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Jewish Families of Ternopil (Tarnopol), Ukraine

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Here are the earliest known Tarnopol ancestors of current project members - more will be added as more are discovered.

1. Michael Rothstein

2. Hirsch Leib Krochmal (note from Steven Jaron: I am not 100% sure about Hirsch's parentage, if you have any questions please ask)

3. Jacob Golbrun

4. Chaim Seid

5. Samuel Fruchtmann

6. Moses Bilker

7. Jakub Heller

8. Schaje Kostenblatt

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TARNOPOL (Rus. Ternopol), city in Ukraine, formerly in the province of Lvov, Poland. Jews began to settle in the city shortly after its foundation in 1540. They were granted special privileges by the lord of the city, the hetman Jan Tarnowski, as Jewish residents of his personal domain. The charter granted to Tarnopol in 1550 indicates that Jews were permitted to live in all parts of the city, apart from the marketplace. An organized community had already formed before 1648–49. Jews took an active part in the defense of the city during the many attacks to which it was subjected in the mid-17th century. The royal grant authorizing the erection of a fortified synagogue – already constructed by this time – stipulated that the community was to install artillery loopholes on all sides and to acquire cannon. The members of the community, among whom artisans were singled out, were required to defend the synagogue under the direction of a "Jewish hetman." During the attacks by *Chmielnicki, however, most of the Jews fled, and those who remained were massacred.

Privileges renewed in 1740 allowed the Jews of Tarnopol to live in, and conduct trade in, any part of the city. Jews were permitted to purvey alcoholic liquor and to keep taverns on payment of a liquor duty to the manorial lord. Jewish artisans could engage in crafts, provided that they observed the rules of the Christian guilds and paid a specified sum into the guild funds. The charter also regulated Jewish judicial jurisdiction. The Tarnopol community built up a flourishing economy, controlling the grain and cattle trade, with Jewish business predominating in the city fairs. It also played an important role in Jewish *autonomy in 18th-century Poland-Lithuania (see *Councils of Lands).

Noted rabbis of Tarnopol of this period included Joshua Heshel Babad, who was deposed from the rabbinate in 1718 and returned to office in 1724. He was followed by Jacob b. Isaac Landau, in office until 1777, and Joshua Heshel b. Isaac *Babad between 1809 and 1838.

The position of the Jewish community deteriorated after Tarnopol passed to Austria in 1772. The authority of the manorial lord diminished, and was eventually terminated. Taxation became increasingly burdensome. The census for 1788 registered 6,380 Jewish males and 6,374 females for the district of Tarnopol, including eight subsidiary communities. The Jews were mainly occupied as taverners and retailers, with a considerable number of artisans.

In 1788 Naphtali Herz *Homberg founded the first modern Jewish school in Tarnopol, in which Hirsh Eisenstaedter taught, but it was closed down with similar institutions in 1806. At this time Joseph *Perl began his efforts to establish a Jewish school along his own lines with emphasis on instruction in German and secular subjects, with the assistance of the maskil Dov Ginzburg, and others. Perl only succeeded in 1813, when Tarnopol was under Russian rule (1809–15), and then mainly by financing it himself, and donating the building. From 1814 to 1816 Perl also published a Hebrew periodical, Ẓir Ne'eman (1814–16), in Tarnopol. Perl transferred the school and its prayer house to the community in 1818. It received official recognition as a public school, and its syllabus was revised to conform to that of the general school system. The school met violent opposition from Orthodox circles. It was banned along with the school at *Brody in 1816 by the rabbi of Lvov, Jacob *Ornstein. The *Ḥasidim also opposed it.

About 1813 a Hebrew printing press was set up in Tarnopol by Naḥman Pineles and Jacob Auerbach, the type as well as some of the personnel coming from *Zbarazh. In all, some 25 works were printed in Tarnopol. This printing venture came to an end about 1817, due apparently to the boycott by the Orthodox of a press supporting Haskalah.

In 1838 a bitter conflict flared up in the community between the maskilim and the Orthodox members over the choice of a rabbi. The candidate put forward by the maskilim, S.J. *Rapoport, was nominated with the support of the authorities. However, Perl died in 1839, and Rapoport relinquished the office a year later. The circle of maskilim who had gathered around Perl found increasing adherents, and gained a new intellectual leader in Nachman *Krochmal, who moved to Tarnopol in 1838. Other maskilim were Samuel Leib Goldberg (1807–46), Bezalel *Stern, Isaac Michael Munis, Moses Ḥayyim Katz, Nathan Horowitz (Krochmal's son-in-law), and many more.

