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The Domesday Book: England in 1085

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  • Hereward "The Exile", Thegn of Mercia (1035 - c.1072)
    Hereward The Wake "le Wac" means "the Banished" Excerpt from A Brief History of The Anglo -Saxons" by Geoffrey Hindley "With the country in turmoil, 'the English people from the Fens' had flocked t...
  • Aélis de Beaumont-sur-Oise (c.1045 - 1091)
    ADELISE [Aelis] de Beaumont , daughter of IVO Comte de Beaumont & his first wife Judith --- ([before 1045]-Rouen 11 Jul 1091, bur Saint-Evroul[310]). She is named as wife of Hugues by Orderic Vitalis, ...
  • Gyða Torgilsdotter þórgilsdóttir (1001 - 1069)
    Gytha (?) F, #102179, d. after 1069 Last Edited=9 Apr 2006 Gytha (?) was born at Denmark. (3) She was the daughter of Thorgils 'Sprakalegg' Styrbjornson and Sigrid of Halland. (1), (2) She marr...
  • Leofwine Godwinsson, Earl of Essex and Kent (c.1035 - 1066)
    Leofwine Godwinson (c. 1035[1] – October 14, 1066) was a younger brother of Harold II of England, the fifth son of Earl Godwin. When the Godwin family was exiled from England in 1051 he went...
  • Robert de Gernon, of Chester (1035 - 1086)
    Some family trees label him as "Duke of Boulogne"--but there was no duchy of Boulogne. There were Counts of Boulogne, but there is no record of a Robert as Count of Boulogne during this period. Rather,...

The goal of this project is to build a resource directory to information from the Domesday Book as well as links to Geni profiles of historical persons who are listed in the Domesday Book.

What was the Domesday Book?

(from http://www.medievalgenealogy.org.uk/guide/dom.shtml)

Domesday Book is the earliest, and by far the most famous, English public record. It is the record of a survey which, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, William the Conqueror ordered to be taken at Christmas 1085; a survey so thorough that not 'one ox nor one cow nor one pig' was omitted. This is something of an overstatement: there are no Domesday entries at all for Durham or Northumberland, and few for Cumberland, Westmorland or northern Lancashire (although some parts of Wales near the English border are included). A number of towns were also omitted, notably London, Winchester and Bristol.

For the remainder of the country, there is a very detailed survey, describing the value, the population and the resources of each manor. The authority of the record was immense, and within a century it had acquired its popular nickname of 'Domesday' because, like the Last Judgment, there could be no appeal against its statements. Its interest to genealogists, of course, arises because it names the tenants in chief, and many of those who held manors as their immediate tenants, both at the time of the survey, and before the Norman conquest in the reign of Edward the Confessor. The humbler classes, as a rule, were counted but not named.

For some parts of the country, the Domesday survey has left behind more detailed records still. The eastern counties of Norfolk, Suffolk and Essex are not included in the main volume, known as 'Great Domesday', but are covered in a separate volume - 'Little Domesday' - which is thought to reflect an earlier stage in the editing of the original returns. The same is true of several other documents:

   * The 'Exeter Domesday', for Cornwall, Somerset and most of Devon.
   * The Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis, for Cambridgeshire (excluding the royal manors).
   * The Inquisitio Eliensis, covering the lands of Ely Abbey in 6 counties. 

Other material, also thought to be connected with the survey, is preserved in a number of monastic cartularies (see Hallam, pp.38, 39).

MAJOR LANDOWNERS LISTED IN DOMESDAY BOOK

This list is gathered from http://www.domesdaybook.co.uk and The Domesday Book (Thomas Hinde, ed., 1985, CLB International) and then linked to Geni profiles.

For an excellent database on the landholdings listed, searchable by first name, see http://www.pase.ac.uk/index.html ("The Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England (PASE) is a database which aims to provide structured information relating to all the recorded inhabitants of England from the late sixth to the late eleventh century. It is based on a systematic examination of the available written sources for the period, including chronicles, saints’ Lives, charters, libri vitae, inscriptions, Domesday Book and coins; and is intended to serve as a research tool suitable for a wide range of users with an interest in this period.")

