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Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian and Swedish: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. It is awarded to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses." The Nobel Peace Prize is frequently described as the most prestigious prize among the Nobel Prizes, and indeed, as "the world's most prestigious prize".

Per Alfred Nobel's will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a 5-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded in Oslo City Hall on 10 December each year. The prize was formerly awarded in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law (1947–89), the Norwegian Nobel Institute (1905–46) and the Parliament (1901–04).

Malala Yousafzai (b. 1997, age 17) of Pakistan was the youngest Nobel laureate ever. (in 2014).

chronological

  • 2014: was awarded jointly to: Kailash Satyarthi कैलाश सत्यार्थी (b. 1954) Indian children's rights activist and to: Malala Yousafzai ملاله یوسفزۍ (b. 1997), Pakistani school pupil and education activist - the youngest person ever to win the Nobel Peace Prize, "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education".
  • 2013: Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW-UN), "for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons".
  • 2012: European Union (EU) "for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe".
  • 2011: jointly to: Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (b. 1938) 24th and current President of Liberia, to: Leymah Gbowee (b. 1972) Liberian peace activist, and to: Tawakkol Karman توكل كرمان (b. 1979) became the international public face of the 2011 Yemeni women rights and peace activist, known as Yemeni "Iron Woman" and "Mother of the Revolution", "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work".
  • 2010: Liu Xiaobo
  • 2009: Barack Hussein Obama jr. (b. 1961).
  • 2008 : Martti Ahtisaari
  • 2007: jointly to: I.P.C.C. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and to: Albert Arnold -Al- Gore jr. (b. 1948)
  • 2006 : Muhammad YUNUS ‧ ‧ • Grameen BANK
  • 2005: jointly to: I.A.E.A. International Atomic Energy Agency and to: Mohamed El-Baradei (b. 1942).
  • 2004 : Wangari Muta Maathai ‧
  • 2003 : Shirin EBADI ‧
  • 2002: James Earl -Jimmy- Carter, jr. (b. 1924) 39th President of the United States, "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development".
  • 2001: jointly to: U.N. United Nations and to: Kofi Annan (b. 1938) Secretary General of the UN.
  • 2000 : Kim Dae-jung ‧
  • 1999 : Médecins Sans Frontières
  • 1998 : John HUME ‧ David TRIMBLE ‧
  • 1997: jointly to: I.C.B.L. International Campaign to Ban Landmines and to: Jody WILLIAMS (b. 1950).
  • 1996: jointly to: [ Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo] Roman Catholic bishop of Dili, East Timor (b. 1948) and to José Ramos-Horta (b. 1949) Former Prime Minister & 2nd President of East Timor, "for their efforts to bring peace and independence to East Timor".
  • 1995: jointly to: Joseph ROTBLAT () and to Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
  • 1994: jointly to: Mohammed Yasser Arafat (1929-2004), to שמעון פרס Shimon Peres (b. 1923), and to: יצחק רבין Yitzhak Rabin (1922-1995),"for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East".
  • 1993: jointly to South Africans: Frederik Willem de Klerk (b. 1936) &Nelson Mandela
  • 1992 : Rigoberta Menchú Tum ‧ ‧ •
  • 1991 : Aung San Suu Kyi ‧ ‧ •
  • 1990 : Mikhail Sergeyevich GORBACHEV ‧ Stavropol 1931-x ‧ •
  • 1989 : The 14th Dalai Lama,Tenzin Gyatso (b. 1935) Spiritual and temporal leader of the Tibetan people. "For his struggle for the liberation of Tibet while opposed the use of violence. He advocated peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people.
  • 1988: UN-United Nations Peacekeeping Forces.
  • 1987: Oscar Arias Sánchez (b. 1941) President of Costa Rica, "for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"
  • 1986: Elie Wiesel (b. 1928).
  • 1985: Intern. Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War.
  • 1984: Desmond Mpilo Tutu (b. 1931) Former General Secretary of the South African Council of Churches. "For his role as a unifying leader figure in the campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa".
  • 1983: Lech Walesa (b. 1943) President of Poland •
  • 1982: jointly to: Alva Myrdal (1902 - 1986) Swedish sociologist and politician and to [ Alfonso García Robles] (1911 - 1991) Mexican politician and diplomat, "Mr. Disarmament". "for Disarmament and Nuclear Weapons-Free Zones".