In 1843–44 a change in Jewish civic status accorded Tarnopol Jewry electoral and elective rights in the municipality. In the elections to the Austrian parliament following the revolution of 1848 Tarnopol Jews elected one of their number as a delegate. The community was headed by Jacob Atlas, a doctor, from 1846 to 1849, and until 1858 the community was led by the maskilim, to be subsequently replaced by the Orthodox. The school founded by Joseph Perl was extended after 1848, and a girls' school was added.

From the 1860s, the maskilim in Tarnopol, as in the whole of Galicia, showed a growing tendency to assimilate into Polish national life and culture. Simon Dankowicz, a major advocate of *assimilation who had taken part in the Polish uprising of 1863, was nominated in 1890 as preacher in the synagogue founded by Perl. During the 1860s a number of welfare and philanthropic institutions, hospitals, and orphanages were founded in Tarnopol. The rabbi in this period was Joseph *Babad. In 1894 a Zionist society was formed.

The Jewish population of Tarnopol numbered 1,161 in 1765. In the district of Tarnopol it numbered 11,997 in 1827 (out of 197,296); all but one of the 76 commercial establishments were Jewish-owned; 205 Jews were occupied as taverners, and 364 as shopkeepers, while a considerable number were artisans. There were 11,000 Jews living in Tarnopol (52% of the total population) in 1869; 13,842 (50.5%) in 1890; 13,490 (44.2%) in 1900; 14,000 in 1910 – the last official census conducted by the Austrian government – 16,320 in 1921, and 14,000 in 1931.

Tarnopol Jews suffered severely during World War I, as the city changed hands seven times in the fighting. With the dissolution of the Hapsburg monarchy, a Ukrainian government was organized in Tarnopol, and in December 1918 a Jewish militia of 800 men was formed. In the elections to the Jewish National Council in Western Ukraine, held in March 1919, the Zionists won a clear majority. The council was active until Tarnopol was taken by the Poles, who encouraged the Polish assimilationists within the community and turned over the leadership to them. Between 1922 and 1932 the community was led by representatives of the national lists. Pressure was exerted by the regime in Poland, and commissars were nominated in the leadership.

[Nathan Michael Gelber]

Holocaust and Postwar Periods

According to an unofficial source, Bleter far Geshikhte, there were 18,000 Jews in Tarnopol in 1939. As in other communities under Soviet occupation (1939–41), the Jewish community organization was dissolved, political parties were prohibited, Hebrew education was discontinued, and the Yiddish schools were nationalized. After the outbreak of the German-Soviet war (June 1941), a few days after Tarnopol was occupied by the German army, 5,000 Jews were massacred (July 4–11). The Germans fined the Jewish community 1,500,000 rubles. Sixty-three Jews belonging to the intelligentsia were invited to the *Gestapo on the pretext of receiving public appointments, but were all murdered in the Gestapo office. The ghetto established in Tarnopol in September 1941 was the first to be set up in Galicia. Over 12,500 people were crowded into a small area, and for a while it seemed that Jewish life, though extremely difficult, would continue. Attempts were made to renew the Jewish school system, and several orphanages and old age homes were established in the ghetto. The *Judenrat was headed by Gustav Fischer, who was succeeded by Karol Pohoryles. At the same time the ghetto inmates were gradually murdered; on March 25, 1942, 1,000 Jews were shot in the nearby forest. Thousands of Jews were seized in the streets or taken from their homes for forced labor at labor camps in the Tarnopol district. On August 29–31, 1942, over 4,000 Jews from Tarnopol were sent to the *Belzec death camp. On Sept. 30, 1942, a further 1,000 Jews were sent there. During the following winter the remaining able-bodied Jews were separated and put into a labor camp near the ghetto. The final liquidation of the ghetto took place on June 20, 1943, followed by that of the nearby work camp (Aug. 6, 1943). Small numbers of Jews fought from bunkers or joined the partisan fighters in the district.

