- Grad Senj staro je naselje utemeljeno pred više od 3000 godina na brdu Kuk, osnovalo novo naselje koje se prvi put spominje u IV. st. pr. Kr. u Periplusu grčkog moreplovaca Pseudoskilaka pod imenom Attienites.
- Sredinom II. st. pr. Kr. u ove krajeve dolaze Rimljani i postupno preuzimaju kontrolu nad gradom koji se u njihovo vrijeme naziva Senia.
- Tijekom V., VI. i VII. st., u vrijeme Seobe naroda, prodiru s istoka barbarska plemena koja prekidaju zlatno doba grada. Danas ne možemo pouzdano utvrditi o kojoj se skupini radi. Najvjerojatnije su to prvi učinili Zapadni Goti (Vizigoti) koji u ovim krajevima borave u prvoj polovici V. st., a konačno rušenje izveli su Avari i Slaveni početkom VII. st.
- Na antičkim ruševinama Hrvati u srednjem vijeku podižu novi grad, tj. današnji Senj. Centar srednjovjekovne hrvatske države bio je južnije (u današnjoj Dalmaciji), pa Senj gubi značaj prometnog i trgovačkog središta. Tek sredinom XII. st. grad se opet spominje u pisanim vrelima.
- Godine 1169. osniva se biskupija. Od godine 1184. grad pripada viteškom redu templara u čijem će posjedu ostati do 70-ih godina XIII. st. Poslije templara preuzimaju ga knezovi krčki, kasnije nazvani Frankopani (Frankapani).
- U srednjem je vijeku Senj poznat po glagoljici, pismu vjerojatno stvorenom još u IX. st. za potrebe evangelizacije Slavena. Od XII. st. glagoljica postoji još jedino na tlu Hrvatske, a osobito je razvijena na senjskom području. Godine 1248. senjski je biskup dozvolom pape Inocenta IV. postao jedini biskup u katoličkom svijetu koji može koristiti glagoljicu i narodni jezik u liturgiji. To je dalo novi poticaj razvoju ovoga pisma tijekom XIV. i XV. stoljeća, o čemu govore i brojni sačuvani glagoljski natpisi i rukom pisane knjige i dokumenti. U Senju je radila i glagoljska tiskara, osnovana oko 1494. godine, koja je bila među prvim tiskarama u cijeloj jugoistočnoj Europi i u kojoj su tiskane dvije inkunabule: Senjski glagoljski misal i Spovid općena.
- Sredinom XV. st., u grad ulazi vojna posada Ugarsko - hrvatskog kralja Matije Korvina. Godine 1469. Osmanlijski ratni pohodi na ovo područje osobito su se intenzivirali u prvoj polovici XVI. st., a sam grad postao utočište brojnim izbjeglicama s okupiranih područja. Od izbjeglica se formiraju znameniti senjski uskoci, koji će do početka 20-ih godina XVII. st. uspješno braniti Senj i nanositi teške gubitke vojskama Osmanskoga Carstva i Venecije. Za potrebe obrane na brdu Trbušnjak 1558. godine završena je izgradnja tvrđave Nehaj u koju je bila smještena uskočka posada. Zbog novonastalih političkih prilika u XVII. st. postali su smetnja i opasnost za novu, miroljubiviju politiku Habsburške Monarhije prema Osmanskom Carstvu i Veneciji, te su bili raseljeni po ostalim hrvatskim krajevima.
- Druga polovica XVIII. i prvoj polovici XIX. st. izvode veliki građevinski radovi (izgradnja nove Jozefinske ceste, obnova luke, gradnja velikih, tzv. Carskih magazina, regulacija bujice i sl.). Tada počinje novo zlatno doba grada . Senjska luka postaje jedna od najvažnijih u državi.
- Izgradnja željezničke pruge Karlovac - Rijeka (1873.) koja je zaobišla Senj imala je pogubne posljedice za gospodarstvo i trgovački značaj grada.
- Senj is an old settlement founded more than 3000 years ago on the hill Kuk, east of the present-day Senj. Through the years, the settlers moved nearer to the sea to found a new settlement, which was first mentioned by the Greek sailor Pseudoskilaks under a name of Attienites. By the mid-2nd century the Romans came and gradually took over the city which was then named Senia.
