince of Kiev in the year 1146. In 1148, ownership transferred to Rostyslav, the son of Yuri Dolgoruky. The wooden fortress that stood there was destroyed in 1255. After the Mongol incursion, by 1360, the town and surrounding territory passed into the hands of the Lithuanians.
The town suffered from numerous attacks by the Tatars in 1453, 1506, 1516, 1546, 1558, 1566, and 1615. In 1444 the town was incorporated into lands administered by Poland. In the 16th century, the territory was controlled by the Sieniawski and Potocki Polish noble families.
In 1511 work began to replace the wooden palisades with massive stone fortifications, many of which can still be seen today. A dam was built across the Southern Bug river to provide a defensive lake, and a rhomboid Medzhybizh Castle with four towers was built. The state-of-the-art fortifications made Medzhybizh one of the strongest military sites in the region and led to the rise of its prosperity in the next three centuries. -
In 1571 a census was recorded, listing the population as being made up of 95 Ruthenians, 35 Jews, and 30 Poles. In 1593 Adam Sienawski gave the town Magdeburg rights.
In the mid-16th century the Zasławski family, a Polish noble family, turned Medzhybizh into an impregnable fortress. The Zaslavskys used Medzhybizh as their base from which to defend the southern borders from the incursions of the Ottoman Turks and Crimean Tartars.
Jewish history and culture :
Medzhybizh was the center of Jewish culture in its region in Ukraine. The first records of Jews in Medzhybizh date back to the early 16th century. These records state that various Jews were granted special privileges by the Polish kings, including a proclamation in 1566 by King Sigismund II Augustus that the Jews of Medzhybizh were exempt from paying taxes in perpetuity. The earliest known burial in the Jewish cemetery dates from 1555.
Many key rabbinic leaders lived in Medzhybizh during the 17th through 20th centuries. The earliest important rabbi to make Medzhybizh home was : Rabbi Joel Sirkes (1561–1640), a key figure in Judaism at that time. He lived in Medzhybizh from 1604-12.
The most important rabbi from Medzyhbizh was Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer Baal Shem Tov - Besht (1698–1760), the founder of Hasidism. He lived in Medzhybizh from about 1742 until his death in 1760. His grave can be viewed today in the Medzhybizh old Jewish cemetery.
The Baal Shem Tov is considered one of the key Jewish personalities of the 18th century who has shaped Judaism into what it is today. His work led to the founding the Hasidic movement, established by his disciples, some of whom also lived in Medzhybizh, but most of whom traveled from all over Eastern Europe, sometimes from great distances, to visit and learn from him. In Medzhybizh, the Baal Shem Tov was also known as a "doktor" and healer to both Jews and non-Jews. He was known to have been given a special tax-free dispensation by the Czartoryski family and his house shows up on several town censuses.
There were two fundamentally different rabbinic leaders in the town, those who were Hasidic and those who were not. In general, both groups got along, but the followers of the Hasidic leaders believed they had a special connection with God and were cult-like in their devotion to their "rebbe". The non-Hasidic leaders tended to follow a scholarly path and were more responsible for the Jewish institutions, such as observance of kashrut, the social structure of the town, liaison with the town's nobles, and control of the Jewish court.
Hasidic leaders included :
Rabbi Boruch of Medzhybizh (1757–1811), the Baal Shem Tov's grandson. Rabbi Boruch was notable for his principle of malkhus ("royalty") and conducted his court accordingly. He was also known for his "melancholy" and he had a fiery temper. Many of his grandfather's disciples and the great Hasidic leaders of the time, regularly visited Rabbi Boruch, including the Magid of Chernobyl, the Magid of Mezritch, Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi (founder of the Chabad Hasidic movement), and others.
In an attempt to remedy Rabbi Boruch's melancholy, his followers brought in Hershel of Ostropol as a "court jester" of sorts. Hershel was one of the first documented Jewish comedians and his exploits are legendary within both the Jewish and non-Jewish communities. Hershel is also buried in the old Jewish cemetery in Medzhybizh, though his grave is unmarked. One legend has it that in a fit of rage Rabbi Boruch himself was responsible for Hershel's death.
Rabbi Nachman of Breslav (1772–1810), the Baal Shem Tov's great-grandson, was born in Medzhybizh but left at an early age. He became the founder of the Breslover Hasidim.
Another Hasidic leader Rabbi Avraham Yehoshua Heshel of Apta, The Apter Rov (1748–1825), made Medzhybizh his home from 1813 until his death in 1825. The Apter Rov is also buried in the old Jewish cemetery in Medzhybizh, very close to the Baal Shem Tov's grave. The Heshel family became one the foremost Hasidic rabbinic dynasties and various descendants remained in Medzhybizh well into the 20th century.
