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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

On 27 November 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will and testament, giving the largest share of his fortune to a series of prizes, the Nobel Prizes. As described in Nobel's will, one part was dedicated to “the person who shall have made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine”. The Medicine Prize has subsequently highlighted a number of important discoveries including penicillin, genetic engineering and blood-typing.

The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet is responsible for selecting the Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine. The Nobel Assembly has 50 voting members and is composed of professors in medical subjects at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden. Its working body is the Nobel Committee, elected from among its members for a three-year term.

The 105 Nobel Prizes for Physiology or Medicine have been awarded to 204 individuals (to 2014), of which 11 women have won the prize. There have been 38 times when the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to a single individual, 32 times when it was shared by two and 34 times there were three winner, the maximum allowed.

Youngest Medicine Laureate: To date, the youngest Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine is Frederick G. Banting, who was 32 years old when he was awarded the Medicine Prize in 1923.

Oldest Medicine Laureate: The oldest Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine to date is Peyton Rous, who was 87 years old when he was awarded the Medicine Prize in 1966.

Oldest living Nobel Laureate: The Nobel Laureate who lived to the oldest age was Rita Levi-Montalcini, who was awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. She was the first Nobel laureate ever to reach a 100th birthday. She celebrated her 103th anniversary on 22 April 2012 and passed away on December 30, 2012.

All Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded 104 times to 204 Nobel Laureates between 1901 and 2014. It was not awarded on nine occasions: in 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1921, 1925, 1940, 1941 and 1942.

