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  • MARUTTA (deceased)
    Marutta At Mbh.14.4 we have a different version of the Ikswaku lineage:- Manu of Krita Age had a son named Prasandhi. His son wasKshupa. Kshupa's son was Ikshwaku. Ikshwaku's son was Vinsawhose son was...
  • DARUKA (deceased)
    CHARIOTEER OF SRIKRISHNA. Balarama and Vabhru die next. Krishna asks Daruka to go to Pandavas, tell what had happened and ask Arjuna to come with help. While Daruka was gone, the parva describes how ...
  • ALAMBHUSHA (deceased)
    A RAKSHASA FRIEND OF DURYODHANA, WHO HAD JOINED HIS FORCES, BUT SATYAKI COMPELLED HIM TO FLEE FROM THE BATTLE FIELD.
  • YAJA (deceased)
    ________________________________________ SECTION CLXIX (Chaitraratha Parva continued) "The Brahmana continued, 'King Drupada (after this), distressed at heart, wandered among many asylums of Brahmanas ...

HISTORY OF INDIA (NORTH) MOSTLY DURING THE YEARS 3100BC TO 3000BC

'='HISTORY OF INDIA MORE THAN FIVE THOUSAND YEARS AGO..= 5000 YEARS IS A VERY LONG PERIOD, DURING WHICH EARTHQUAKES, STORMS, FLOODS AND FOREIGN INVASIONS CHANGE THE COURSE OF RIVERS, DESTROY THE TOWNS/BUILDINGS AND ALTER THE TERRITORIES. THEREFORE, THE TASK OF UNEARTHING THE FACTS IS MONUMENTAL.

DATING OF THE MAHABHARAT TIME PERIOD BASED ON THE ASTROLOGICAL INFORMATION PROVIDED BY VEDA VYAASA (POSITION OF STAR ETC.) IN MAHABHARAT, WAR ESTIMATED TO HAVE STARTED ON 3067 B.C. ON 22ND NOVEMBER. WAR DATE AND ALL OTHER DATES STATED IN THIS PROJECT MAHABHARAT, WERE MATCHED THE INDIAN ASTROLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE STARS AND MOON AND JULIAN CALENDER PREDICTIONS. WITH THIS ASSUMPTION WE CAN PROCEED WITH INDIAN HISTORY, FOR THE TIME BEING AND GO AHEAD WITH OUR PROJECT.

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MAHABHARAT THE HOLY EPIC TEACHES US THE GOAL & ULTIMATE AIM OF HUMAN LIFE

Mahabharata is one of the two most pious epics of India, the other being Ramayana. Mahabharata consists of 90,000 verses in total. The general conception is that Mahabharata is all about the war between Kauravas and the Pandavs. But this is a false impression. The Mahabharata through the war and other incidents teaches us what the goal of human life should be. It tell us that the ultimate aim of human life is attaining Moksha(salvation), and this can be done only by walking on the path of Dharma. The Mahabharata traces the life of the Pandav princes as they are cheated out of their kingdom by the Kauravs. Their hard life in the forest (vanavas), which is full of many adventures, has been explained in an artistic detail by Ved Vyas. After a long interval of 14 years, the Pandavs return to their Kingdom of Hastinapur and demand what rightfully belonged to them. When the Kauravas, led by Duryodhana, refuse and insult their messenger Shri Krishna, the Pandavs declare war on the Kauravas. Thus takes place the epic battle of Kurukshetra.

I't is in this battle that Shri Krishna preaches the true way of living life to Arjuna, in the form of the Bhagwa Gita. Thus the Mahabharata is a holy epic that is filled with adventures and yet is able to tell effectively the workings of Dharma and Karma.

