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  • Menkheperure Thutmose IV, Pharaoh of Egypt (c.-1446 - c.-1390)
    ID: I62321 Name: Thutmose IV of Egpyt Prefix: Pharaoh Given Name: Thutmose IV Surname: of Egpyt Sex: M _UID: 4D73C618EEA43E4AB9EE2B3DD9306086B68A Change Date: 26 Nov 2005 Note: Thutmo...
  • Thutmosis III Menkheperre, Pharaoh of Egypt (c.-1509 - -1424)
    ID: I62324 Name: THUTMOSE III @ OF EGYPT Prefix: Pharaoh Given Name: THUTMOSE III @ Surname: OF EGYPT Sex: M _UID: 548453A5EF031649AC18C69E94B43FF4C449 Change Date: 20 Jun 2004 Note: Thutmose III, king...
  • Hatshepsut- Merytr II . ., Queen of Egypt (-1458 - d.)
    Merytre-Hatshepsut From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Hatshepsut-Meryetre) Queen Merytre-Hatshepsut (or sometimes Hatshepsut-Meryet-Ra) was the principal wife of Pharaoh Thutm...
  • Aakheperenre Thutmose II, Pharaoh of Egypt (c.-1510 - -1479)
    ID: I62326 Name: Tuthmose II of Egypt Prefix: Pharaoh Given Name: Tuthmose II Surname: of Egypt Sex: M _UID: A2186A368B29134FAA6FEA9BCC01F39B696E Change Date: 26 Nov 2005 Death: Y Fat...
  • Thutmose I, Pharaoh of Egypt (-1554 - -1512)
    •ID: I62328 •Name: Thutmose I of Egypt •Prefix: Pharaoh •Given Name: Thutmose I •Surname: of Egypt •Sex: M •_UID: 351C1D32E00889428A51B70C58...

Pharaoh

Pharaoh is a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Egyptian rulers of all periods. The title originates in the term ‘’pr-aa’’ which means ‘’great house’’ and describes the royal palace.

The title of Pharaoh started being used for the king during the New Kingdom, specifically during the middle of the eighteenth dynasty.

For simplification, however, there is a general acceptance amongst modern writers to use the term to relate to all periods.

See the complete list of Pharaoh profiles of on Geni on the right side of page.

First Dynasty

The First Dynasty ruled from approximately 3050 BC to 2890 BC, by some chronological schemes. (There are no precise or agreed-upon year dates for any of the Old or Middle Kingdom periods, and reign estimates differ widely from one Egyptologist to the next.)

Second Dynasty

The Second Dynasty ruled c. 2890 — 2686 BC.

Third Dynasty

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.

Fourth Dynasty

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2498 BC and included the pharaohs who had the Great Pyramids built, Khufu (Cheops), Khafra (Chephren) and Menkaura (Mycerinus).

Fifth Dynasty

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BC.

Sixth Dynasty

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled from 2181 to 2160 BC. (This table is based on the Abydos Table from the Temple of Seti I, taken from www.narmer.pl/main/abydos_en.html) These profiles are placed into a disconnected familial tree, but there is absolutely no proof of relation between the majority of them.

Ninth Dynasty

The Ninth Dynasty ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC. The Turin King List has 18 kings reigning in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial.

Tenth Dynasty

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.

Eleventh Dynasty

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC.

Eleventh Dynasty

The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is considered to be part of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Twelfth Dynasty

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC, and is considered by later Egyptians to have been their greatest dynasty.

Thirteenth Dynasty

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1802 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 Yrs according to Manetho. This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

  • Dedumose I - c. 1654
  • Dedumose II - ?
  • Senebmiu - ?
  • Mentuhotep V - ?
  • Senaaib - ?

Fourteenth Dynasty

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Xois, that ruled from around 1705 to around 1690 BC.