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  • 2014: divided, one half awarded to John O'Keefe (b. 1939) American-British neuroscientist, the other half jointly to May-Britt Moser (b. 1963) Norwegian psychologist and neuroscientist; and to her husband Edvard I. Moser (b. 1962) Norwegian psychologist and neuroscientist, "for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain".
  • 2013: jointly to: James E. Rothman (b. 1950) American cell biologist, and to: Randy W. Schekman (b. 1948) American cell biologist, and to: Thomas C. Südhof, (b. 1955) German-born American cell biologist, "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells".
  • 2012: jointly to: Sir John B. Gurdon (b. 1933) British developmental biologist, and to: Shinya Yamanaka, 山中 伸弥 (b. 1962) Japanese physician and cell biologist., "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent".
  • 2011: one half jointly to: Bruce A. Beutler (b. 1957) American immunologist and geneticist, and to: Jules A. Hoffmann (b. 1941) Luxembourgish-born French biologist, "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity", and one half to: Ralph M. Steinman (1943 – 2011) Canadian immunologist and cell biologist "for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity".
  • 2010: Sir Robert G. Edwards (1925 - 2013) English physiologist, "for the development of in vitro fertilization".
  • 2009: jointly to: Elizabeth H. Blackburn (b. 1948) Australian-American biologist, to Carol W. Greider (b. 1961) American molecular biologist, and to Jack W. Szostak (b. 1952) Canadian American biologist, "for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase".
  • 2008: divided, one half awarded to Harald zur Hausen (b. 1936) German virologist, "for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer", the other half jointly to: Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (b. 1947) French virologist, and Luc Montagnier (b. 1932) French virologist, "for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus".
  • 2007: jointly to Mario R. Capecchi (b. 1937) Italian-born American molecular geneticist, to Sir Martin J. Evans (b. 1941) Welsh biologist, and to Oliver Smithies (b. 1925) British-born American geneticist, "for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells".
  • 2006: jointly to: Andrew Z. Fire (1959) American biologist, and Craig C. Mello (1960) American biologist, "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"
  • 2005: jointly to: Barry J. Marshall (b. 1951) Australian physician, and J. Robin Warren (b. 1937) Australian pathologist, "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"
  • 2004: jointly to: Richard Axel (b. 1946) American molecular biologist, and Linda B. Buck (b. 1947) American biologist, "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"
  • 2003: jointly to:Paul C. Lauterbur (1929 - 2007) American chemist, and Sir Peter Mansfield (b. 1933) English physicist, "for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"
  • 2002: jointly to: Sydney Brenner (b. 1927) South African biologist, to H. Robert Horvitz (b. 1947) American biologist, and to John E. Sulston (b. 1942) British biologist, "for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'".
  • 2001: jointly to: Leland H. Hartwell (b. 1939) American biologist, to Sir (Richard) Timothy "Tim" Hunt (b. 1943) English biochemist, and to Sir Paul M. Nurse (b. 1949) English geneticist, "for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle".
  • 2000: jointly to: Arvid Carlsson (b. 1923) Swedish neurophysiologist, to Paul Greengard (b. 1925) American neuroscientist, and to Eric R. Kandel (b. 1929) American neuropsychiatrist, "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system".
  • 1999: Günter Blobel (b. 1936) German-born American biochemist, for the discovery that "proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"
  • 1998: jointly to: Robert F. Furchgott (1916 - 2009) American biochemist, to Louis J. Ignarro (b. 1941) American pharmacologist, and to Ferid Murad (b. 1936) American physician and pharmacologis, "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system".
  • 1997: Stanley B. Prusiner (b. 1942) American neurologist and biochemist, "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection".
  • 1996: jointly to: Peter C. Doherty (b. 1940) Australian immunologist, and Rolf M. Zinkernagel (b. 1944) Swiss immunologist, "for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence".
  • 1995: jointly to: Edward B. Lewis (1918 - 2004) American geneticist, to Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (b. 1942) German biologist, and to Eric F. Wieschaus (b. 1947) American developmental biologist, "for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development".
  • 1994: jointly to: Alfred G. Gilman (b. 1944) American pharmacologist and biochemist, and Martin Rodbell (1925 - 1998) American biochemist and molecular endocrinologist, "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"
  • 1993: jointly to Richard J. Roberts (b.1943) American molecular biologist, and Phillip A. Sharp (b. 1944) American molecular biologist, "for their discoveries of split genes"
  • 1992: jointly to: Edmond H. Fischer (b. 1920) American biochemist, and Edwin G. Krebs (1918 - 2009) American biochemist, "for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"
  • 1991: jointly to Erwin Neher (b. 1944) German physiologist, and Bert Sakmann (b. 1942) physiologist, "for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"
  • 1990: jointly to Joseph E. Murray (1919 - 2012) American plastic surgeon and E. Donnall Thomas (1920 - 2012) American physician, "for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"
  • 1989: jointly to J. Michael Bishop (b. 1936) American virologist and Harold E. Varmus (b. 1939) American virologist, "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"