  • 1981: U.N.H.C.R. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
  • 1980 : Adolfo Pérez ESQUIVEL ‧ 1931 ‧ •
  • 1979 : Mother Teresa ‧ ‧ •
  • 1978: jointly to: [ Mohamed Anwar al-SADAT] (1918-1970) and to: מנחם בגין Menachem Begin (1913-1992).
  • 1977: Amnesty International.
  • 1976 : Betty WILLIAMS ‧ ‧ • Mairead CORRIGAN ‧ ‧ •
  • 1975: Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov Андре́й Дми́триевич Са́харов (1921-1989) Soviet nuclear physicist, dissident, and human rights activist.
  • 1974: jointly to: Seán MacBride (1904 - 1988) rish government minister, a prominent international politician and a former Chief of Staff of the IRA, "for his efforts on behalf of human rights, among other things as one of the founders of Amnesty International.", and to: ‧ ‧ • Eisaku Sato (1901 - 1975) Prime Minister of Japan, "he represented the will for peace of the Japanese people, and that he had signed the nuclear arms Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)".
  • 1973: jointly to: Henry A. Kissinger (b. 1923) US Secretary of State, and to Le Duc Tho (1911 - 1990) North Vietnam's chief armistice negotiator - who declined the Nobel Peace Prize. "for succeeding in arranging the ceasefire in Vietnam after negotiating for nearly four years".
  • 1972: not awarded
  • 1971: Willy Brandt (1913-1992) Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany. The European Bridge-Builder
  • 1970 : Norman Ernest BORLAUG (1914-2009)
  • 1969: International Labour Organization I.L.O.
  • 1968: René Samuel Cassin ‧ (1887-1976) French jurist, law professor and judge, "Father of the Declaration of Human Rights"
  • 1967: not awarded
  • 1966: not awarded
  • 1965: United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF.
  • 1964: Martin Luther King jr. (1929-1968).
  • 1963: International Committee of the Red Cross, League of Red Cross Societies, Comité international de la Croix Rouge, Ligue des Sociétés de la Croix-Rouge.
  • 1962: Linus Carl Pauling (1901-1994).
  • 1961: Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld (1905 - 1961) Swedish diplomat, economist, and author. The second Secretary-General of the United Nations.
  • 1960 : Albert John LUTULI ‧ ‧ •
  • 1959: Philip J. Noel-Baker
  • 1958 : Georges PIRE ‧ ‧ •
  • 1957: Lester Bowles Pearson (1897-1972).
  • 1956: not awarded
  • 1955: not awarded
  • 1954: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees ‧ UNHCR.
  • 1953: George Catlett Marshall (1880-1959).
  • 1952: Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965).
  • 1951 : Léon JOUHAUX ‧ ‧ •
  • 1950: Ralph Bunche (1904 - 1971) American - UN Peace Negotiator in the Middle East, "for having arranged a cease-fire between Israelis and Arabs during the war which followed the creation of the state of Israel in 1948."
  • 1949 : Lord (John) Boyd Orr of BRECHIN ‧ ‧ •
  • 1948: not awarded
  • 1947: American Friends Service Committee‧The Quakers.
  • 1946: jointly to: Emily Greene Balch (1867 – 1961) American Radical Champion of Peace "for her lifelong work for disarmament and peace", and to John Raleigh Mott (1865 – 1955) American Peace activist, President, World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations, Chairman, International Missionary Council, "for contributing to the creation of a peace-promoting religious brotherhood across national boundaries".
  • 1945: Cordell Hull (1871 - 1955) U.S. Secretary of State, "for his role in establishing the United Nations".
  • 1944: International Committee of the Red Cross.
  • 1943: not awarded
  • 1942: not awarded
  • 1941: not awarded
  • 1940: not awarded
  • 1939: not awarded
  • 1938: Nansen International Office for Refugees.
  • 1937: Cecil of Chelwood, Viscount (Lord Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne Cecil), British lawyer, parliamentarian and cabinet minister, "Foremost Defender of the League of Nations and a leader of the International Peace Campaign (IPC), which worked for disarmament and collective security through the League of Nations.
  • 1936: Carlos Saavedra Lamas (1878 - 1959).
  • 1935 : Carl von OSSIETZKY ‧ ‧ •
  • 1934 : Arthur HENDERSON ‧ ‧ •
  • 1933 : Sir Norman ANGELL ‧ ‧ • Ralph LANE ‧ ‧ •
  • 1932: not awarded