The Mahabharata is the longest and, arguably, one of the greatest epic poems in any language. The Mahabharata is said to have been written by Sage Vyasa sometime between 400 B.C. and 200 A.D. The word Maha in sanskrit is an adjective that means something that is great or extraoridary and Bharata is India, but this Epic is about much more than just India. It transcends culture and religion and at the very core of the ancient storyline lies a simple theme that all of mankind can relate too. It is a story of good versus evil, of families in turmoil, of jealousy and betrayal and at the heart of it all, a fight for the truth.=

'='The Story of the Mahabharata Briefly='

In some ways, the entire story of the Mahabharata is an explanation of how our world, the world of the Kali Yuga, came into being, and how things got to be as bad as they are. The Ramayana has its share of suffering and even betrayal, but nothing to match the relentless hatred and vengeance of the Mahabharata. The culmination of the Mahabharata is the Battle of Kurukshetra when two bands of brothers, the Pandavas and the Kauravas, the sons of two brothers and thus cousins to one another, fight each other to death, brutally and cruelly, until the entire race is almost wiped out. The five sons of Pandu, the Pandavas, are the heroes of the story. The eldest is Yudhishthira, the King. Next is Bhima, an enormously strong fighter with equally enormous appetites. After Bhima is Arjuna, the greatest of the warriors, and the companion of Krishna. The last two are twins, Nakula and Sahadeva. These five brothers share one wife, Draupadi (she became the wife of all five of them by accident, as you will learn). The enemies of the Pandavas are the Kauravas, who are the sons of Pandu's brother, Dhritarashtra. Although Dhritarashtra is still alive, he cannot manage to restrain his son Duryodhana, who bitterly resents the achievements of his cousins, the Pandavas. Duryodhana arranges for his maternal uncle to challenge Yudhishthira to a game of dice, and Yudhishthira gambles everything away, even himself. The Pandavas have to go into exile, but when they return they engage the Kauravas in battle. Krishna fights on the side of the Pandavas, and serves as Arjuna's charioteer. The famous "Song of the Lord," or Bhagavad-Gita, is actually a book within the Mahabharata, as the battle of Kurukshetra begins. When Arjuna faces his cousins on the field of battle, he despairs and sinks down, unable to fight. The Bhagavad-Gita contains the words that Krishna spoke to Arjuna at that moment. The Pandavas do win the battle. Duryodhana is killed, and the Kaurava armies are wiped out. But it is hardly a happy ending. Yudhishthira becomes king, but the world is forever changed by the battle's violence. If you are familiar with the Iliad, you might remember how that epic ends with the funeral of the Trojan hero Hector, a moment which is utterly bleak and sad. The same is true for the Mahabharata. There are many truths that are learned in the end, but the victory, such as it is, comes at a terrible price.==

