PETER OF CROSSBASKET
The family of Peter of Crossbasket is a Scottish Lowland Family. It is not a Highland Clan, or a Border Riding Family. The territorial designation of the head of the family is derived from the lands of Crossbasket, in the Lanarkshire parish of Kilbride (Now the New Town and parish of East Kilbride), which lands were in their possession for one hundred and eight years, from 1708 until 1816. The head of family also had possession of the neighbouring lands of Auchentibber and Drumlochernoch, including a mailing called Craigneith which was subinfeudated to the Maxwells of Calderwood, as well as the four pound lands of old extent of Cardarroch, lying within the Lanarkshire parish of Cadder, which land was part of the Regality of Glasgow.
Origin of the Surname
This surname is derived from the given name Peter, in Latin Petrus, in Greek Πέτρος, taken from πέτρος meaning 'a rock' [Wikipedia: The Surname Peter] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_%28surname%29 Peter is the name which Jesus gave to his Apostle Simon, son of Jonah [Wikipedia: Saint Peter] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Peter who may have been the first person to use it.
According to the New Testament: Matthew 16:17-20; Jesus said to the Apostle Peter: "And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven” [Bible Gateway] http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Matthew+16%3A17-20&version=ESV
In the British Kingdom of Strathclyde, a holy man named Petrus was one of the disciples of St. Mirren, an early Christian Missionary who settled at Paisley. Following the death of Mirren, Petrus built a chapel at Kilpeter (Peter's parish), afterwards the parish of Houston [Robert Brown, F.S.A. Scot., The History of Paisley from the Roman Period down to 1884 (J. & J. Cook, Paisley, MDCCCLXXXVI), page 23] https://archive.org/stream/historyofpaisley01brow#page/22/mode/2up
Spelling Variations Noticed
Petir (1594) Piter (1604) Peiter (1644) Pitter (1647) Petor (1676) Petter (1695) Pieters (1699) Peeter (1696)
The Gospel of Matthew probably inspired the six golden keys which are displayed on the Armorial Ensigns of Peter of Chapel: "Vert, six keys in pairs saltyre-ways Or, two and one". The Lord Lyon King of Arms in Scotland permitted Lieutenant-General Thomas Peter of Crossbasket (1757-1828) to matriculate a differenced version of the same Arms, notwithstanding the fact that his was a different family, not related in blood to Peter of Chapel: "Vert, a crescent betw. three pairs of keys in saltire, Or" [Sir Bernard Burke, C.B., LL.D., The General Armory of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales (Harrison, London, 1884), page 795].
Historical References: Lochwinnoch in Renfrewshire
The testament Dative of: "Marione Piter spouse to Johnne Luiff in Muirdykis" was confirmed on 19 March 1604 [National Archives of Scotland, H.M. General Register House, Edinburgh, Commissary Records of Glasgow, Register of Testaments, reference CC9/7/3].
The testament testamentar of: "Issobell Wilsoun spouse to Johnne Petir in Muirdykes, parish of Lochwinzeoche" was confirmed on 2 July 1610. She gave up her letterwill at her house in Muredykes, on 30 Januart 1610, and nominated her husband John and her daughter Janet to be her only executors. Among those who were owed money by John and Isobel were, Margaret Peter, her husband's daughter from his first marriage to Margaret Love, and Janet Peter, her husband's sister [National Archives of Scotland, H.M. General Register House, Edinburgh, Commissary Records of Glasgow, Register of Testaments, reference CC9/7/6].
The testament testamentar of:"Johnne Piter in Muirdykis, parish of Lochwinzeoch" was confirmed on 7 September 1613. He gave up his letterwill at his house in Muredykes on 30 July 1612. Malcolm Peter, maltman, was one of the witnesses present [National Archives of Scotland, H.M. General Register House, Edinburgh, Commissary Records of Glasgow, Register of Testaments, reference CC9/7/9].
When Margaret Craig died in October 1617, she and her husband, John Peter, burgess of Paisley, owed one hundred pounds, seven shillings, and eight pence to the children of John Peter in Muirdykes: "To the bairnes & execrs of umqlle Johnne Petir in Murdyk ic vii l vijs viijd" [National Archives of Scotland, H.M. General Register House, Edinburgh, Glasgow Commissary Records, Register of Testaments, reference CC9/7/14 ff.. 378-79].
The testament dative of: "Jonat Petir in Litle Gavane, parish of Lochwinzeoche" was confirmed on 20 July 1626 [National Archives of Scotland, H.M. General Register House, Edinburgh, Commissary Records of Glasgow, Register of Testaments, reference CC9/7/21].