The non-Hasidic rabbinic leadership of Medzhybizh was controlled by the Rapoport-Bick dynasty, the most important of all the non-Hasidic rabbinic dynasties of Medzhybizh. Rabbi Dov Berish Rapoport (d. 1823) was the first to make Medzhybizh his home. He was the grandson of Rabbi Chaim haCohen Rapoport of Lviv (d. 1771), a notable sage during the mid 18th century.
Dov Berish Rapoport's grave can be seen today at the old Jewish cemetery in Medzhybizh. Other rabbis of this dynasty include Rabbi Isaac Bick (1864–1934) who immigrated to America in 1925 and founded a synagogue in Rhode Island.
Rabbi Chaim Yekhiel Mikhel Bick (1887–1964) was the last known rabbi to reside in Medzhybizh. He left Medzhybizh for New York in 1925. It is not known whether Medzhybizh had another rabbi when it served as a Jewish ghetto in World War II.
The Rapoport Dynasty traces its roots back to Rabbi Jacob Emden (1697–1776) who was involved in the Frankist debates and his father Rabbi Tsvi Hirsh Ashkenazi, known as the Chacham Tsvi (1660–1718).
The Rapoports themselves are a long distinguished rabbinic family who traces their roots back to Central Europe and Northern Italy in the 15th century. The first Rapoport rabbi to make his home in Medzhybizh was Rabbi Dov Berish Rapoport (d. 1823).
He was the grandson of Rabbi Chaim haCohen Rapoport of Lviv (d. 1771), who was also involved in the Frankist debates. Rabbi Dov Berish became the head of the Jewish court (Av Beth Din) and leader of the entire Jewish community of Medzhybizh. However, in a dispute with Rabbi Moshe Chaim Ephraim, the Baal Shem Tov's grandson around the year 1800, the non-Hasidic and the Hasidic communities separated into two leadership groups. The Rapoport/Bick family continued to control the town's Jewish religious court.
The Hasidic community at the time chose Rabbi Issachar Dov-Ber Landa to represent them in official matters. Interestingly, both Rabbis Rapoport and Landa are buried side-by-side in the Medzhybizh Jewish cemetery, just a few steps away from the Baal Shem Tov's grave.
Jewish institutions in Medzhybizh :
Medzhybizh was the home to at least two synagogue buildings and numerous small minyanim. One synagogue still stands today but is used for other purposes. It was the synagogue of R. Avraham Yehoshua Heshel, the Apter Rov. In early 2008, it was bought by the Ohalei Zaddikim organization and is slated for reconstruction. The other synagogue, the Baal Shem Tov's old wooden synagogue, was torn down for firewood during World War II. It has recently been rebuilt according to plan.
Medzhybizh also contains two Jewish cemeteries. The old Jewish cemetery contains the grave of the Baal Shem Tov and other famous and notable Jews. It has turned into something of a tourist attraction, a magnet for Hasidic Jews from all over the world. The new Jewish cemetery has graves from the early 19th century through to the 1980s. A Nazi mass killing site outside of town holds the graves of almost 3,000 Jews in 3 different trenches.
48°45′N, 30°13′E / 48.75°N, 30.217°E / 48.75; 30.217
Uman is a city located in the Cherkasy Oblast (province) in central Ukraine, to the east of Vinnytsia. The city rests on the banks of the Umanka River and serves as the self-governing administrative center of the Umanskyi Raion (district).
Stanislawczyk, Stanisławczyk, Stanislawczyk, Stanislawczy
49°44′ N , 22°51′E / 49.733, 22.85
Stanislawczyk – wies w Polsce polozona w wojewodztwie podkarpackim , w powiecie przemyskim , w gminie Przemysl . Stanislawczyk - a village in Poland located in Subcarpathian Voivodeship , in the district of Przemysl , in the municipality of Industry .
History . Miejscowosc zostala zalozona jako miasto po koniec XVII w. przez kasztelana lwowskiego Jana Stanislawa Fredre.
Town was founded as a town after the end of the seventeenth century by the castellan of Lviv John Stanislaus Fredro. Stanislawczyk nie mial odpowiednich warunkow rozwoju. Stanislawczyk did not have the appropriate terms of development. Byl takze niszczony przez wylewy rzeki Wiar .
He was also destroyed by the floods of the river Faiths . Na skutek tego, juz pod koniec XVIII w. osada zostala zdegradowana do rzedu wsi. As a result, already at the end of the eighteenth century, the settlement has been relegated to the village a row. W 1914 r. zrownana z ziemia podczas przygotowan do obrony Przemysla. In 1914, razed in preparation for the defense of Przemysl.
Ze Stanislawczyka pochodzil Dmytro Karwanskyj . He came from Stanislawczyka Dmytro Karwanskyj .
Tarnopol, Ternopil, Тернопіль, Tarnopol, Тернополь,
49' 34 N, 25' 36' E
Tarnopol is a city in western Ukraine, located on the banks of the Seret River. Ternopil is one of the major cities of Western Ukraine and the historical region of Galicia.