  • 1988: jointly to: Sir James W. Black (1924 - 2010) Scottish pharmacologist, to Gertrude B. Elion (1918 - 1999) American biochemist and pharmacologist, and to George H. Hitchings (1905 - 1998) American pharmacologist, "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment".
  • 1987: to: Susumu Tonegawa (b. 1939) Japanese-American scientist, "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity".
  • 1986: jointly to: Stanley Cohen (b. 1922) American biochemist, and Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909 - 2012) Italian Neurobiologist, the longest lived Nobel Prize Winner in history - "for their discoveries of growth factors".
  • 1985: jointly to: [ Michael S. Brown] (b. 1941) American geneticist, and to [ Joseph L. Goldstein] (b. 1940) American molecular geneticist, "for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"
  • 1984: jointly to: Niels K. Jerne (1911 - 1994) Danish immunologist, to Georges J.F. Köhler (1946 - 1995) German immunologist, and to César Milstein (1927 - 2002) Argentinian-born British immunologist, "for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies".
  • 1983: to Barbara McClintock (1902 – 1992) American cytogeneticists, "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements".
  • 1982: jointly to: Sune K. Bergström (1916 - 2004) Swedish biochemist, to Bengt I. Samuelsson (b. 1934) Swedish biochemist , and to John R. Vane (1927 - 2004) British biochemist , "for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances".
  • 1981: divided, one half awarded to Roger W. Sperry (1913 - 1994) American neuropsychologist andneurobiologist, "for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres", the other half jointly to David H. Hubel (1926 - 2013) Canadian neurophysiologist, and Torsten N. Wiesel (b. 1924) Swedish-born American neurophysiologist, "for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system".
  • 1980: jointly to|: Baruj Benacerraf (1920 - 2011) Venezuelan-born American immunologist, to Jean Dausset (1916 - 2009) French immunologist , and to: George D. Snell (1903 - 1996) American immunologist, "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions".
  • 1979: jointly to: Allan M. Cormack (1924 - 1998) South African American physicist, and to Godfrey N. Hounsfield (1919 - 2004) English electrical engineer, "for the development of computer assisted tomography"
  • 1978: jointly to: Werner Arber (b. 1929) Swiss microbiologist and geneticist, to Daniel Nathans (1928 - 1999) American microbiologist and geneticist - sometimes called the father of modern biotechnology, and to Hamilton O. Smith (b. 1931) American microbiologist and geneticist, "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics".
  • 1977: divided, one half to: Roger Guillemin (b. 1924) American endocrinologist, and to Andrew V. Schally (b. 1926) American endocrinologist, "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain", and the other half to: Rosalyn Yalow (1921 - 2011) American endocrinologist, "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones".
  • 1976: jointly to: Baruch S. Blumberg (1925 - 2011) American virologist, and to D. Carleton Gajdusek (1923 - 2008) American medical researcher (and a convicted child molester), "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases".
  • 1975: jointly to: [ David Baltimore] (b. 1938) American biologist , to Renato Dulbecco (1914 - 2012) Italian-born American virologist , and to Howard Martin Temin (1934 - 1994) American geneticist, "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell".
  • 1974: jointly to: Albert Claude (1899 - 1983) Belgian cell biologist, to Christian de Duve (1917 - 2013) Belgian cytologist and biochemist, and to: George E. Palade (1912 - 2008) Romanian-American cell biologist, "for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell".
  • 1973 Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen
  • 1972: jointly to: Gerald M. Edelman (1929 - 2014) American Biochemist, and to Rodney R. Porter (1917 - 1985) British biochemist, "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies".
  • 1971: Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. (1915 - 1974) American pharmacologist and biochemist, "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones".
  • 1970: Jointly to: Sir Bernard Katz (1911 - 2003) Jewish-German-born British biophysicist, to Ulf von Euler (1905 - 1983) Swedish neurophysiologist, and to: Julius Axelrod (1972 - 2004) American neurophysiologist, "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation".
  • 1969: jointly to: Max Delbrück (1906 - 1981) German–American biophysicist, to Alfred D. Hershey (1908 - 1997) American bacteriologist and geneticist, and to: Salvador E. Luria (1912 -1991) American microbiologist of Italian Jewish Sephardic descent, "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses".
  • 1968: jointly to: Robert W. Holley (1922 - 1993) American biochemist, to Har Gobind Khorana (1922 - 2011) Indian-American chemist, and to Marshall W. Nirenberg (1927 - 2010) American biochemist, "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis".
  • 1967: Jointly to: Ragnar Granit (1900 - 1991) Finn-Swedish physiologist, to Haldan Keffer Hartline (1903 - 1983) American physiologist, and to: George Wald (1906 - 1977) American physiologist, "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye".
  • 1966: jointly to: Peyton Rous (1879 - 1972) American virologist and oncologist, "for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses", and to Charles Brenton Huggins (1901 - 1997) Canadian-born American physician and physiologist and cancer researcher, "for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer".
  • 1965: jointly to: François Jacob (1920 - 2013) French biologist, André Lwoff (1902 - 1994) French microbiologist & Jacques Monod (1910 - 1976) French biologist, "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis".
  • 1964: jointly to: Konrad Bloch (1912 - 2000) German-born American biochemist, and Feodor Lynen (1911 - 1979) German biochemist, "for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism".