When the Soviet forces recaptured Tarnopol, about 150 Jews came out from hiding and 200 returned from the Soviet Union, where some of them had served in the Soviet army. A memorial book to Tarnopol Jewry was published as volume 3 of the Enẓiklopedyah shel Galuyyot (1955; Heb; partly Yid; Eng. summary). Tarnopol societies were established by former Jewish residents in Israel and the United States.

A monument erected to the memory of the Jewish martyrs in the Holocaust was completely destroyed in the 1950s. In the late 1960s there were about 500 Jews in Tarnopol. The old Jewish cemetery served as a building site and the later cemetery housed nine garages.

One of the main administrative centers in western Ukraine, by 2005 Tarnopol had a Jewish community center, a Jewish Sunday club, and a women's club.

[Aharon Weiss]

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

N.M. Gelber, in: EG, 3 (1955), 22–108; Ph. Friedman, in: YIVO Bleter, 31–32 (1948), 131–90; J. Letschinsky, Rządy rosyjskie w kraju tarnopolskim 1809 – 1815 (1903); M. Balaban, Spis Ẓydów i Karaitów (1909); J. Leniek, Przwileje króiówascicieli miasta Tarnopola (1932); Habermann, in: Alim le-Bibliografyah …, 2 (1935/36), 24ff.; S. Katz, in: KS, 15 (1938/39), 515f.; H.D. Friedberg, Toledot ha-Defus ha-Ivri be-Polanyah (19502), 148f.

List of family names found in Tarnopol:

ACKER ACKERMANN ADLER ADLER f. PERLMUTTER ADLERSTEIN AKSELRAD ALLERHAND ALTBERG ALTBERG f. ASPIS ALTER ALTMANN ALTSCHÜLER ALTSCHÜLLER ALTSTÄDTER ALTSTADTER f. OCZERET AMARANT AMBOS ANMELDÜNG ANSTERN APERMAN APFELBAUM APPEL APPELBLUM APSER APTER APTOWITZER ARAK ASCHKENASY ASCHKENAZE ASCHKENAZY ASCHKENZE f. SPRECHER ASCHKENZE f. TÜRKEL ASZKENAZY ATLAS ATTERMANN AUERBACH AUERHAHN AUERHAHN f. FELD AUGENBLÜCK AUSLENGER AUSTERN AUTMANN AWNER AXELRAD BABAR BÄCKER BALIN BALTER BALTUCH BANDLER BARABAN BARAK BARAL BARALL BARAM BARAS BARAS f. TÜRKEL BARASCH BARBAK BARBAN BARBASCH BARD BARDACH BARDFELD BARLES f. SIGALL BARSCHAK BARTASCH BARYNEŃKO BASS BAU BAZAR BECHER BECKER BECKMAN BECKMANN f. LEHRER BEIDAFF BEIGEL BEIN BEINER BELEMER BELFER BEREZOWSKI BERGER BERGMANN BERGNER BERGNER BERGSTOFF BERKOWICZ BERLIN BERMANN BERNER BERNHAUT BERNSOHN BERNSTEIN BERSAM BERSTEIN BERTH BETTINGER BEZPOJAŚNIK BIBERSTEIN BICK BIEBERSTEIN BIEDENBERG BIEGELEISEN BIELER BIELFELD BIELLER BIEN BIERENBERG BILBER BILKER BILLIG BINDER BIRKENFELD BIRNBAUM BIRNBERG BISKER BIZOF BLATNER BLATT BLAU BLAUFELD BLAUSTEIN BLEICH BLEMER BLEMMER BLÜM BLUMENFELD BLÜMER BLUMMER f. WEISSBACH BOMBERG BOMSE BOST BRANANDEIS BRANDEK BRANDES BRANDT BRAUNER BRAUNSTEIN BRAWER BRAYER BREILENBAUM BREIT BREITENBAUM BREITMANN BREMOWLER BRENESEL BRENNER BRENNER BRENNESSEL BRILLAND BRILLANT BRILLER BROCZYNER BROMER BRUCHES BRUCHES f. WEIGREICH BRÜCK BRUM BRUMM BRUMMER BRUMMER ryt. IMBER BRUNN BRUST BUCHMAN BUCHSBAUM BUCHWALD BUCZACZ BUDABIN BUTTERKLEE CHARAL CHINKES CHUWEN CITRON CZABAN CZACZKES CZOBAN DALICZ DANIESLKI DANKER f. THAU DANKNER DAWIDSOHN DEIM DELLMAN DEMANT DEMM DENKER DERER DERER f. FRÄNKEL DERER f. LEIDENWERK DERFLER vel THUMIN DEUTSCH DIAMAND DIAMANT DICK DICKES DICKES f. GRÜNBAUM DINER DINES DINNER DIWER DLUGACZ DOLINER DONNER DORNBAUM DORZAWETZ DRATH DREIFINGER DREIFUSS DREKSLER DRESSLER DRETTLER DRIMER DRUBICZ DRUCKER DUBOWE f. POLLAK DUBOWER f. HERZOG DUBOWY DUCKSTEIN DURST f. HELLER DYNES EBERMANN ECHRENFELD ECKHAUS ECKSTEIN EDELBERG EHRENKRANZ EHRLICH EICHENBAUM EICHENKATZ EICHENSTEIN EIDEL EIDERER EILENBERG EINGLER EINHORN EINLAGER EINLEGER EINROCH EISENBERG EISENKLAM EISENKLAMM EISENSTÄDTER EISENSTEIN EISNER EISNER f. KELLER EITELBERG EITELBERG f. FELD EIZENKLAM ELFENBEIN ENGEL ENGLENDER ENSELBERG ENSER EPSTEIN ERDE EXELBIRT FADEN FADENHECHT FAKTERMAN FALKENFLICK FALTENBERG FARB FASSMAN FED FEDERBINSCH FEDMANN FEIBER FEIG FEIGENBAUM FEIGENBAUM f. SUSSLAK FEILES FEINBACH FEINBERG FEINGOLD FEINTUCH FEINTUCH f. HELLER FEIWEL FELBER FELBERBAUM FELD FELDHORN FELDMAN FELDMANN FELLERBAUM FELLNER FELSTENER FENDLER FENSTER FERSCHKO FERSCHLING FEUERFELD FEUERING