The city was founded in 1540 by Jan Amor Tarnowski as a Polish military stronghold and a castle. In 1544 the Ternopil Castle was constructed and repelled its first Tatar attacks. In 1548 Ternopil was granted city rights by king Sigismund I of Poland. In 1567 the city passed to the Ostrogski family. In 1575 it was plundered by Tatars. In 1623 the city passed to the Zamoyski family.
In the 17th century the town was almost wiped from the map in the Khmelnytsky Uprising which drove out or killed most of its Jewish residents. Ternopil was almost completely destroyed by Turks and Tatars in 1675 and rebuilt by Aleksander Koniecpolski but did not recover its previous glory until it passed to Marie Casimire, the wife of king Jan III Sobieski in 1690.
The city was later sacked for the last time by Tatars in 1694, and twice by Russians in the course of the Great Northern War in 1710 and the War of the Polish Succession in 1733. In 1747 Józef Potocki invited the Dominicanes and founded the beautiful late baroque Dominican Church (today the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of The Blessed Virgin Mary of the Ternopil-Zboriv eparchy of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church).
The city was thrice looted during the confederation of Bar (1768–1772), by the confederates themselves, by the king's army and by Russians. In 1770 it was further devastated by an outbreak of smallpox.
Tarnopol Voivodeship before 17 September 1939In 1772 the city came under Austrian rule after the First Partition of Poland. At the beginning of the 19th century the local population put great hope in Napoleon Bonaparte, in 1809 the city came under Russian rule, which created Ternopol krai there. In 1815 the city (then with 11,000 residents) returned to Austrian rule in accordance with the Congress of Vienna. In 1820 Jesuits expelled from Polatsk by Russians established a gymnasium in the town. In 1870 a rail line connected Ternopil with Lviv, accelerating the city's growth. At that time Ternopil had a population of about 25,000.
After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the city was proclaimed part of the West Ukrainian People's Republic on 11 November 1918. During the Polish-Ukrainian War it was the country's capital from 22 November to 30 December after Lviv was captured by Polish forces.
After the act of union between Western-Ukrainian Republic and the Ukrainian People's Republic (UPR), Ternopil formally passed under the UPR's control. On 15 July 1919 the city was captured by Polish forces.
In 1920 the exiled Ukrainian government of Symon Petlura accepted Polish control of Ternopil and of the entire area in exchange for Polish assistance in restoration of Petlura's government in Kyiv. This effort ultimately failed, and in July and August 1920 Ternopil was captured by the Red Army in the course of the Polish-Soviet War and served as the capital of the Galician Soviet Socialist Republic. By the terms of the Riga treaty that ended the Polish-Soviet war, the Soviet Russia recognized the Polish control of the area.
From 1922 to September 1939, it was the capital of the Tarnopol Voivodeship that consisted of 17 powiats. The policies of the Polish authorities, especially the assimilationist ethnic policies, affected all spheres of public life.
In 1939 it was a city of 40,000; 50% of the population was Polish, 40% Jewish and 10% Ukrainian.
During the Polish Defensive War it was annexed by the Soviet Union and attached to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. The Soviets continued the campaign against the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists aided by the information given to them by the former Polish authorities. The Soviets also carried out mass deportations of the Polish part of the population to Kazakhstan.
In 1941 the city was occupied by the Germans who continued exterminating the population by murdering the Jews and sending others to forced labour in Germany. In April 1944 the city was retaken by the Red Army, the remaining Polish population having been previously expelled. During the Soviet reoccupation in March and April 1944, the city was encircled and completely destroyed.
In March 1944 the city was declared a fortified place by Adolf Hitler, to be defended until the last round was shot. The stiff German resistance caused extensive use of heavy artillery by the Red Army, resulting in the complete destruction of the city and killing of nearly all German defenders. (55 survivors out of 4,500) Unlike many other occasions, where the Germans had practised a scorched earth policy during their withdrawal from territories of the Soviet Union, the devastation was caused directly by the hostilities. After the war, Ternopil was rebuilt in typically Soviet style. Only a few buildings were reconstructed.
Polish Jews settled in Ternopil beginning at its founding and soon formed a majority of the population. During the 16th and 17th centuries there were 300 Jewish families in the city. The Great Synagogue of Ternopil was built in Gothic Survival style between 1622 and 1628.
Among the towns destroyed by Bohdan Khmelnytsky during his march from Zolochiv through Galicia was Tarnopol, the large Jewish population of which carried on an extensive trade. Shortly afterward, however, when the Cossacks had been subdued by John III of Poland, the town began to prosper anew, and its Jewish population exceeded all previous figures.
It may be noted that Hasidism at this time dominated the community, which opposed any introduction of Western culture. During the troubled times in the latter part of the eighteenth century, the city was stormed (1770) by the adherents of the Confederacy of Bar, who massacred many of its inhabitants, especially the Jews.
