Hamengkubuwana III (1769-3 November 1814) was the son of Hamengkubuwana II (Sultan Sepuh). Hamengkubuwana III came to power in 1810. A year later when the Dutch replaced the British Government under the leadership of Lieutenant Governor Raffles, Sultan Hamengkubuwana III abdicated and the kingdom led by Sultan Sepuh (Hamengkubuwana II) back for one year (1812). During the leadership of Sultan Yogyakarta palace Hamengkubuwana III suffered a massive setback. Setbacks are:
1. Required to release the kingdom Ngayogyakarta Kedu region, half Pacitan, Japan, Jipang and Grobogan to Britain and replaced real losses of 100,000 a year.
2. Minimized the royal army and security forces just a few palace.
3. Most of the territory of the palace of Prince Notokusumo handed to deserving to be Raffles and was appointed Duke Ario Prince Paku Alam I.
In 1814 Hamengkubuwana III died at the age of 43 years.