FEUERMANN FEUERRING FEUERSTEIN FIEGLER FIGLER FIKSEL FIKSEL f. WEISSBROD FINGERHUT FINKEL FINKELSTEIN FINL FISCH FISCHBEIN FISCHER FISCHHÄNDER FISCHMANN FIUL FLACHS FLACHS f. TÜRKEL FLECHTER FLECKER FLEISCHFARB f. ROTHKOPF FLEISCHHACKER FLEISCHMANN FLEISCHMANN f. KLAHR FLESCHNER FLESZNER FLICK FORST FRACHTENBROD f. FRACHTENBERG FRADES FRAENKL FRANCOS FRANKEL FRANZOS FRAUENGLAS FRAUENGLASS FREIBERG FREIHAUS FREIVOGEL FRENDENTHAL FRENKL FRENZLER FRESTER FREUD FREUDENTHAL FREUDLICH FREUDMANN FREUND FREYER FRIED FRIEDER FRIEDFELD FRIEDLÄNDER FRIEDLER FRIEDMAN FRIEDMANN FRIEDMANN f. DUBOWY FRIEHOF FRIEZIERER FRISCH FROMMER FROMMER f. SEID FROMMOS FRUCHTMAN FRUCHTMANN FUCHS FUCHS f. RUM FUHRER FUHRMAN FUHRMANN FURMAN FURSETZER FURST FUSSTEIG GABE vel GÜNSBERG GABEL GANGER GARTNER GATAŃDZY GEDULDIG GEHLER GEIWING GELBARD GELBER GELHMANN GELLER GELLES GELLMANN GENDZIAR f. FRIEDMANN GENZER GINSBERG GLANZ GLANZBERG GLAS GLASGALL GLASNER GLASNER f. NADEL GLASSGALL GLATTSTEIN GLEIT GLUCK GLUCKMAN GLUCKMANN GOLD GOLDAPPER GOLDBAUM GOLDBERG GOLDBERGER GOLDBRUM GOLDBRUMM GOLDENBERG GOLDENHIRSCH GOLDFARB GOLDHARDT GOLDHIRSCH GOLDMANN GOLDRIM GOLDSCHEIDER GOLDSTEIN GOLDSTERN GOLDWAG GOLDWURM GOLIGER GOLIGER f. SAFIER GOTFRIED GOTT GOTTER f. GELBER GOTTFRIED GOTTLIEB GRANN GRAU GROHS GROSS GROSSBERG GROSSKOPF GROSSMAN GROSSMAN f. WACHTEL GROSSMANN GROSSTERN GRUBERG GRUBIN GRUMSPAN GRUN GRUNBAUM GRUNBERG GRUNFELD GRUNHAUT GRUNSBERG GRUNSEID GRUNSPAN GRUNSPANN GRÜUSTEIN GRUTZ GUELLER f.ROSENFELD GUT GUTSTEIN GUTTMANN HAAS HABER HAHN f. ARAK HALFTER HALICZER HALPERN HAMMER HARAP HARBAND HARTMAN HARTMANN HASS HAUMAN HAUPT HAUS HECHLER HECHT HEFTER HEILICZER HEILPERN HEISCHMANN HEITZENBERG HELICZER HELLER HELLMANN HELLREICH HENDEL HERMAN HERMANN HERZ HERZOG HEUMAN HEUMANN HEYMAN HIMMELBRAND HIMMELSTEIN HIRSCH HIRSCHBERG HIRSCHHAM HIRSCHHORN HIRSCHHORN f. DUBOWY HIRSCHHORN f. KATZ HIRSCHLORN HIRSCHORN HIRSCHORN f. ROSENSTRAUCH HOCH HOCHBAUM HOCHHAUS HOCHMANN HOFFMAN HOFFMANN HOFRICHTER HOLLANDER HOLLANDER f. HUDEL HOLLENDER HORN HOROWITZ HORWITZ HUK HUNGER HUTTER HUTTLER f. KANAREK HUTZ IGIER IMBER INGWER ISSERLES JAFF JAGER JAMENFELD JAMPOLER JANNER JARYCZOWE JARYCZOWER JARYCZOWER f. HALPERN JORISZ JUFFE JUNGFRAU JUTTKES KACZER KACZKA KAGAN KAHANE KAHANE f. GOLDMANN KALACHSTEIN KALBER KALISCH KAMINKER KAMM KAMMERTHAAR KANCZUGER KANCZUKIER KANCZYKER KANCZYKER KANDEL KANIUK KANNER KAPLAN KARMELIN KARMIOL KARP KARPEL KARPF KATZ KATZ f. NADEL KATZ f. NOMROWER KATZ r. PFEFFER KAUFMANN KEJLES f. BARAL KELHOFFER KELLER KELLNER f. LANZET KEPPEL KERER KESLER KESSLER KESTEN KESTENBLATT KIESEL KIESELSTEIN KILLEM KIMMEL KIMMELMAN KIRSCHEN KITAJ KITTAJ KITTLER KITTNER KIWETZ KLAHR KLANG KLARFELD KLARNET KLEIN KLEINBERG KLEINER KLEINER f. BRENNER KLEINER r. SEIDEN KLEINSTEIN KLINGER KLOTZ KLUGER KLUGHAUPT KNETTER KNOPF KNOPFHOLZ KOFFLER KOGUT KOHL KOHN KOHN recte HALPERN KOLLENDER KOLPAN KONIG KONIGSBERG KONIGSBERG f. SCHMAJUK KOPF KOPLAN KORN KORNBAUM KORNBERG KORNBLÜTH KORNFELD KORNGRÜN KORNMEHL KORNWEITZ KOSSER KOSTENBLAT KOTTLAR KOZINER KOZOWER KRAMBERG KRAMER KRAMMER KRAMS KRAUS KRAUT KREBS KREISBERG f. HAMMER KREITNER KRELL KREMER KREUTNER KRIJ KRIJ f. WEISSBROD KRISS KRITZ KROCHMAL KROCHMALNYK KRON KRONISCH KRONISCH f. SCHWARZ KRUH KUHN KUJ KUJ f. SUESS KULIE KUNKE KUNSTLER KUPFERMANN KURASCH KURFIRST KURFURST KURFURST f. WEIHRAUCH KURZ KURZER KURZER KURZMANN KWELLER LABINER LADSLEIN LANDAU LANDE LANDES LANDESBERG LANDMANN LANDSTEIN LANES LANGER LANZET LAPIJÓWKER LATEINER LAUB LAUER LAUFER LAUFER f. ZAUBER LAUFER f. ZWERDLING LAWNER LEBER LEHAN LEHRER LEIBEL LEIBELES LEIBLINGER LEIBSTEIN LEIMBERG LEINER LEINWAND LEITNER LEMPERT LEMSTER LENDER LENZ LERCHER LERNER LEWINTEZ LEWITTES LICHTAMNN LICHTENBERG LICHTENTHAL LICHTIGFELD LICHTMANN LIEBERGALL LIEBHICH LIEBLING LIFSCHUTZ LILKER LILLE LINCZYC LINDEMANN LINDENMANN LINER LINHARDT LIPHSCHÜTZ LIPPER LIPSCHUTZ LITUCZY LORBER LORBER f. FREUND LOW LOWENHAAR LOWENSOHN LOWENSTARK LOWENSTOCK LUBIANIKER LUBLINER LUDWAK LUFTIG LUNGE LUNGER LUSTIG LUTWAK LWOW MAGER MAGID MAHLER MAJULIK MALEC MALKIMANN MALKISCHER MANDEL MANDELBAUM MANDELKER MANDLER MANHEIM MANNHEIM MANRER MANTEL MANTL MARAMPOLER f. MANDEL MARBACH MARBACH vel FISCHEL MARDER MARGULIES MARGULIES f. FELD MARIASZ MARIENBERG MARKHEIM MARKMANN MARKUS MARKUS f. KELLER MARMOR MARMOR f. LANDAU MARYASCH MASCH MASKIBOJNIK MASS MATZ MAUER MAUER f. ZLATKES MAURER r. DRESSLER MAY MEDIENE MEERGRUN MEERSAND MEHL MEHLER MEHLER f. NESTROWITZER MEHLER f. WEST MEIER MEISINGER MELLER MELZER MENCZER MENDERER MENKER MENKES MENKIES MERLIN MERSAND MESSING MESSUTA MESSUTTO METH MIESES MIGDEN MIGDEN MILCHRAHM MILCHRAM MILGRAM MILGROM MILLGROM MILZ MITTELMAN MITTMANN MODLINGER MONDSCHEIN MONIEL MONIES MONIES f. HORCHITZ MORGENROTH MORGENSTERN MORKS MOSTER MUCZNIK MUHL MUHLMANN MUHLRAD MUHLSTOCK MULLER MUNZER MUSCHEL MUSZEL NACHWALTER NADEL NADEL f. FEDER NAGLER NEIER NEMEROWER NEMROWER NEUGEBOREN NEUMAN NEUMANN NEUSCHULER NEUSCHÜLLER NIPOMNISZER NIRENBERG NIWES NOWIKER NURNBERG NUSSBAUM NUSSBAUM f. DIWER NUSSBRECHER NUSSENBAUM OBLER f. STARK v. KESTENBLATT OCHS OCHSENHORN OCHSNER OCZERET OHL OHRENSTEIN OLEKSINCER OLESKER OLEXINCER ORDOWER ORLIŃSKI ORNSTEIN OSLIEB OSTERSETZER PACKEL vel TÜRKEL PACZENIK PALEK PAPERNIK PAPERNIK f. LEISNER PAPIER PAPLIR PAPORISCH PAPORISZ PARILLE PARISER