After the second partition of Poland, Ternopil came under Austrian domination and Joseph Perl was able to continue his efforts to improve the condition of the Jews there, which he had begun under Russian rule. In 1813 he established a Jewish school which had as its chief object the instruction of Jewish youth in German as well as in Hebrew and various other subjects. Controversy between the traditional Hasidim and the modernising Maskilim which this school caused, resulted four years later in a victory for the latter, whereupon the institution received official recognition and was placed under communal control. Starting in 1863, the school policy was gradually modified by Polish influences, and very little attention was given to instruction in German.
The Tempel für Geregelten Gottesdienst, opened by Perl in 1819, also caused dissensions within the community, and its rabbi, S. J. Rapoport, was forced to withdraw. This dispute also was eventually settled in favour of the Maskilim. As of 1905, the Jewish community numbered 14,000 in a total population of 30,415. The Jews seized the active import and export trade with Russia through the border city of Podwoloczyska.
In 1941, 500 Jews were murdered on the grounds of Ternopil's Christian cemetery by local inhabitants using weapons borrowed from a German army camp. According to interviews conducted by a Roman Catholic priest, Father Patrick Desbois, some of the bodies were decapitated. One woman described how her mother would "finish off" wounded Jews with a shovel blow to the head before burying them.
Trembowla, Terebovlia, Теребовля, Terebovlya, Trembowla
49´16´60 North, 25'41'60 East
In 1929 there was 7,015 people (mostly Polish, Ukrainian and Jewish). Prior to the Holocaust the city was home to 1,486 Jews. Most of the local Jews (1,100) were shot by Germans in the nearby village of Plebanivka on April 7, 1943.
Terebovlia (English: Trembovl) is one of the oldest cities in present western Ukraine. The city is quite ancient and during the Red Ruthenia times it used to be the center of Terebovlia principality. It was called Terebovl (Polish: Trembowla).
Terebovlia principality included lands of whole south east of Galicia, Podolia and Bukovyna. The city was first mentioned in chronicles in the year 996. Polish King Casimir III the Great became the suzerain of Halych after his cousin's death, Boleslaw-Yuri II of Galicia, the city became the part of Polish domain but it became fully incorporated into Poland in 1430 under king Władysław II Jagiełło while his son Casimir IV Jagiellon granted the town limited Magdeburg Rights.
After the construction of a castle in 1366, Poland's (Podole Voivodeship) administered Terebovlia, and it became part of the system of border fortifications of Polish Kingdom and later Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, against the Moldavian and Wallachian transgressions and later also against constant Crimean Tatars and Turkish and later also Zaporozhian Cossack invasions from the south and south-east. That is why Terebovlya castle, monastery and churches were all designed as defensive structures.
This was the seat of the famous starost and most successful 16th century anti-Tatar Polish commander, Bernard Pretwicz, who died there in 1563. In 1594, the Ukrainian Cossackt rebel Severyn Nalyvaiko sacked the town. During the Khmelnytsky Uprising Terebovl became one of the centers of the struggle in Podolia lands.
The city was frequently raided by the Crimean Tatars and Turks and their erstwhile allies Zaporozhian Cossacks. In 1675 the Ottoman Army destroyed the town but the castle was held by a small group of defenders (80 soldiers and 200 townsmen) until their king Jan III Sobieski arrived to relieve them, episode known as Battle of Trembowla.
The castle was destroyed during the final Turkish invasion of 1688. Here Bar Confederacy was declared in 1768. After the first partition of Poland (1772) Terebovlia became part of Austrian Empire (until 1918), then after Polish-Ukrainian War and Polish-Soviet War again part of Poland (1918–1939), then Soviet Union took the city along with eastern Poland until the German invasion in 1941, then again the Soviet Union (1944–1991) took over the town at it became a part of the Soviet Ukraine and in 1991 finally Terebovl part of an independent Ukraine.
48.40.00 North, 25.30.00 East
The current estimated population is around 9,800 (as of 2001).
During World War II the Jewish population of Horodenka, comprising about half of the town's population, were shot and killed in a mass grave by the Nazis. About a dozen Jews survived and formed a partisan combat unit which fought against the Nazis and hid in the forests. 
Famous people from Horodenka
- Nicholas Charnetsky (1884–1959), Ukrainian Catholic bishop and martyr.
- Salo Flohr, chess grandmaster
- Marie Ljalková, sniper in the Soviet army
- Leonard Lyons, U.S. newspaper columnist
- Morris Orodenker, U.S.music critic with an Americanized version of the surname "Horodenka"
- Rabbi Nachman of Horodenka, a disciple of the Baal Shem Tov and grandfather of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov
- Aleksander Topolski, soldier, architect, and writer, author of "Without Vodka"
- Alexander Granach (Jessaja Szajko Gronish), leading stage and film actor in Weimar Germany, died at 52 while establishing himself in Hollywood and on Broadway. Author of autobiography, There Goes an Actor [new edition: From the Shtetl to the Stage: the Odyssey of a Wandering Actor.]