  • Nehesy - c. 1705
  • Khakherewre - ?
  • Nebefawre - c. 1704
  • Sehebre - ?
  • Merdjefare - c. 1699
  • Sewadjkare - ?
  • Nebdjefare - c. 1694
  • Webenre - ?
  • Unknown King - ?
  • Djefare? - ?
  • Webenre - c. 1690

The position of the following pharaohs are uncertain:

The Turin King List provides an additional 25 names, some fragmentary, and no dates. None are attested to elsewhere, and all are of very dubious provenance.

Fifteenth Dynasty

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people who emerged out of the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.

Sixteenth Dynasty

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a local native kingdom from Thebes who ruled Egypt for between 80 and 100 years, according to Kim Ryholt.

  • Unknown King - lost from the Turin King List
  • Sekhemre Sementawi Djehuti - 3 yrs
  • Sobekhotep VIII (Sekhemreseusertawy) - 16 yrs
  • Neferhotep III (Sekhemresankhtawy) - 1 yr
  • Mentuhotep VI (Sankhenre) - 1 yr
  • Nebiriau I (Sewadjenre) - 26 yrs
  • Nebiriau II - ?
  • Semenre - ?
  • Bebiankh (Seuserenre) - 12 yrs
  • (Sekhemre Shedwast) -
  • Unknown King - lost from the Turin King List
  • Unknown King - lost from the Turin King List
  • Unknown King - lost from the Turin King List
  • Unknown King - lost from the Turin King List
  • Unknown King - lost from the Turin King List

Some sources include as many as six more names -

Seventeenth Dynasty

The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:

Eighteenth Dynasty

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. 1550 to 1292 BC:

Nineteenth Dynasty

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great:

  • Menpehtire Ramesses I - 1292-1290
  • Menmaatre Seti I - 1290-1279
  • Usermaatre-setpenre Ramesses II - 1279-1213
  • Banenre Merenptah - 1213-1203
  • Menmire-setpenre Amenmesse - 1203-1200
  • Userkheperure Seti II - 1203-1197
  • Sekhaenre/Akhenre Merenptah Siptah - 1197-1191
  • Satre-merenamun Tausret / Tawosret, A rare female ruler - 1191-1190

Twentieth Dynasty

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1190 to 1077 BC:

  • Userkhaure Setnakht - 1190-1186
  • Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesses III - 1186-1155
  • User/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses IV - 1155-1149
  • Usermaatre-sekheperenre Ramesses V - 1149-1145
  • Nebmaatre-meryamun Ramesses VI - 1145-1137
  • Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses VII - 1137-1130
  • Usermaatre-akhenamun Ramesses VIII - 1130-1129
  • Neferkare-setpenre Ramesses IX - 1129-1111
  • Khepermaatre-setpenptah Ramesses X - 1111-1107
  • Menmaatre-setpenptah Ramesses XI - 1107-1077

Twenty-First Dynasty

The Twenty-First Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 943 BC

  • Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed Also known as Smendes I - 1077-1051
  • Neferkare Heqawaset Amenemnisu - 1051-1047
  • Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I) - 1047-1001
  • Usermaatre Amenemope - 1001-992
  • Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder) - 992-986
  • Netjerikheperre-setpenamun Siamun-meryamun - 986-967
  • Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II) - 967-943

Twenty-Second Dynasty

The pharaohs of the Twenty-Second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 943 to 720 BC:

  • Name Image Comments Dates
  • Hedjkheperre-setepenre Shoshenq I - 943-922
  • Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I - 922-887
  • Heqakheperre Shoshenq II - 887-885
  • Takelot I - 885-872
  • Hedjkheperre Harsiese A - 880-860
  • Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon II - 872-837
  • Usermaatre-setepenre Shoshenq III - 837-798
  • Shoshenq IV - 798-785
  • Usermaatre-setepenre Pami - 785-778
  • Aakheperre Shoshenq V - 778-740
  • Aakheperre-setepenamun Osorkon IV - 740-720

Twenty-Third Dynasty

The Twenty-Third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from 837 to c.735 BC:

  • Hedjkheperre-setpenre Takelot II Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd 837-813
  • Usermaatre-setepenamun Pedubast A - 826-801
  • Usermaatre-setepenamun Iuput I - 812-811
  • Usermaatre Shoshenq VI - 801-795
  • Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon III - 795-767
  • Usermaatre-setpenamun Takelot III - 773-765
  • Usermaatre-setpenamun Rudamun - 765-762

The Libu

Not recognised as a dynasty as such, the Libu were yet another group of western nomads (Libyans) who occupied the western Delta from 805 to 732 BC.