- The name of Senia often denotes struggle for freedom in the world history. The Romans easily attacked the Japods and other Illyrian tribes from Senia. They also built the town, especially in the period from the mid-1st century B.C. until the 4th century. The following objects were built in this period: the Town hall, the aqueduct, thermes, temples (of Diana, Magna Mater, Kibela and Liberus).
- During the 5th, 6th and 7th century, at the time of Migration, many Barbarian tribes from the East raided the town and ended its golden age. Arceological reasearch shows that much of the town was burned and torn down by one of these Barbarians groups. It was probably the West Ghots, who lived here in the first half of the 5th century. The final destruction was done by the Avaris and the Slavs at the beginning of the 7th century.
- In the Middle Ages, the Croats settled down and founded a new town on the Antique ruins and named it Senj. Senj lost its importance since the centre of the Medieval Croatian state was moved to the South – to present-day Dalmatia. Once again, it gains importance due to the geopolitical changes when the political centre moved North.
- The diocese was established in 1169, which clearly demonstrates the importance of the town.
- From 1184 until the end of the 13th century, Senj belongs to the Templares, the order of priests and knights. From 1271 on, Senj is ruled by the Dukes of Krk who were later renamed the Frankopans and the town regains its old prosperity, both in its economic and in cultural life.
- In the Middle Ages, Senj is known for the glagolic alphabet, the alphabet created for the purpose of christianizing the Slavs in the 9th century. In the 12th ct., the glagolic alphabet is used solely in Croatia and it was particularly developed in Senj. In 1248, the Bishop of Senj became the only Bishop in the Catholic world who could use the glagolic alphabet and the public language in his liturgy service, by the permission of the Pope Inocent IV. This encouraged the further development of this alphabet in the 14th and 15th ct., resulting in many glagolic stone boards and hand written books and documents.
- A glagolic printing press was established in Senj in 1494. Two incunabules were printed there: The Glagolic Missal and Spovid općena.
- In the middle of the 15th century the millitary forces of the Hungarian-Croatian king Matija Korvin came to town. In 1469 Senj became a center of its captaincy, established because of the evergrowing danger from Turks but also as a defense from the Venetian politics.
- The Ottoman campaigns to this area were especially common during the first half of the 16th century. At that time the neighbouring places were totally devasteded and the town became a shelter to a large number of refugees from the occupied areas. The millitary units were formed of the refugees. They were the famous Uskoks who successfully defended Senj until the 17th century and who managed to cause hard losses to the armed forces of the Ottoman Empire and Venice. In 1558. a construction of the Fortress Nehaj, on the hill Trbušnjak, was finished for the needs of defence. The Uskoks was placed there.
- In the 17th century they became a disturbance for a new peaceful policy of the Habsburg Monarchy towards the Ottoman Empire and Venice, and they were evacuated to other places in Croatia.
- Second half of the 18th century and in the first half of the 19th century, the great constructive works were being done (construction of the new Josephina’s road, restoration of the port, construction of the big imperial depot, regulation of the strong current and similar works). The import of salt and export of grain and wood were passing through that port. The sailors sailed on their ships from Senj all over the world and they especially traded with the Mediterranean countries. Senj became an important cultural centre and its intellectuals and inhabitans were bearers of the Croatian national ideology.
- The construction of the railway line Karlovac- Rijeka (1873), which went round Senj, had the disastrous consequences for the economy and comercial meaning of the town. The traffic in the port was reduced and the goods took another direction to Trieste and Rijeka. These two towns were connected with the hinterland by the railorad. The role of Senj was reduced to a mere export port for wood. The lack of the economic prosperity and marginalization of the traffic direction had a negative effect on the life of the whole region. In the late 19th century a migration of the inhabitants started. It was very intensive in the 20th century, especially after the end of the World War II, when political reasons were added to the economic reasons. The old town center suffered a great damage in bombing, when many of the extraordinary valuable cultural monuments disappeared.
Poznate ličnosti / Notable people
- Eugen Kvaternik
- Milan Ogrizović
- Ivan Paskvić
- Vjenceslav Novak
- Silvije Strahimir Kranjčević
- Milutin Cihlar Nehajev
- Pavao Ritter Vitezović
- Mirko Ožegović Barlabaševački
- Nikola Jurišić
- Milan Moguš
- Ivan Đalma Marković
- Ante Glavičić
- Sandra Šarić
- Vladimir Ćopić
Senjska gimnazija / Clasical gymnasium (grammar school) from Senj
Senjska prezimena / Surnames from Senj