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The Czechs name Přemysl, the Ploughman, (also spelt Premysl or Przemysl in Czech Přemysl Oráč, [pr̝ɛmɪsl oraːtʃ]) as the mythical ancestor of the Přemyslid dynasty, containing the line of princes (dukes) and kings which ruled in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown from 873 or earlier until the murder of Wenceslaus III in 1306.

According to a legend, Přemysl was a peasant of the village of Stadice who attracted the notice of Libuše, daughter of a certain Krok, who ruled over a large part of Bohemia. Přemysl married Libuše, the traditional foundress of Prague, and became prince of the Bohemian Czechs. Přemysl and Libuše had three sons: Nezamysl (heir), Radobyl and Lidomir.

The Přemyslid dynasty became extinct in the male line when Wenceslaus III died, but through females the title to Bohemia passed from the Přemyslids to the Luxembourgs and later to the houses of Jagiello, Habsburg and Habsburg-Lorraine.