Dating of the Mahabharat time period This article is based on the information that I found in March 1995 issue of "Saptagiri" published in Telugu by Tirumala Tirupati Devastaanam, authored by Shrii Janamaddi Hanumanta Rao. The article itself was based on the research effort by Professor K. Srinivasa Raghavan. The research was acclaimed by several famous pundits of Panchanga Shaastra including the Secretary of the All India Panchanga Samskarana Sangha, Pandit Radhashyaam Shaastri from Hariyana, and Vice chancellor of Sourashtra University, Shrii D.R. Mankad, etc. Based on the astrological information provided by Veda Vyaasa (Position of the stars etc), Mahabharat war was estimated to have started on 3067B.C. on 22nd November. On the day of the war, the astrological positions of the Sun, Moon, Rahu, Saturn, Guru, Mangala and Sukra planets have been described by Vyaasa. By looking at the position based on Panchangam, Indian Calendar, and matching with the position of the stars described by Vyaas and comparing with the Julian Calendar, one can arrive at the precise dates for the war. Furthermore all other related incidents that took place before and after the war were described in Mahabhaarat, and the dates for these can be precisely matched with the Julian calendar, as discussed bellow. Shrii Krishna made a last minute effort to make peace but failed. He left the Upaplaavya city on Kaartiika Shuddha Dvaadasi day in Revati Nakshatra (star) between 7:36 - 8:24AM. He reached Hastinaapura in Bharani Nakshatra, and had discussions with the Kouravaas till Pushyami Nakshatra. The day Duryodhana rejected the peace proposal was Krishna Pancami. Krishna left Hastinaapura, and had consultations with KarNa before he departed. (He revealed to KarNa that he was the eldest son of Kunti) on Uttara Palghuni day. Krishna informed KarNa that Duryodhana must get ready to fight, seventh day from that day, which will be Amaavaasya day (New-moon day) with JyeshTa Nakshatra. Krishna returned to Upaplaavya city on Chitta Nakshatra. Three days after that on Anuradha Nakshatra Balarama came to Upaplaavya. Next Pushya Nakshtra day Pandavaas left with Krishna to Kurukshetra. Fifteen days after return from Upaplaavya city, Balarama left on Punarvasu Nakshatra on the tour of sacred places. (Balarama did not want to participate in the war that involved cousins on both sides). He returned to Kurukshetra after forty-two days in the ShravaNa Nakshatra. The war already started eighteen days back. On the nineteenth day, BahuLa Caturdashi day on ShravaNa Nakshatra, Duryodhana died. It was the fifty-ninth day after Amaavaasya with JyeshTaa Nakshatra. Krishana returned from Hastinaapura after his unsuccessful peace mission on Uttara Palghuna day. Starting from that day, the seventh day is New-moon day (amaavaasya) with Saturn on Rohini Nakshatra as discussed by Vyaasa. Rahu was approaching the Sun, and the Moon was turning towards Amaavaasya (New-Moon day). 36 years after the Mahabharat war, Yaadava kula was destroyed. This was predicted by Krishana by astrological happening - "Rahu has compressed Purnima on Chaturdasi day. This happened once before the Mahabharata war and again will be happening soon and this will lead to our destruction". He remembered Gandhari's curse on the Yadava kula. Astrologically a strange phenomenon occurred during the Mahabharata war. The lunar cycle (paksha - normally is 15 days) sometimes happens in fourteen days. But during the Mahabharata war-time a rare thing happened - the paksha got compressed to 13 days. (May be 13 is a bad number). This aspect has been discussed in the Bhiishma parva - 3rd Adhyaaya. Guru and Shani are in Vaishaaka, Moon and the Sun entered in the same house one after the other making amaavaasya on the Trayodasi day it self . This peculiar condensation of the thithiis into thirteen from fifteen is a rare phenomenon as discussed by Vyaasa in Mahabharat and has inevitably followed by mass destruction due to war. This incident provided a direct means to establish the precise date of Mahabharat war. According to Julian calendar this type of planetary collusion occurred definitely in 3076 BC in November. Vyaasa writes: Caturdashiim panchadashiim Bhuuta puurvamca shoodhashiim Imaantu naabhi jaaneham Amaavaasyaam trayodashiim Chandra suurya bhougrastou Ekamevam trayodashiim AparvaNi grahaNe tou Prajaa sakshapaishyataH|| "I have seen fourteen days a paksha, fifteen day completion or extension to sixteenth day also. This amaavaasya falling on the thirteenth day itself I have never seen before" - says Vyasa. That, on the same month Sun