Historical References: The Burgh of Paisley in Renfrewshire
Thomas Peter was a merchant, and burgess of the Burgh of Paisley. He was a serving member of the town council which met in the Tollbooth there on 10 September 1594 [W. M. Metcalfe, D.D., F.S.A. Scot., Charters and Documents Relating to the Burgh of Paisley (1163-1665) and Extracts from the Records of the Town Council (1594-1620) (Alexander Gardiner, Paisley, 1902), page 153] At the Burgh Head Court which met on 12 October 1599 he was appointed as one of the three visitors to the town's markets [Ibidem, page 230] His house was located on the south side of the High Street in Paisley, probably in Causeyside [Ibidem, page 129].
Thomas Peter was one of the Magistrates of Paisley in 1605. Brown gives a facsimile of his signature in volume two of his history of Paisley, opposite page 494 [Robert Brown, F.S.A. Scot., The History of Paisley from the Roman Period down to 1884, Volume II (J. & J. Cook, Paisley, MDCCCLXXXVI), opposite page 194].
Thomas Peter, merchant, and burgess of Paisley, died intestate in 1609. His widow, Janet Urie, gave up his testament dative and the inventory of his moveable estate for the benefit of herself and their four youngest children, i.e. Malcolm Peter, Robert Peter, Helen Peter, and Janet Peter. The oldest son, John Peter, is not mentioned in his father's testamant dative, probably because he would inherit his father's house, and any heritage land which he may have owned. On 25 June 1610 John Wilson in Hillington, and John Peter, burgess of Paisley, acted themselves as cautioners for the widow [National Archives of Scotland, H.M. General Register House, Edinburgh, Glasgow Commissary Court, Register of Testaments, reference CC9/7/6/ folios 404v-405r].
Thomas Peter and his eldest son, John Peter, together with their respective wives, Janet Urie, and Margaret Craig, are buried in the churchyard of the Abbey of Paisley. The inscription on their memorial stone reads as follows: "Heir lyis ane honest man callit Thomas Piter, bailzie of Paslay, qvha decissit ye 10 of Nov., Anno 1609, and Ionat Vrie his spovs; and John Piter their sone and Margaret Craig his spovs, qvha deceissit ye 30 of Octob., Anno 1617" [Monuments and Monumental Inscriptions in Scotland, Volume I (Charles Griffin and Co. for the Grampian Club, 1871) by the Reverend Charles Rogers, LL.D., FSA Scot., page 427] .
According to the Reverend Charles Rogers: "Thomas Peter was a bailie of Paisley in 1605" and one of his descendants: "went to Glasgow and became a successful merchant in that city, of which he was elected Dean of Guild" [Monuments and Monumental Inscriptions in Scotland, Volume I (Charles Griffin and Co. for the Grampian Club, 1871) by the Reverend Charles Rogers, LL.D., FSA Scot., page 427].
John Peter’s wife, Margaret Craig, dictated her last will and testament to James Sommerville, notary public, on 19 October 1617 and probably died soon after. She nominated her husband and her eldest son to be her executors and left her share of the free gear to her four children, i.e. Thomas Peter, Robert Peter, Elspeth Peter, and Margaret Peter. Among the people who were owed money were her mother-in-law, Janet Urie, and Malcolm, Robert, and Janet Peter, her husband’s siblings [National Archives of Scotland, H.M. General Register House, Edinburgh, Glasgow Commissary Court, Register of Testaments, reference CC9/7/14 ff. 378-80].
Malcom Peter's son, Thomas Peter, no doubt named after his paternal grandfather, Bailie Thomas Peter (died 1609), was enrolled as a burgess of the burgh of Paisley on 22 January 1662. His burgess record reads thus: "Thomas Peter eldest sone lawll of Malcolm Peter creat burges for iij lib viij s viij d John Kype cautioner for his arms" [Renfrewshire Archives, Court Book of the Burgh of Paisley].
Another Thomas Peter was enrolled as a burgess of Paisley on 25 January 1666: "Thomas Peter creat burgess for v lib ij s" [Renfrewshire Archives, Court Book of the Burgh of Paisley,1649-66, reference P1/1/12 no pagination]. He cannot as yet be identified with certainty. It is possible that he is the son of one of Malcolm Peter's brothers, Thomas Peter, or Robert Peter.
One of the above mentioned men named Thomas Peter, although which is not yet clear, is noticed again on 29 July 1676, when Bailie Robert Pasley granted him a license to dig turf for roofing: "Eodem die licence granted to Thomas Peter be Baillie Pasley to cast six score rigging turves for his two houses on the east side of the Calsisyde" [Renfrewshire Archives, Court Book of the Burgh of Paisley,1673-84, reference P1/1/14].