  • 1931: jointly to: Jane Addams (1860 - 1935) American pioneer settlement worker, founder of Hull House in Chicago, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in woman suffrage and world peace, "She founded the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, and worked to get the great powers to disarm and conclude peace agreements; and to: Nicholas Murray Butler (1862 - 1947) American philosopher, diplomat, and educator, "for his efforts to strengthen international law and the International Court at the Hague".
  • 1930: Lars Olof Jonathan (Nathan) Söderblom (1866 - 1931) Swedish Archbishop, "Cooperation between Christian Church Communities Brings Peace".
  • 1929: Frank Billings Kellogg (1856 - 1937), American ex-Secretary of State, "for having been one of the initiators of the Briand-Kellogg Pact of 1928. Almost all the world's states signed this pact, which prohibited wars of aggression."
  • 1928: not awarded
  • 1927 : Ferdinand Buisson ‧ ‧ • Ludwig Quidde ‧ ‧ •
  • 1926: jointly to: Aristide Briand (1862 - 1932) French statesman and Prime Minister, and to: [ Gustav Stresemann] (1978 - 1929) German Foreign Minister, "for reconciliation between Germany and France after World War I."
  • 1925: jointly to: Sir Austen Chamberlain (1863 - 1937) British statesman, and to: Charles Gates Dawes (1865 - 1951) 30th VP of the USA, "For Reconciliation between Germany and France after WWI".
  • 1924: not awarded
  • 1923: not awarded
  • 1922: Fridtjof Nansen (1861 - 1930) Norwegian explorer, scientist and diplomat, " for his work as a League of Nations High Commissioner".
  • 1921: Karl Hjalmar Branting (1870 - 1925) 16th PM of Sweden, and to: Christian Lous Lange (1869 - 1938) Norwegian historian, teacher, and political scientist, "for their work in the League of Nations".
  • 1920 : Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois ‧ ‧ •
  • 1919: Thomas Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) 28th President of the United States (1912-1920), " as the leading architect behind the League of Nations ".
  • 1918: not awarded
  • 1917: International Committee of the Red Cross.
  • 1916: not awarded
  • 1915: not awarded
  • 1914: not awarded
  • 1913 : Henri La FONTAINE ‧ ‧ •
  • 1912: Elihu Root (1845 - 1937) U.S. Secretary of War and State, "for his work to bring nations together through arbitration and cooperation".
  • 1911: jointly to: Tobias Michael Carel Asser (1838 - 1913) Dutch lawyer and politician, and to Alfred Hermann Fried (1864-1921) Austrian Peace Philosopher, Publisher and Popularizer.
  • 1910: Permanent International Peace Bureau, IPB.
  • 1909 : jointly to: Auguste Marie François Beernaert (1829 - 1912) 14th Prime Minister of Bekgium, and to Paul Henri Benjamin Balluet, baron d'Estournelles de Constant Rebecque (1852 - 1924) French diplomat and politician, advocate of international arbitration.
  • 1908 : jointly to: Klas Pontus Arnoldson (1844 - 1916) Swedish author and peace activist, "for efforts in connection with the conflict over the union, and a step towards the reconciliation of the two independent states (Norway & Sweden)", and to Fredrik Bajer (1837 - 1922) Danish soldier, politician, organizer and peace activist, who "has been given the credit for the establishment of the International Peace Bureau".
  • 1907: jointly to: Ernesto Teodoro Moneta (18330- 1918) Italian journalist and peace activist, "President of the Lombard League for Peace, and peace movement activist", and to: Louis Renault (18430* 1918) French jurist and educator "Expert in International Law and Practical Promoter of Peace".
  • 1906: Theodore Roosevelt (1858 - 1919) The 26th President of the USA, "for having negotiated peace in the Russo-Japanese war in 1904-5".
  • 1905: Baroness Bertha Sophie Felicita von Suttner (1843-1914) Austrian novelist, radical (organizational) pacifist, and the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and the second to be awarded the Nobel Prize.
  • 1904: Institute of International Law.
  • 1903: Sir William Randal Cremer (Mar 18, 1828 - Jul 22, 1908) English Liberal Member of Parliament and pacifist, "Father of the Inter-Parliamentary Union".
  • 1902: jointly to: Élie Ducommun (Feb 19, 1833 - Dec 7, 1906) Swiss Peace activist, and to: Albert Gobat (May 21, 1843 - Mar 16, 1914) Swiss politician and Peace advocate, "for their leadership of the Permanent International Peace Bureau".
  • 1901: jointly to: Jean Henry Dunant (May 8, 1828 - Oct. 30, 1910) Swiss businessman and humanitarian, "Founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross", and to Frédéric Passy (May 20, 1922 - Jun. 12, 1912) French economist, "Founder and President of first French peace society".

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