  • Inamunnifnebu - 805-795
  • Unknown King - 795-780
  • Niumateped - 780-755
  • Titaru - 763-755
  • Ker - 755-750
  • Rudamon - 750-745
  • Ankhor - 745-736
  • Tefnakht - 736-732

Twenty-Fourth Dynasty

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two Pharaoh ruling from 732 to 720 BC.

  • Shepsesre Tefnakhte - 732-725
  • Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris) - 725-720

Twenty-fifth Dynasty

Nubians invaded Egypt in 732 BC and took the throne of Egypt, establishing the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC.

  • Usermaatre Piye King of Nubia - 747-716
  • Neferkare Shabaka - 716-702
  • Djedkaure Shebitku - 702-690
  • Khuinefertemre Taharqa - 690-664
  • Bakare Tantamani - 664-653

Twenty-sixth Dynasty

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 672 to 525 BC.

  • Menkheperre Nekau I (Necho I) - 672-664 BC
  • Wahibre Psamtik I (Psammetichus I) - 664-610 BC
  • Wehemibre Necho II (Necho II) - 610-595 BC
  • Neferibre Psamtik II (Psammetichus II) - 595-589 BC
  • Haaibre Wahibre (Apries) - 589-570 BC
  • Khnemibre Ahmose II (Amasis) - 570-526 BC
  • Ankhkaenre Psamtik III (Psammetichus III) - 526-525 BC

Twenty-seventh Dynasty

Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC and annexed by the Persians until 404 BC. The Achaemenid shahs were acknowledged as pharaohs in this era, forming a "Twenty-seventh" Dynasty:

  • Metsuire Cambyses (Cambyses II) 525-521 BC
  • Smerdis (Bardiya) - 522-521 BC
  • Setutre Darius I the Great - 521-486 BC
  • Xerxes I the Great - 486-465 BC
  • Artabanus the Hyrcanian - 465-464 BC
  • Artaxerxes I Longhand - 464-424 BC
  • Xerxes II - 424-423 BC
  • Sogdianus - 424-423 BC
  • Darius II - 424-404 BC

Twenty-eighth Dynasty

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only 6 years, from 404 to 398 BC, with one Pharaoh:

  • Amyrtaeus - 404-398 BC

Twenty-ninth Dynasty

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BC:

  • Baenre Nefaarud I / Nepherites - 398-393 BC
  • Psammuthes - 393 BC
  • Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris) - 393-380 BC
  • Nefaarud II - 380 BC

Thirtieth Dynasty

The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 380 until Egypt once more came under Persian rule in 343 BC:

  • Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo I) / Nekhtnebef 380-362 BC
  • Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos) - 362-360 BC
  • Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II) - 360-343 BC

Thirty-first Dynasty

Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:

  • Artaxerxes III - 343-338 BC
  • Artaxerxes IV Arses - 338-336 BC
  • Khababash - 338-335 BC
  • Darius III - 336-332 BC

Argead Dynasty

The Macedonians under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BC:

  • Setepenre-meryamun Alexander III (Alexander the Great) - 332-323 BC
  • Philip III Arrhidaeus - 323-317 BC
  • Haaibre Alexander IV - 317-309 BC

Ptolemaic Dynasty

The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies ruled Egypt from 305 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency). The most famous member of this dynasty was Cleopatra VII, who in modern times is known simply as Cleopatra, and who had affairs with Mark Antony and Julius Caesar.