When the Poll Tax was enumerated in the burgh of Paisley in 1695, a weaver named John Peter (Otherwise John Petter) was the only adult male representative of the family who was still living in the town [Robert Brown, F.S.A. Scot.,The History of Paisley from the Roman Period down to 1884 in two volumes, Volume I (J. & J. Cook, Paisley, MDCCCLXXXVI), page 347].
John Peter, above mentioned, should, perhaps, be identified with John Peter in Elderslie Mains. He had the baptism of a son named Thomas Peter registered at Abbey parish on 22 November 1678 [Scotland, Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950, index, FamilySearch] https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/X1HQ-7J8 Thomas Peter was born on 28 June 1678 and would have been over sixteen years of age when the poll tax was enumerated but there is no mention of him in this record source [Robert Brown, F.S.A. Scot.,The History of Paisley from the Roman Period down to 1884 in two volumes, Volume I (J. & J. Cook, Paisley, MDCCCLXXXVI), pp. 330-50].
Three Peter ladies were living in the burgh town of Paisley at this time. The first of these was Jean Peter (Otherwise Jean Petter), who was married to a weaver named Robert Lochhead. Jean and her husband were married shortly before the poll tax was enumerated in 1695, and so they had no children who were older than sixteen years of age at this time [Robert Brown, F.S.A. Scot.,The History of Paisley from the Roman Period down to 1884 in two volumes, Volume I (J. & J. Cook, Paisley, MDCCCLXXXVI), page 347]. However, she was the mother of at least five children whose baptisms were registered in Abbey parish between 1696 and 1708, including, significantly perhaps, an eldest daughter named Beatrix [Scotland, Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950, index, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/VQWV-BXM and an only son named John [Scotland, Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950, index, FamilySearch] https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/VQWK-Q57 The second Peter lady was a widow named Isobel Peter, who was the next door neighbor of Robert Shedden and his family. Isobel seems likely to be the widow of Alexander Graham, to whom she was married on 27 December 1672.The third Peter lady was Margaret Peter, the wife of Bailie John Adam.
Thomas Peter of Crossbasket (1639 x 1640-1721), late Dean of Guild of Glasgow, owned two houses in the Causayside of Paisley. When he died ownership passed to his grandson, Thomas Peter of Crossbasket (1703-73), the eldest son of John Peter and Beatrix Peter, who transferred ownership to Mary Peter and her husband, William Thomson, weaver in Paisley. In the young Laird of Crossbasket's disposition the property conveyed is described thus: "All and Haill these two dwelling houses with the two yards adjacent to the back thereof lying contigue within the territory of the Burgh of Paisley in the vennal thereof called the Causeyside upon the east end of the Kings High Street of the same.....bounded betwixt the burn of Espedair on the east, the King's high street forsaid, on the west, the tenement of Patrick Cochran, turner, on the south, and the tenement pertaining to John Cumming in Quarrelholes on the north parts" [Renfrewshire Archives, Chartulary of the Burgh of Paisley, 1751-67, reference P1/23/1 pp. 163-66].
Mary Peter (Otherwise Mary Peeter) and William Thomson were married on 16 December 1696. The marriage was booked for proclamation at Abbey parish in Renfrewshire, Scotland, where they were both parishoners, and it seems reasonable to suppose that they were married there [Registrar General for Scotland, New Register House, Edinburgh, Abbey Marriages, 1670-1707, reference OPR.559/1].
Historical References: The Burgh of Glasgow in Lanarkshire
David Peter, merchant in Glasgow, was enrolled as a burgess and guild brother of the burgh of Glasgow on 17 December 1640 [James R. Anderson, The Burgesses & Guild Brethren of Glasgow, 1573-1750 (Printed for the Scottish Record Society by J. Skinner & Company Ltd., Edinburgh, 1925), page 103] https://archive.org/stream/scottishrecordso43scotuoft#page/102/mode/2up He seems likely to have been the first member of the Peter family to settle in Glasgow, although, presently, his other family relationships cannot be satisfactorily explained.
William Peter, presumed to be another member of the same family, is first noticed in Glasgow's old parochial registers on 8 February 1666, when his son William by his wife, Margaret Smith, was baptised [Scotland, Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950, index, FamilySearch] https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/VQHL-KQ2 William senior and his wife Margaret had another six children baptised between that date and 28 August 1679, when their youngest known child, a daughter named Jonet, was baptised [Scotland, Births and Baptisms, 1564-1950, index, FamilySearch] https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/VQH2-7GQ Presently, It is tempting to identify him, even if only provisionally, as a younger brother, or a son, perhaps, of the previously mentioned David Peter but the relationship, if any, cannot be satisfactorily explained.