A

d'Abetot, Urso - Also called Urso of Worcester. From Abbetot, Seine-Maritime (France). Sheriff of Worcestershire. Brother of Robert the Bursar. Helped crush revolt of Roger of Hereford, 1075. Took much land from Worcester church and Odo of Bayeux after his disgrace. Large holdings in Worcester, Gloucs., Herefords., Warwicks.

d'Aincourt, Walter - 52 holdings in 5 Midland and northern counties: Derbyshire, Northamptonshire, Yorkshire, Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire. A blood relative of Remigius de Fécamp, Bishop of Lincoln. Walter's wife was named Matilda. Walter owned and operated lead mines in Derbyshire. He was a commercial, diplomatic and philanthropic associate of Alan Rufus. In 1088 Walter was charged with bearing the royal writ requiring the men of William de St Calais, Bishop of Durham to release cattle seized from the rebel Geoffrey Montbray, Bishop of Coutances. Walter's and Matilda's son William was raised and tutored in the court of King William II and was buried during that king's reign at Lincoln cathedral with a lead plaque stating that he was of royal lineage - evidence points to this being through Matilda. Trevor Foulds, Nottingham City Historian and author of the book version of the Latin edition of the Thurgarton Cartulary, has hypothesised that Matilda was an elder daughter of William the Conqueror called "Matilda, daughter of the King" in Domesday and charters.

Aiulf the Chamberlain - Brother of Humphrey the Chamberlain. Sheriff of Dorset and later, in 1091, Somerset. Large holdings in Dorset, Berks., and Wilts.

Alfred the Butler - Butler to William I's half-brother, Robert the Count of Mortain.

Alselin, Geoffrey - Holdings in 7 northern and Midland counties, mostly taken from and Englishman, Toki.

Arden, also called Thorkell of Warwick - Descendant of the Danish earl who retained lands in Warwickshire.

d'Aubigny, Nigel - From St. Martin d'Aubigny near Coutances. Eldest son took name of Mowbray, ancestor of dukes of Norfolk. Large holdings in Beds., Bucks., Leics., Warwicks.

B

Baldwin, Abbot of Bury St. Edmunds - Abbot 1065-1098. Edward the Confessor's doctor. Abbey holdings in 7 southern counties.

Herleva, his mistress and William's mother.

Bayeux, Odo, Bishop of - Co-regent of England (with William fitzOsbern) during William I's triumphal tour of Normandy in 1067. Possibly commissioned the Bayeux Tapestry. Arrested (rumour had it on suspicion of plotting to usurp the Papacy) in 1082, in prison at Rouen in 1086, pardoned by William I on his death bed; rebelled against William Rufus in 1088, defeated; fled to Normandy, died 1097 on First Crusade. Numerous holdings in 22 counties, over 200 in demesne, some still under his name.

Beauchamp, Hugh de - Ancestor of Beauchamp family; Large holdings in Beds., Herts., and Bucks.

William de Warenne became second Earl of Surrey. Holdings in Leics., Northants., and Warwicks. on his father William the 1st Earl's death at the Siege of Pevensey Castle during the Rebellion of 1088.

Beaumont, Robert of. Entered monastry of St. Pierre, Preaux, 1094-95. Holdings in Dorset, Glos.

Bello Fargo, William of, Bishop of Thetford - From Beaufour, Calvados. Nominated Bishop of Thetford, Dec. 1085; died 1091. Holdings in Norfolk and Suffolk. Church holdings in same counties.

Ralph, had holdings in Glos., and was under-tenant in Somerset.

Bernay, Ralph de - From Bernay, Eure. Sheriff of Herefordshire under Earl William FitzOsbern. Imprisoned by William I.