  • 1963: jointly to: Sir John Carew Eccles (1903 - 1997) Australian neurophysiologist, Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (1914 - 1998) British physiologist and biophysicist, & Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (b. 1917) English physiologist and biophysicist, "for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane".
  • 1962: jointly to: Francis Harry Compton Crick (1916 – 2004) English molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, and to James Dewey Watson (b. 1928) American Biologist, and to Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins (1916 - 2004) New Zealand-born English physicist and molecular biologist, "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material".
  • 1961: Georg von Békésy (1899 - 1972) Hungarian biophysicist "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"
  • 1960: jointly to: Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet (1999 - 1985) Australian immunologist, and to Peter Brian Medawar (1915 - 1987) Brazilian-British immunologist, "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"
  • 1959: jointly to: Arthur Kornberg (1915 - 2008) American biochemist of Jewish descent , and to Severo Ochoa (1905 - 1993), American-Spanish biochemist, "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid".
  • 1958: one half jointly to George Wells Beadle (1903 - 1989) American biochemist, and to: Edward Lawrie Tatum (1909 - 1975) American biochemist, "for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events", and the other half to: Joshua Lederberg (1925 - 2008) American microbiologist and geneticist, "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria".
  • 1957: Daniel Bovet (1907 - 1992) Swiss-born Italian pharmacologist, "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles".
  • 1956: jointly to: André Frédéric Cournand (1895 – 1988) French physician and physiologist, to [ Werner Forssmann] (1904 - 1979) German Nazi physician, and to Dickinson W. Richards American medical researcher (1895 - 1973), "for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system".
  • 1955: Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell (1903 - 1982) Swedish biochemist, "for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes".
  • 1954: jointly to: John Franklin Enders (1897 - 1985) American physician and virologist, to Thomas Huckle Weller (1915 - 2008 ) American pediatrician and virologist, and to Frederick Chapman Robbins (1916 - 2003) American pediatrician and virologist, to "for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue".
  • 1953: jointly to: Hans Adolf Krebs (1900 - 1981) German-born British biochemist, "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle" and to Fritz Albert Lipmann (1899 - 1986) German-born American biochemist, "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism".
  • 1952: Selman Abraham Waksman (1888 - 1973) Jewish/Ukrainian-born American inventor, biochemist and microbiologist, "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"
  • 1951: Max Theiler (1899 - 1972) South African-American virologist, "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it".
  • 1950: jointly to: Edward Calvin Kendall (1886 - 1972) American chemist, to Tadeus Reichstein (1897 - 1996) Swiss chemist, and to Philip Showalter Hench (1896 - 1965) American physician , "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"
  • 1949: jointly to: Walter Rudolf Hess (1881 - 1973) Swiss physiologist "for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs", and to Egas Moniz (1874 - 1955) Portuguese neurologist and the developer of cerebral angiography, "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses".
  • 1948: Paul Hermann Müller (1899 - 1965) Swiss chemist, "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods".
  • 1947: divided, one half jointly to Carl Ferdinand Cori (1896 - 1984) Czech-American biochemist and pharmacologist, and Gerty Theresa Cori (née Radnitz) (1896 - 1957), Czech-American biochemist, "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen" and the other half to: Bernardo Alberto Houssay (1887 - 1971) Argentinian physiologist, "for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar".
  • 1946: Hermann Joseph Muller (1890 – 1967) American geneticist, educator, "for the discovery that mutations can be induced by x-rays".
  • 1945: jointly to: Sir Alexander Fleming (1881 - 1955) British physician and microbiologist, to Sir Ernst B. Chain (1906 - 1979) British Biochemist of Jewish origin from Germany, and to Sir Howard Walter Florey (1898 - 1968) Australian-British pathologist, "for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases".
  • 1944: jointly to: Joseph Erlanger (1874 - 1965) American physiologist, and Herbert Spencer Gasser (1888 - 1963) American physiologist, "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres".
  • 1943: divided equally between: Henrik Carl Peter Dam (1896 - 1976) Danish biochemist, "for his discovery of vitamin K", and Edward Adelbert Doisy (1893 - 1986) American biochemist, "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K".
  • 1942: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1941: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1940: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1939: Gerhard Domagk (1895 - 1964) German microbiologist, "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"
  • 1938: Corneille Jean François Heymans (1892 - 1968) Belgian physiologist, "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"
  • 1937: Albert von Szent-Györgyi de Nagyrápolt (1893 - 1986) Hungarian-American physiologist, "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid".
  • 1936. jointly to: Sir Henry Hallett Dale (1875 – 1968) British physiologist, and to Otto Loewi (1873 – 1961) German-born Austrian & American scientist, "for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"