Sources and Further Reading
The British Herald or Cabinet of Armorial Bearings of the Nobility and Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland Etc., V. II (Turner & Marywood, Sunderland, 1850), by Thomas Robson https://archive.org/stream/britishheraldorc02robs#page/n679/mode/2up
The General Armory of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales (Harrison, London, 1884) by Sir Bernard Burke, C.B., LL.D., https://archive.org/stream/generalarmoryofe00burk#page/794/mode/2up
Charters and Documents Relating to the Burgh of Paisley (1163-1665) and Extracts from the Records of the Town Council (1594-1620) (Alexander Gardiner, Paisley, 1902), edited by W. M. Metcalfe, D.D., F.S.A. Scot. https://archive.org/stream/cu31924028094062#page/n7/mode/2up
View of the Merchants House of Glasgow; Containing Historical Notices of the Origin, Constitution, and Property, and of the Charitable Foundations which it Administers (Bell & Bain, Glasgow, MDCCCLXVI) , presented to the House by Archibald Orr Ewing, Esquire, of Ballikinrain, Lord Dean of Guild,1866 https://archive.org/stream/viewmerchantsho00buchgoog#page/n6/mode/2up
Monuments and Monumental Inscriptions in Scotland, Volume I (Charles Griffin and Co. for the Grampian Club, 1871) by the Reverend Charles Rogers, LL.D., FSA Scot. https://archive.org/stream/monumentsmonumen01rogeiala#page/n7/mode/2up
The History of the Paisley Grammar School from its Foundation in 1576; of the Other Paisley Grammar School and Academy, and of the Other Town's Schools (Alex. Gardiner, Paisley, 1875), by Robert Brown, Underwood Park, Paisley https://archive.org/stream/historypaisleyg00scotgoog#page/n8/mode/2up
The History of Paisley from the Roman Period down to 1884 (J. & J. Cook, Paisley, MDCCCLXXXVI), by Robert Brown, F.S.A. Scot. https://archive.org/stream/historyofpaisley01brow#page/n7/mode/2up
A History of Paisley, 600-1908 (Alexander Gardner, Paisley, 1909) by W. M. Metcalfe, DD., FSA (Scot) https://archive.org/stream/historyofpaisley00metcuoft#page/n9/mode/1up
The Burgesses & Guild Brethren of Glasgow, 1573-1750 (Printed for the Scottish Record Society by J. Skinner & Company Ltd., Edinburgh, 1925), by James R. Anderson https://archive.org/stream/scottishrecordso43scotuoft#page/n5/mode/2up
Old Glasgow and its Environs, Historical and Topographical (Glasgow, David Robertson, London Longman & Co., MDCCCLXIV) by Senex https://archive.org/stream/oldglasgowitsenv00sene#page/n5/mode/2up
Extracts from the Records of the Burgh of Glasgow, 1663-1690 (Scottish Burgh Records Society, Glasgow, MDCCCCV) https://archive.org/stream/extractsfromrec05unkngoog#page/n5/mode/2up
Extracts from the Records of the Burgh of Glasgow, 1691-1717 (Scottish Burgh Records Society, Glasgow, MDCCCCVIII) https://archive.org/stream/extractsfromrec01renwgoog#page/n7/mode/2up
Extracts from the Records of the Burgh of Glasgow, AD 1718-38, with Charters and other Documents, 1708-38 (Corporation of Glasgow, Glasgow, MDCCCCIX), volume V, by Robert Renwick, Depute Town-Clerk https://archive.org/stream/extractsfromreco05glas#page/n5/mode/2up
Extracts from the Records of the Burgh of Glasgow with Charters and other Documents, VOL. VI, A.D. 1739-59 (Scottish Burgh Record Society, Glasgow, MCMXI) by Robert Renwick, Depute Town-Clerk https://archive.org/stream/extractsfromreco06glas#page/n7/mode/2up
Chronicles of the Maltman Craft in Glasgow, 1605-1879 (Aird & Coghill, Glasgow, MDCCCLXXIX) by Robert Douie, LL.B., Clerk of the Incorporation https://archive.org/stream/chroniclesmaltm00scogoog#page/n6/mode/2up
Minute Book of the Board of Green Cloth Club, 1809-20, with Notice of the Members (James McLehose & Sons, Glasgow, MDCCCXCI) https://archive.org/stream/minutebookofboar00boar#page/n6/mode/1up
Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts. Exhibition Illustrative of Old Glasgow, 1894. Galleries: 175 Sauchiehall Street. Catalogue printed by William Hodge and Company, 26 Bothwell Street https://archive.org/stream/exhibitionillust00glas#page/n4/mode/1up
The Matriculation Albums of the University of Glasgow, From 1728 to 1858 (James MacLehose and Sons, Glasgow, 1913) by W. Innes Addison https://archive.org/stream/matriculationalb00univuoft#page/iii/mode/1up
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