A town in the district of Pest-Pilish-Sholt-Kiskun. Population (1941): 29,899
Please feel free to add profiles of individuals who were born or lived in Nagykoros. Ilana Burgess
- 1784/85 11
- 1808 10
- 1846/47 49
- 1880 699
- 1890 900
- 1929 600
- 1930 540
- 1945 119
- 1956 50
- 1966 42
The first Jews settled in Nagykoros at the end of the eighteenth century. Most of them made their living as petty merchants and peddlers. At the end of the nineteenth century, the Jews of Nagykoros played an important part in the economic achievements of the place, especially in many agricultural areas, in export, such as fruit, poultry, and eggs, for which the area is well known.
Generally, the attitude of the Gentiles to Jews was reasonable. It is true that at the beginning the Jews suffered many limitations; for example when a Jew wanted to buy land, he was forced to register it under the name of a non-Jewish friend. This limitation disappeared along with others after the Emancipation of the Hungarian Jews in 1868.
The Jews of Nagykoros took an active part in the Hungarian War of Independence of 1848-49. After the suppression of the rebellion by the Austrians, they had to pay a very high fine.
The community was organized in 1794. It had a Hevra Kadisha (established in 1778), and a Women's Association, established in 1886. The school was established in 1845.
The first synagogue of Nagykoros Jews was built in 1817 with the help of the local gentry. Until then they prayed in a private home, which was given to them free by one of the non-Jewish residents of Nagykoros. The new synagogue was inaugurated by the Rabbi, Salamon Krakauer, who gave a speech in Hungarian, something extraordinary in those days. In 1879 the synagogue was renovated, and during the Earthquake of 1911 it was completely destroyed. In 1914 a new synagogue was started, but the First World War delayed the work, and it was started again only in 1927.
Because of budgetary constraints there was only a substitute rabbi in the community from the beginning of the twentieth century.
During the First World War nineteen community members fell.
After the war the Jews of Nagykoros suffered from troubles. The first of them was attacks from soldiers returning from battle, who robbed their property. Also the Communist Revolution and the White Terror, which followed it was felt there. During the clashes that erupted, terrorist bands murdered five Jews.
There was a relaxed atmosphere between the two world wars, the Jews of Nagykoros became well off, took an important share in the development of the canned and preserved food industry, and also exported produce. In this period there were hardly any welfare cases. After the Jewish Discrimination Laws were published in 1938, the Jewish merchants suffered greatly, as did owners of businesses and shops. Their licenses were cancelled, and their businesses confiscated. The Holocaust In the spring of 1944, after the entrance of the Germans, a ghetto was established, and the Jewish population of the city was concentrated there. After a short time, the population was sent to Auschwitz.
After the war, about 60 Jews returned to the city and reconstructed community life. They also built a monument to the martyrs of the Holocaust.
In the following years Jews came from Budapest who had left because of hunger that prevailed there after the war. But slowly most of the Jews left the town, and now there are only a few dozen. Pinkas Hakehillot Hungary: Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities, Hungary