- Elias Jubal (born as Benno Neumann 12. 1. 1901), theatre director and founder of the Kellertheater "Theater für 49" in Vienna.
The Villages Around Horodenka
by, Dov Mossberg. Translated by Yehudis Fishman
In a general way, I am considered a son of the city of Horodenka, rather than from the surrounding areas, since I spent most of my youth in that city and returned there after the First World War. However, I was born in one of the surrounding villages called Semenovka, and I spent my childhood years in another nearby village called Stetseva. I have memories of the home of my father and grandfather, who were both villagers most of their life.
Now that the chapter of the history of Judaism in Galicia has been sealed, the chapter about the Jewish villagers and settlers and how they struck roots in a strange environment among the Ukrainian population, is worth recreating with some of the impressions and experiences of a young Jewish village boy.
The district of Horodenka encompassed forty-eight villages, and in them the Ukrainian population was about twenty thousand people. In almost all of these villages there lived several Jewish families, who with great strength in their souls uprooted themselves from the city centers to seek their livelihood in the villages.
However, it wasn't easy for Jews to give up the conveniences, security, and warmth of being with the city folk to take upon themselves the loneliness and alienation of living among a primitive and envious folk. This isolation intensified the feeling of exile and they acquired the taste of exile within exile. However, only a select few were able to continue their lives year after year to maintain the genealogy of the Jewish villager, who represented a special type of person in the chapter of life of Jews in exile.
The first Jew to come to the village was generally someone who rented a saloon. This way of earning a livelihood was harsh and bitter and demanded constant interaction with the non-Jews who gathered there during their holidays. They often became intoxicated, and more than once, fistfights broke out among them.
There were also threats directed toward Jews, whom they hated intensely. The loneliness that oppressed the Jews during weekdays was intensified sevenfold on the Sabbaths and holidays. On those days, the villager was forced to forgo being able to pray in a congregation, to hear kedusha and barchu (prayers which can't be said alone-trans.) from the cantor, and had to be satisfied with an “orphaned” and grieving prayer.
And who can describe the great pain of raising children in the village! There were two possibilities open to the individual Jewish villager in educating his children, and both involved great expense: to send his children to a nearby city to attend the cheder there, or to hire a teacher, that he would be willing to pay, to come to his home.
Under these harsh conditions, the villager had to be satisfied with a very minimal education for his children – to be able to read Hebrew from the prayer book. The father had to watch with a painful heart, as his son grew up to be an am haaretz, an ignorant person. We also cannot minimize the effect of the non-Jewish environment to which both their sons and daughters were drawn. More than once, this attraction ended up tragically, with children changing their religion, leaving their parents' home, and casting a stain upon the entire family: fathers did not want to forgive the child who betrayed her family.
Sometimes an outside Jew would drop into this special environment. He might have been a wanderer going from city to city knocking on the doors of philanthropists. I still recall one who was graciously made welcome in the home of a Jewish villager, and honored with a wholesome meal and a place to stay over. The entire household would then try to get close to him and drink his words with thirst. Sometimes he would bring regards from the host's relatives or friends, whom he came across in his meanderings.
Other times, he would just convey news and information about what was happening in nearby villages or in the “big wide world.” Often the traveler would be a Torah scholar, who transmitted a God-fearing air. In the middle of conversing with him, the host might remember something from his childhood learning, and would hold tight to a brief teaching or story from the guest that he had never heard before.
In the morning, after prayer and breakfast, the traveler would go on his way with a generous donation from his host, who would bless him for the pleasure that the guest provided from his visit. He considered this visit to be “live regards” from the larger Jewish community to which he belonged and with which his soul yearned to connect.
However these visits were relatively rare and the rest of the days of the year, the Jewish villager remained in his sad state of loneliness. Only when the Days of Awe came would he leave his house and property, and entrust, or perhaps practically abandon his property to the hands of non-Jews – the house with its furniture, the field whose crop had not yet been gathered – and travel with his family to the city, to spend the holy days together with all the house of Israel, to pour out his conversation before the creator just like everyone else and to absorb the atmosphere of the shul that was so far away during the rest of the year. And when the holidays were finished, he went back to his village, cleansed and purified from materiality, and filled with hope and faith that his prayer had been accepted, and that the new year would bring only good on its wings, for him and his family and for all Israel.
This description of the lonely Jewish villager was actually known to me only by hearsay. During my childhood, there were about 30 Jewish families in our village of Stetseva. This was just enough to mitigate the harsh loneliness. Most of the families in the village were related to each other by marriage.
On Sabbaths and holidays they would gather for communal prayer, with a minyan. They did not travel to the city for the Days of Awe, but, because they want all to fulfill the directive of “The glory of the King is in a large populace,” two adjoining groups would gather together for one minyan and they would summon a cantor with a distinguished appearance and a pleasant voice, to help them celebrate the holiday in all its details.