PARKES PARNASS PARNES PASAMANEK PASTERNAK PECZENIK PECZENIK f. AXELRAD PEITSCHKOWITZ f. ROSEN PELLER PELZ PENIAKIER PEPIS PEPPIS PERL PERL f. KURZ PERLBERGER PERLMANN PERLMUTTER PETERSIL PETICHY PFAU (SEE SENEMANN) PFEFFER PFEFFERBLITH PFEFFERBLUTH PFLANZ PICKET PICKHOLZ PIEPES PIETRUSZKA PIKHOLZ PILCER PILPEL PINELES PINS PLAGER PLANER PLEITMANN PODHORCER PODHORZER PODOLER POHORILLES POHORYLLES POHRILLE POLAK POMERANZ POPERNIK POPPER POPPERS POSNER POTASCHNIK PREIS PREIS PREISS PRESSER PRINZ PRINZENTHAL PROBE PROBER PUDLES PUNDIG PUNDYK PUNEM RACKER RAJCES RAPPAPORT RASCHBAUM RATHAUS RATZENSTEIN RAWER RAWICZ REGENBOGEN REICH REICHENBACH REICHENBERG REICHMANN REICHSTEIN REICHSTEIN f. NUSSBAUM REILMANN REISBERG REISER REISS REISS f. THUMIN REISSBERG REISSMANN REITER REIZENBEIN REIZES REMENIUK RENDELSTEIN RIDKES f. SCHÜSSBERG RINGLER RINTEL RIWER ROBINSOHN ROHOTINER ROMER RONIN ROSEN ROSENBAUM ROSENBERG ROSENFELD ROSENGARTEN ROSENKRANZ ROSENMAN ROSENMANN ROSENSTOCK ROSENSTRAUCH ROSENTHAL ROSENWASSER ROSENWURZEL ROSENZWEIG ROSLER ROSNER f. ROSENBERG ROSS ROSSMAN ROTH ROTHENBERG f. GOLDENHERZ ROTHFELD ROTHSTEIN ROTISCHER ROTTENBERG ROTTER RUBIN RUBIN f. SOMMERSTEIN RUBINSTEIN RUDMANN RUDNER RUDNIK RUDOLF RUHIG RUM RUSSMANN RUTEN RUTTEN SACHS SAFIER SÄFTEL SALVER SALZ SAMBOL SAMBOR SAMET SAPHIER SAPHIR SASOWER SASS SASS f. ALTMANN SASSOWER SAUBERMANN SCHABES SCHACH f. BERGER SCHACHTER SCHAFKOPF SCHALIETE SCHALLIT SCHAMIR SCHAPIRA SCHAPIRA f. HOROWITZ SCHAPIRA f. KATZ SCHAPIRA f. KOSTORYS SCHAPU SCHARF SCHARFSPITZ SCHARMANN SCHAUB SCHAUBEN SCHECHTER SCHEIN SCHEINDEL SCHEINES SCHENKEL SCHENKER SCHER SCHERER SCHERMANN SCHERZNIK SCHIFERMANN SCHIFFERMANN SCHIFFMAN SCHIFFMANN SCHIKLER SCHIMSKER SCHINAGEL SCHINDERMANN SCHINDLER SCHLEICHER SCHLENGEL SCHMARAK SCHMARZWALD SCHMATE SCHMERGEL SCHMETTER SCHMIERER SCHMMATE SCHMUCKLER SCHMUTZ SCHNECK SCHNEE SCHNEIDER SCHNITZER SCHOLZ f. HALPERN SCHONFELD SCHONHAUS SCHONHOLZ f. FLEISCHMAN SCHONSTER SCHORER SCHORMAN SCHORR SCHORZ SCHOSSEL SCHREIBER SCHRENZEL SCHRIFT SCHRITZER SCHULBAUM SCHULFOND SCHULMANOWICZ SCHULSTER SCHUSSBERG SCHUSSEL SCHUTZ SCHUTZER SCHWALB SCHWALBENNEST SCHWARZ SCHWARZ f. JAFF SCHWARZAPFEL SCHWARZBARD SCHWARZMAN SCHWARZMANN SCHWEIG SCHWEITZER SCHWERFINGER SEDLER SEELIGER SEGALL SEGEDÜN f. KOLPAN SEGEL SEID SEID f. FROMMER SEIDENWERG SEIDENWERK SEIDEWERG f. ROSENFELD SEIDLER SEIDMAN SEIDMANN SEIFE SEIFER SEINFELD SELIG SELINGER f. SAFIERSTEIN SEMELS SENEMANN false PFAU SENENSIEB SERETH SETZER SIEBERT SIEGELBAUM SIEGELWACHS SIGALL SILBER SILBER f. ROZEN SILBER r. ZIMMERMANN SILBERBERG f.MANTEL SILBERG SILBERMAN SILBERMANN SILBERMANN false EICHENBAUM SINAJ SIRKES SKULSKY