  • 1935: Hans Spemann (1869 - 1941) German embryologist, "for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"
  • 1934: jointly to: George Hoyt Whipple (1878 – 1976) American medical researcher, to George Richards Minot (1885 – 1950) American medical researcher, and William Parry Murphy (1892 – 1987) American medical researcher, "for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia".
  • 1933: Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866 - 1945) American embryologist , "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity".
  • 1932: jointly to: Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (1857 - 1952) British neurophysiologist, and Edgar Douglas, 1st Baron Adrian (1889 - 1977) British neurophysiologist, "for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"
  • 1931 Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883 - 1970) German physiologist, "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"
  • 1930: Karl Landsteiner (1868 – 1943), Austrian biologist and physician, "for his discovery of human blood groups".
  • 1929: divided equally to: Christiaan Eijkman (1858 - 1930), Dutch physiologist, "for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin", and to Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861 - 1947) English biochemist, "for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins".
  • 1928: Charles Jules Henri Nicolle (1866 – 1936) French bacteriologist, "for his work on typhus"
  • 1927: Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857 - 1940) Austrian pro-Nazi scientist, "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica".
  • 1926: Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger (1867 – 1928) Danish physician, and professor of pathological anatomy, "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma".
  • 1925: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1924: Willem Einthoven (1860 - 1927) Dutch physiologist, "for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram".
  • 1923: jointly to: Frederick Grant Banting (1891 – 1941) Canadian medical scientist, and to John James Rickard Macleod (1876 – 1935) Scottish biochemist and physiologist "for the discovery of insulin".
  • 1922: Archibald Vivian Hill (1986 - 1977) English physiologist, one of the founders of the diverse disciplines of biophysics, "for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle" and Otto Fritz Meyerhof (1884 – 1951) German-born physician and biochemist, "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"
  • 1921: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1920: Schack August Steenberg Krogh (1874 - 1949) Danish Medical Scientist, "for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"
  • 1919: Jules Bordet (1870 - 1961) Belgian immunologist and microbiologist, "for his discoveries relating to immunity".
  • 1918: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1917: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1916: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1915: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1914: Robert Bárány (1876 - 1936) Austro-Hungarian otologist, "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus".
  • 1913: Charles Robert Richet (1850 - 1935) French physiologist, "in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"
  • 1912: Alexis Carrel (1873 - 1944) French surgeon and biologist, "in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs".
  • 1911: Allvar Gullstrand (1862 - 1930) Swedish ophthalmologist and optician, "for his work on the dioptrics of the eye".
  • 1910: Albrecht Kossel (1853 - 1927) German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics, "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances".
  • 1909: Emil Theodor Kocher (1841 - 1917) Swiss physician and medical researcher, "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland".
  • 1908: jointly to: Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (1845 – 1916) Russian biologist, and Paul Ehrlich (1854 – 1915) German Jewish Immunologist, "in recognition of their work on immunity".
  • 1907: awarded to: Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (1845 - 1922) French physician, "in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases".
  • 1906: jointly to: Camillo Golgi (1843 - 1926) Italian physician, pathologist and scientist, and Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852 - 1934) Spanish pathologist, histologist and neuroscientist , "in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"
  • 1905: Robert Koch (1843 – 1910) German physician, considered one of the founders of microbiology, "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis".
  • 1904: Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849 – 1936) Russian physiologist, "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged".
  • 1903: Niels Ryberg Finsen (1860 – 1904) Faroese-Danish physician and scientist, "in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science". The first Danish winner.
  • 1902: Ronald Ross (1857 – 1932) British physician, "for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it". He identified the mosquito as the transmitter of malaria.
  • 1901: Emil Adolf von Behring (1854 –1917) German physiologist, "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths".

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  • From SA Max Theiler, (1899-1972.) Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1951 for vaccine for Yellow Fever.
  • From SA Allan McLeod Cormack (1924-1998.) Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1951 for x-ray tomography. Born and studied in SA. X-ray work started in Cape Town before emigration to USA. Co-inventor of the CT scanner.
  • From SA Sydney Brenner (1927-) Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2002 for work in RNA biology. Born and educated in SA, moved to England to pursue research work]