The relationship between the Jewish villager and the general population was decent enough. In spite of the vast difference in religion, in their way of life, and in external appearance, neighborly feelings existed between them, which were based on shared daily experiences.
These connections were closer among those Jews who were actually involved in working the land. This joint activity and their common concerns even forged a common language. Though these similarities were not enough to uproot mistrust or to diminish the embedded hatred toward the Jew, it was enough to enable proper neighborly relations during stable times.
There was one special village near Horodenka, the village of Chernovitz. Most of its residents were Jews, and most of them were engaged in farming. This city also stood out for their communal activities; for a certain period after the World War One, they even had a Hebrew school.
The landowners occupied a special place among the villagers. In all the neighboring villages, a substantial amount of land belonged to one family, generally a wealthy Polish family who worked the land with peasant villagers who were supervised by a foreman. Sometimes the land was leased out to the tenants who had to pay a portion of the crops to their landlords.
This was a residue of the lifestyle of the feudal system, when the land generally remained with the rulers, and the farmers got a very meager portion of the produce, usually just enough to sustain life. In the beginning of the twentieth century, the farmers were free and independent and owned their own portions of land. Still the primary landowner retained his position.
Since most business was in the hands of the Jews, all the landowners needed Jews. Many Jews thus succeeded in winning the trust of the Polish landowners and were involved in their daily business dealings. Many Jews took supervisory jobs. With the passage of time, many plots of land were transferred to wealthy Jews, and the class of Jewish landowners arose. Most of these lived in the village, in an estate that was in the courtyard of the farm. But there were also those who lived in the city and ran their farm through supervisors.
Also in Stetseva, the village where my father lived during his last years and where I spent my childhood, there was a Jewish landowner named Yehudah Cohen, a very learned and educated Jew. His brother Dr. Cohen was a lawyer in Horodenka, who also stood out for his knowledge of Hebrew and his Zionistic leanings, unlike most Jewish lawyers who were usually assimilated. Only in the years after World War One did groups of Jewish intelligencia get involved in political life.
Beside Yehuda Cohen, there were several other Jewish landowners in the villages around Horodenka: Yossel Zeidman in Serafince, Bezner in Potoczysk, Nota Goldberg in Strel'Cheye, the Baron family in Semenuvka and Rakovets, and the Ruble family in Kornev. One of the citizens of Horodenka also joined the landowner class in the last years before 1914, when he purchased the estate in Czerniatyn.
This was Berel Shpierer, who reached a level of affluence in a few short years, and was for a time also the communal head in Horodenka. He was a modern Jew, and in his youth was a member of the Maskilim group in the city. The Zionists, who supported his choice, also accepted him. The other estate holders did not participate in communal matters. They didn't turn to Zionism but also were not assimilationists. In the years after World War One, these estates sometimes served as training camps for pioneers.
The differences between the village Jews and the city residents were great. The village Jew in his coarse and simple garments, with his primitive customs and lack of culture, often served as a target for sarcastic darts thrown by the city Jew, who emphasized his superiority at every available opportunity. However, these Jews were bound with every fiber of their being to the collective Jewish nation. They rejoiced in community happiness, and were the first to suffer when a troublesome time came. They had a special merit, these folk who survived by picking food from the ground, and most of them physically fulfilled the historic destiny: “By the sweat of your brow, shall you eat bread.”
Ostroh, Острог, Ostrog, Ostróg
50'20 North 26'31 East
Ostroh is a historic city located in Rivne Oblast (province) of western Ukraine, located on the Horyn River. Ostroh is the administrative center of the Ostroh Raion (district) and is itself designated as a special administrative subordination within the oblast. The current estimated population is around 14,801 (as of 2001).
Tulchin, Тульчин, Tul’chyn, Tulczyn, Tulcin
48´40´28 N, 28´50´59 East
Tulchin is a small city in the Vinnytsya Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Tulchynsky Raion (district), and was the chief centre of the Southern Society of the Decembrists. The city is also known for being the home to Ukrainian composer Mykola Leontovych who produced several of this choral masterpieces when he lived here. An important landmark of the city is the palace of the Potocki family.
The current estimated population is around 13,500 (as of 2005).
49´10´00 North´ , 25´43´00 East
Daleszowa, Daleshevo, Daleshova
48.47.10 North, 25.29.00 East Ukraine 252.3 miles WSW of Kyyiv 50°26' N 30°31' E
48.68.21 North 25.56.36 East
48´85´N, 25´71 East
THE JEWISH COMMUNITY -
Medieval Ukrainian lands were a loosely knit group of principalities. By the late 1300s, most Ukrainian lands were controlled by either the Grand Duchy of Lithuania or the Mongolian-Tatar Golden Horde. In 1569, the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania became the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Poland controlled Western Ukrainian lands while eastern Ukrainian was controlled by the Ottoman Empire.
In 1772, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at which time several Ukrainian areas became part of Galicia, a province of Austria. By 1795, Austria controlled western Ukraine and Russia controlled eastern Ukraine. During the 1930s, all of western Ukraine was governed by either Poland and/or Czechoslovakia.