  • Ptolemy I Soter (Setepenre-meryamun Ptolemy) - 305-285 BC
  • Berenice I - ?-285 BC
  • Ptolemy II Philadelphos (Weserkare-meryamun Ptolemy) - 288-246 BC
  • Arsinoe I - 284/81-ca. 274 BC
  • Arsinoe II - 277-270 BC
  • Ptolemy III Euergetes I - 246-222 BC
  • Berenice II - 244/3-222 BC
  • Ptolemy IV Philopator - 222-204 BC
  • Arsinoe III - 220-204 BC
  • Hugronaphor - 205-199 BC
  • Ankhmakis - 199-185 BC
  • Ptolemy V Epiphanes - 204-180 BC
  • Cleopatra I (co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority) - 193-176 BC
  • Ptolemy VI Philometor - BC 180-164 BC
  • Cleopatra II - 173-164 BC
  • Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BC.) - 171-163 BC
  • Ptolemy VI Philometor - 163-145 BC
  • Cleopatra II - 163-127 BC
  • Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator (Proclaimed co-ruler by father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II) - 145-144 BC
  • Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II - 145-131 BC
  • Cleopatra III - 142-131 BC
  • Ptolemy Memphitis - 131 BC
  • Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II - 127-116 BC
  • Cleopatra III (later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X) - 127-107 BC
  • Cleopatra II (co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116) - 124-116 BC
  • Ptolemy IX Soter II - 116-110 BC
  • Cleopatra IV - 116-115 BC
  • Ptolemy X Alexander I - 110-109 BC
  • Berenice III - 81-80 BC
  • Ptolemy XI Alexander II - 80 BC
  • Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) - 80-58 BC
  • Cleopatra V Tryphaena - 79-68 BC
  • Cleopatra VI - 58-57 BC
  • Berenice IV (Joint rule with Cleopatra VI until 57 BC) - 58-55 BC
  • Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death) - 55-51 BC
  • Cleopatra VII (Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV) - 51-30 BC
  • Ptolemy XIII - 51-47 BC
  • Arsinoe IV - 48-47 BC
  • Ptolemy XIV - 47-44 BC
  • Ptolemy XV (aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra) - 44-30 BC

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History of the title Pharaoh

Pharaoh, meaning "Great House", originally referred to the king's palace, but by the reign of Thutmose III (ca. 1479-1425 BC) in the New Kingdom had become a form of address for the person of the king.

The term pharaoh ultimately was derived from a compound word represented as pr-3, written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr "house" and 3 "column".

It was used only in larger phrases such as smr pr-3 'Courtier of the High House', with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace itself.

From the twelfth dynasty onward the word appears in a wish formula 'Great House, may it live, prosper, and be in health', but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person.

The earliest instance where pr-3 is used specifically to address the ruler is in a letter to Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) in the mid-eighteenth dynasty (1550-1292 BC) which is addressed to 'Pharaoh, all life, prosperity, and health!.

During the eighteenth dynasty (sixteenth to fourteenth centuries B.C.) the title pharaoh was employed as a reverential designation of the ruler.

About the late twenty-first dynasty (tenth century B.C.), however, instead of being used alone as before, it began to be added to the other titles before the ruler's name, and from the twenty-fifth dynasty (eighth to seventh centuries B.C.) it was, at least in ordinary usage, the only epithet prefixed to the royal appellative.

From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-3 on its own was used as regularly as hm.f, His Majesty'. The term therefore evolved from a word specifically referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler, particularly by the twenty-second dynasty and twenty-third dynasty.

For instance, the first dated instance of the title pharaoh being attached to a ruler's name occurs in Year 17 of Siamun on a fragment from the Karnak Priestly Annals.

Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun. This new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the twenty-first dynasty kings. Meanwhile the old custom of referring to the sovereign simply as Per'o continued in traditional Egyptian narratives.

By this time, the Late Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced *par-ʕoʔ whence comes Ancient Greek φαραώ pharaō and then Late Latin pharaō. From the latter, English obtained the word "Pharaoh". Over time, *par-ʕoʔ evolved into Sahidic Coptic prro ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ and then rro (by mistaking p- as the definite article prefix "the" from Ancient Egyptian p3).

more at : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharaoh

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tutankhamun

the collaboration wiki page of Pharaohs of Egypt_Merge:

http://wiki.geni.com/index.php/Pharaohs_of_Egypt_Merge