SLOMNICKI SOBEL SOBELSOHN f. FROMMER SOMMER SOMMERFLECK SOMMERSTEIN SONNE SONNENSCHEIN SOSNIWKER SPANBERG SPANIER SPEICHER SPEISER SPEIZER SPERLING SPIEGEL SPIEGEL f. MENCZER SPIEGELGLAS SPIELBERG SPIELER SPIELHOLZ SPINDEL SPINDLER SPRECHER SPRING SPRINGER SPRINGER f. KUPFERWASSER SPRINGMANN SPUMBERG SPUNBERG f. CZERWITZ STANGER STARK STARKSCHALL STAROSIOLLER STECKL STEICHER STEIFSTEIN STEIGER STEIN STEIN f. BRANDES STEIN r. DRUCKER STEINBERG STEINHARDT STEINHAUER STEINHAUS STEINSCHNEIDER f. HALPERN STERN STERNBERG STERNGLAS STERNSCHUSS STEUERMAN STEUERMANN STÖCKEL STOKEL STOLER STOLZENBERG STRAU STRAUCH STREIT SUFRIN SUSSKIND SUSSMAN SUSSMANN SYALL SYGALL SYGALL f. SCHAPIRA SZAPIRA f. WECHSLER SZLOMKOWICZ SZOSTAK SZWARAPFEL TABACZNIK TABAK TABAK f. GELBARD TAFET TAFFET TAHLER TALEK TALER TANNENBAUM TAPPER TARASZCZUK TATAR TAUB TAUBELES TAUBER TAURER TEIBER TEICH TEICHHOLZ TEICHMANN TEIK TEITEL TEITELBAUM TENENBAUM TENNENBAUM TENNENBAUM f. ADLERSTEIN TEPPER TEPPERBERG TERZNHOF TEUWIN THAL THALER THORSNHOF TILL TORCZANER TORSUHOF f. POLLAK TRACHTENBROT TRAWIŃSKI TRESTER TREUSTER TRIEF TSCHUBATYJ TUCHFELD TUNIS TURINGER TURK TURKEL TURKEL f. PRINZ TURKL ULIWER UNGAR UNGER UNTER UNTERMAN UNTERMANN URICH VERSTANDIG VOGEL VOGELBAUM VOGELFÜTTIG VOGELMAN VORSPAN WACHS WACHTEL WACHTEL f. REISSMAN WAGREICH WAGSCHAL WAHRHAFTIG f. CLIMKES WALALCH f. DRUCKER WALDMANN WALLACH WALLACH f. NUSSBAUM WALLFISCH WALTUCH WANDER WARTENBERG WARTENBERG f. FRUCHTMAN WARTENFELD WASSER WASSERMAN WASSERMANN WASSERMUHL WASSERSTROM WATTENMACHER WEBER WECHLER WECHSLER WEHLER WEIBER f BORER WEIGER WEIGLER WEIHRAUCH WEINBAUM WEINBER WEINBERG WEINER WEINFELD WEINGARTEN WEINLOS WEINMAN WEINSTEIN WEINSTERN WEINSTOCK WEINSTOCK f. DEUTSCH WEINTRAUB WEINTRAUB f. DICK WEINTRAUB f. HALBERTAL WEISBROD WEISELES WEISER WEISGLAS WEISHAAR WEISHAAR f. WALLACH WEISHAUS WEISHAUT WEISMANN r. WINKLER WEISNICHT WEISSBARST WEISSBERG WEISSBROD WEISSER WEISSGLAS WEISSGLASS f. BERGSHOFF WEISSHAAR WEISSMANN WEISSTAUB WEISSVOGEL WEISTAUB WEITMANN WEITZ WEITZENBERG WEITZENHOFER WEITZKORN WEITZMANN f. TABAK WELEDNIG WELEDNIGER WELEDNIKER WELTER WENDEL WERBER WERBER f. TAUS WERFEL WERTER WEST WEWRIK WICERABIN WIDHOFF WIENER WIESEL WILLNER WINDMUHL WINKLER WINTER WLODNIGER WOHL WOLF WOLFENHAUT WOLFSTHAL WOLFTHAL WOLFZAHN WOLLNER WORTMAN WUFKE WUNDERLICH WYNOKUROW ZAHLER ZAMOJRE ZEIGER ZELLER ZELLERMAYER ZENGER ZIEBUCH ZIKORIE ZILZ ZIMBLER ZIMELES ZIMET ZIMMER ZIMOND ZINDLER ZIPPER ZIPPER f. GLASNER ZIPRIS ZLATKES ZOJREF ZOLLER ZUCKER ZUCKERHANDEL ZUCKERKANDEL ZUCKERKANDL ZUCKERMANN ZUKERMANN ZUPNIK ZWANGER ZWECK ZWEIG ZWERDLING ZWERLING ZWERLING ZWIEBEL ZWILLING ZYDOWIECKI ZYTRON