By the end of WWI, Ukrainian territory was divided into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Romania. In 1939 the Jewish population of Ukraine was 1.5 million (1,532,776) or 3% of the total population of Ukraine. One half to two thirds of the total Jewish population of Ukraine were evacuated, killed or exiled to Siberia. Ukraine lost more population per capita than any other country in the world in WW II. After WWII, the borders of the Ukrainian SSR expanded west, including those Ukrainian areas of Galicia. At the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Ukraine became an independent state. JewishGen's ShtetlSeeker references border changes of a given town with more information at JewishGen ShtetLinks for Ukrainian towns. [February 2009]
Ukraine SIG facilitates research of former Russian Empire Guberniyas now in Ukraine; Podolia, Volhynia, Kiev, Poltava, Chernigov, Kharkov, Kherson, Taurida and Yekaterinoslav. [February 2009]
HISTORY: Wikipedia article: "History of the Jews of Ukraine" and The Virtual Jewish History Library- Ukraine [February 2009]
US Commission for the Preservation of America's Heritage Abroad, 1101 Fifteenth Street, Suite 1040, Washington, DC 20005. Telephone 202-254-3824. Executive Director: Joel Barries. US Commission for the Preservation of America's Heritage Abroad supplied most Ukraine information. The data is alphabetical by the name of the town.
Historical Research Center for Western Ukrainian communities in all countries: "ZIKARON"
Ukraine Jewish community.
Jewish Cemeteries in Ukraine Report, Winter 1997-98
Ukraine's turbulent past saw sovereignty pass between Poland, Russia and other nations, but has a rich history: one Crimean tribe converting to Judaism in the eighth century, the first shtetls built by Jews working for Polish aristocrats (18th century), and rise of Hasidism. The Germans murdered 1.4 million of the two million Jews. Communism then suppressed religious life of those that survived. Despite this, Ukraine is now home to one of the largest Jewish communities in Europe (100,000-300,000). Some 1500 Jewish heritage sites published by the United States Commission for the Preservation of America's Heritage Abroad (2005)
BOOKS ABOUT UKRAINE:
- Chelm, M. Bakalczuk-Felin, 1954, in Yiddish.
- Dnepropetrovsk-Yekaterinoslav, Harkavy and Goldburt, 1973, in Hebrew.
- Pinkas Hakehillot Poland, Volumes I-VII.
- Frank, Ben G. A Travel Guide to Jewish Russia & Ukraine. Paperback (October 1999) Pelican Pub Co; ISBN: 1565543556
- Gitelman, Zvi. Chapter The Jews of Ukraine and Moldova" published in Miriam Weiner's Jewish Roots in Ukraine
- and Moldova (see below) online.
- Goberman, D. Jewish Tombstones in Ukraine and Moldova. Image Press, 1993. ISBN 5-86044-019-7) shows many interesting styles.
- Greenberg, M. Graves of Tsadikim Justs in Russia. Jerusalem, 1989. 97 pages, illustrated, Hebrew and English. S2 89A4924. Notes: Rabbis tombstone restoration, no index, arranged by non-alphabetical town names.
- Gruber, Ruth Ellen. Jewish Heritage Travel: A Guide to Eastern Europe, Washington: National Geographic, 2007
- Ostrovskaya, Rita (Photographer), Southard, John S. and Eskildsen, Ute (Editor). Jews in the Ukraine: 1989-1994: Shtetls. Distributed Art Publishers; ISBN: 3893228527
- Weiner, Miriam. Jewish Roots in Ukraine and Moldova: Pages from the Past and Archival Inventories (The Jewish Genealogy Series). Routes to Roots Foundation/YIVO InstituteYIVO Institute; ISBN: 0965650812. see Routes to Roots Foundation, Inc.
ISRAEL: Tragger, Mathilde. Printed Books on Jewish cemeteries in the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem: an annotated bibliography. Jerusalem: The Israel Genealogical Society, 1997.
BOOKS ABOUT CRIMEA:
- Chwolson, D. Corpus inscriptionum hebraicarum (All the Hebrew Inscriptions). Hildesheim, 1974 (1st print: St. Petersburg, 1882). 527 pages, Latin title and German text. SB74B2774. Notes: 194 tombstones, 9th-15th centuries, based on Firkowiz's book scripture analysis.
- Chwolson, D. Achtzehn hebraische Grabschiften aus der Krim (Eighteen Hebrew grave inscriptions in Crimea).. St. Petersburg, 1985 in "Memories de L'Academie Imperial de St. Petersburg", 7Šme, series, volume IX, no. 7, III XVIII, 528 pages, illustrated. [translation] of the author's Russian book s29V5256]. German text and Hebrew inscriptions. PV255, series 7, book 9, no.7. Notes: 18 tombstones, 6-960, scripture analysis based on Firkowiz's book.