and Moon eclipses falling during the missing thitiies is a rare phenomenon, resulting in large-scale disaster to people. One month before, in Margashira, during Purvaashhaada Nakshatra, armies of Pandavaas and Kouravaas have assembled on the West and the East sides of the Hiranya river, respectively. The next day was Navaraatri and Durga Puja day. Duryodhana was itching for the war. That evening Duryodhana sends a word with Sekuni's son Ulaka, " We have finished the prayer to the arms and everybody is ready - why there is further delay in starting the war?" The next day, Margashira Shudda Ekadashi day, in KRittika Nakshatra, the war started. Hence, the famous Bhagavad Geeta teaching also started on that day. The war began at 6:30 am. The date according to Julian calendar was 22nd November, 3067B.C. Other notable incidences that occurred: Bhiishma's death: Maagha Shuddha AshTami day in Rohini Nakshtra in the afternoon that 58th day after the war started, Bhiishma died. ( This is the actual death - He actually fell in the war on the 10th day after the war started). Sri Krishna's Birth - He was born on 3112B.C. on Friday at 11:40 PM. Pandavaas Birth - YudhishTara was born on August 31, 3114BC, Tuesday (Mangala Vaaram) Shudda Panchami JyeshhTaa Nakshatra - He was 696 days elder to Krishna. Bhiima was 347 days younger to YudhishTara. - Krishna Trayodashi, Makha Nakshatra, and Arjuana was 303 days younger to Bhiima. Shukla Chaturdashi Soma Vaaram (Monday) Uttara PhalguNi Nakshtra. When Pandavaas came to Hastinaapura after the death of their father Pandu, it was 3091BC and YudhishTara was 14years, 9 months and 11days old. When he was coranated by Bhiishma as a prince, YudhishTara was 20 years, 1 month and 26 days old. (November, 3094BC). They reached Varanasi in PalguNa Shuddha AshTami RohiNi Nakshtra. Droupadi's Swayamvaram -in 3091BC, April - to reach the Wax-house it took 10 days for Pandavaas. They stayed there for an year. After the burning of the wax-house, they spent six months in the Shaalihotraa's ashram and seven months in Ekachatra city. The second coronation and building of Indraprasta was in November 3091BC, seven months after the marriage. Rajasuuya yagna was performed after Arjuna's dig vijaya tour - It took five years and six months for Arjuna. Subhadra's marriage was in April 3084BC. Three months after that was Khadava vana dahanam. Abhimanyu was born in 3083BC, February. Kaliyugam started in 3105BC, October 13th, Amaavaasya Mangala (Tuesday) JyeshaTa Nakshatra - Kali was born. This was the most inauspicious day. The next Pournima day (Full-moon day) was full eclipse of the Moon, October 1, 3104BC. That was the day, when the five grahaas along with moon were in DhanishTaa Nakshatra. Dharmajaa's Rajasuuya - Fifteen years before the Mahabharata war was the Rajasuuya yagna of Dharmaja. That day was amaavaasya (new-moon day) JyeshTa Muula nakshtra . YudhishTara shakam started in 3082BC, October 26th . The gambling and the banishment of Pandavaas to forest was in November 3081BC, Margashira shukla-Trayodashi. Vanavaasam was 12 years and living incognito was for one year (13 lunar years + 5 lunar months + 12 days or 13 solar years plus 18 days) - Bhiimshma calculates and declares that Dhurodhana's calculations were wrong. AJNaata vaasam (living incognito) began in Margashira 3069BC. Arjuna was noticed on Margashira Krishna Navami, 3068BC. The Great war began on 3067BC, Friday 22nd November, Margashira shudda ekadashi Nakshatra. The war lasted for 18 days. Dharmaraju ruled for only 36 years. 25years later YudhishTara shaka started. (Thursday October 26th). Fifteen years after Dharmaja rule started, Dhutaraashtra, Gandhaari, Vidura, Kunti and Sanjaya left for Vaanaprasta (forest living). That year itself Vidura performed praayopavesham. Two years after that Dhrutaraashtra, Gandhaari and Kunti got caught in the forest fire and died. Sanjaya was only left. Shrii Krishna passed away on 3031BC, April 13th Friday. Pandavaas Maahaa Prastaanam was in 3031BC, in November. These are the dates that matched the Indian astrological description of the stars and the moon, and Julian Calendar predictions. There is so much self consistency in all the events and the descriptions that it makes one to wonder. Based on these exact information Mahabhaarat must be Five thousand years Old (from today) as per the historical accounting. The analysis is extremely precise and scientific, matching the astrological position of the Indian and the Julian Calendars. Based on the above facts the historicity of Mahabharat cannot be questioned. Translation by K. Sadananda