- Firkowiz, A. Y. Avnei zikaron behatsi ha'i krim, besela hayehudim bemangup, besulkat ubekapa (Jewish memorial stones in Crimea and in [the Caucasian towns of Mangup, Sulkat and Kapa [Theodesia). Vilnius, 1872. 256 pages, illustrated, Hebrew. 29V4818. Notes: 564 tombstones, 3-1842.
- Harkavy, A.L. Alte juedusche Denmaeler aus der krim (The old Jewish monuments in Crimea),. St. Petersburg, 1876, X, 288 pages. German and Hebrew inscriptions. PV255, VII, 24/1. Notes: 261 inscriptions, 604-916?, scripture analysis based on Firkowiz's book.
Nadwirnaaus, Nadwirna (Надвірна) Nadworna
48° 38′ 1″ North, 24° 34′ 5″ O
Nadwirna (ukrainisch Надвірна; russisch Надворная/Nadwornaja, polnisch Nadwórna), ist eine Kleinstadt in der West-Ukraine mit 20.932 Einwohnern (Volkszählung 2001). Sie ist das Zentrum des gleichnamigen Rajons. Die Stadt liegt am Ufer des Flusses Bystryza und verfügt über einen Bahnanschluss. Sie liegt etwa 37 Bahn- bzw. Straßenkilometer in süd-südwestlicher Richtung vom Oblastzentrum Iwano-Frankiwsk entfernt. Nadwirna liegt am Fuße der Karpaten und bekam 1939 den Stadtstatus verliehen.
Wirtschaft [Bearbeiten]Industrie [Bearbeiten]In Nadwirna betreibt der ukrainische Erdöl- und Erdgaskonzern НАК "Нафтогаз України/Naftohas Ukrajiny" über seine Erdölgesellschaft (ВАТ "Укрнафта"/Ukrnafta) eine Raffinerie ("Надвірнанафтогаз"/Nadwirnanaftohas).
Verkehr [Bearbeiten]Von Nadwirna führt eine der wenigen wichtigen Straßen- und Schienenverbindung über die Karpaten nach Rachiw (Oblast Transkarpatien).
Der Nahverkehr wird mit Bussen und Linientaxis (Marschroutkas) abgewickelt.
Bahnstrecken [Bearbeiten]Iwano-Frankiwsk–Nadwirna–Jaremtsche–Worochta–Rachiw–Sighetu Marmației Nadwirna–Deljatyn Geschichte [Bearbeiten]Nadworna teilt weitgehend die Geschichte der Ukraine bzw. Galiziens/Polens
Seit 1349 gehörte es zu Polen-Litauen. Nach der ersten Teilung Polens 1772 fiel die Stadt an Österreich, nach dem Ende des Ersten Weltkrieges 1919 an Polen, und 1939 an die ukrainische Sowjetrepublik. In den dreißiger Jahren gab es verstärkte Aktivitäten der ukrainischen nationalistischen Bewegung OUN unter Stepan Bandera in der Region. 1941 bis 1944 war Nadworna von der deutschen Wehrmacht besetzt und fiel anschließend wieder an die Sowjetunion.
Historisch [Bearbeiten]Aus Meyers Konversationslexikon von 1888:
"Nadworna, Marktflecken in Galizien, in rauher Gebirgsgegend, an der Bystrica, Sitz einer Bezirkshauptmannschaft und eines Bezirksgerichts, hat Sägemühlen, Holzhandel und (1880) 6.707 Einw. (davon 4.190 Juden). In der Nähe ein altes Schloss der Familie Potocki." (Anmerkung: Schloss Pniw, heute nur Ruine erhalten)
- Partnerstädte [Bearbeiten]Krnov, Tschechien
- Prudnik, Polen
- Weblinks [Bearbeiten]http://www.kresy.co.uk/nadworna.html
- Sowjetische Landkarte (Stand 1990)
- Nadworna. In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 4. Auflage. Band 11, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1885–1892, S. 975
Administrative divisions of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ukraine
Dolyna · Halych · Horodenka · Kalush · Kolomyia · Kosiv · Nadvirna · Rohatyn · Rozhniativ · Sniatyn · Tlumach · Tysmenytsia · Verkhovyna
Cities Oblast subordinated cities
Bolekhiv · Ivano-Frankivsk · Kalush · Kolomyia · Yaremche · Burshtyn · Dolyna · Halych · Horodenka · Kosiv · Nadvirna · Rohatyn · Sniatyn · Tlumach · Tysmenytsia
Bytkiv · Bilshivtsi · Bohorodchany · Broshniv-Osada · Bukachivtsi · Chernelytsya · Delatyn · Hvizdets · Kuty · Lanchyn · Lysets · Obertyn · Otynia · Perehinske · Pechenizhyn · Rozhniativ · Solotvyn · Verkhovyna · Voynyliv · Vorokhta · Vyhoda · Yabluniv · Yezupil · Zabolotiv