Beuvriere, Drogo de - A Fleming who came to England with William I. Holdings in six counties in East Anglia, Midlands and North.

Bigot (Bigod), Roger - Also called Roger the Sheriff. From Les Loges, Calvados. Daughter married Robert of Stafford. Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk in 1086. Ancestor of Bigot family, the earls of Norfolk. Large holdings in Essex, Norfolk and Suffolk.

Blunt, Robert - Also called Albus, Blancardus (white), Flavus (fair), Blundus (blonde). Holdings in Essex, Middx. and Suffolk. Admiral of the Norman fleet that invaded England in 1066.

Humphrey I de Bohon Lord of Taterford in Norfolk - See Humphrey FitzBohon, below

Bolbec, Hugh of - Heirs became Earls of Oxford. Holdings in Bucks., Berks., Hunts., and Oxon.

Boulogne, Eustace II, Count of - Son of Eustace, Count of Boulogne. Lands became Honour of Boulogne. Large holdings in Essex, also in eleven other counties.

Braose, Wiliam de - From Braose, near Falaise. Lord of the Sussex rape of Bramber, with castle there. Holdings in five other Southern counties.

William FitzOsbern. Earl of Hereford, 1071-76, when he rebelled with Earl Ralph of East Anglia and his lands were forfeited.

Brittany, Count Alan of - Full name Count Alan Rufus. Head of Bretons in England. 769 holdings across England, at least 430 being in his personal demesne. 211 holdings in Yorkshire, (including 199 in the future Richmondshire), 158 in Suffolk, 135 in Lincolnshire, 135 in Norfolk, 101 in Cambridgeshire, 13 in Essex, 10 in Nottinghamshire, 4 in Hampshire, and 1 each in Derbyshire and Dorset. Born circa 1040, Alan was an older son of Count Eozen (Eudon) who was a first cousin to King Edward the Confessor and a double-first cousin to Duke Robert of Normandy (father of William the Conqueror), and a former regent of Brittany. Lord of Richemont in Upper Normandy. Gaimar and Wace describe Alan as a formidable commander at Hastings, where he would have served either on the Breton (west) wing or among the Normans (possibly beside Duke William as each acquired 28 of Earl Gyrth's properties). Acquired over 100 manors from Edeva the fair in and around Cambridgeshire. King William ceded Earl Edwin's lands in Yorkshire to Alan at the Siege of York on the recommendation of Queen Matilda. After the rebellion of 1075, received many of Ralph de Gael's properties in East Anglia. Noted for his loyalty to the king and colleagues, Alan was left in command (circa 1083) of the royal household knights at the protracted and futile siege of the heavily-defended castle of Sainte-Suzanne, which drew the most ambitious knights from across France to prove their mettle against the besiegers. Founder of the port of Boston, Richmond and Middleham castles, and St Mary's Abbey in York, he was a major benefactor to many abbeys and religious houses across England including St Edmunds Bury in Suffolk and Downton Manor in Wiltshire. A possible founder of the institution that became Cambridge University, the blazon of which bears an ermine cross, ermine being the emblem of Brittany. Alan's eminent Yorkshire tenants included Thomas, Archbishop of York, and William de St Calais, Bishop of Durham; many of Alan's tenants were English, but he also granted many manors to his brothers Ribald and Bardulf and to his half-sister's husband Enisant Musard, and gave Sibton manor in gratitude to his wet-nurse Orwen who later married his chamberlain Mainard. Alan accompanied King William I on many occasions, including royal supervision of the Domesday Survey. During the Rebellion of 1088, Alan was the strongest of the few magnates loyal to William II. In victory, he urged leniency to the rebels, and subsequently appeared second to the king in royal charters. Later in 1088, Alan was the chief arresting officer who brought St Calais to trial for treason, but in court he defended the bishop against the king. Alan died unexpectedly on 4 August 1093 (perhaps in the terrible fire of London that occurred that summer, as his epitaph used "cineratur" to describe his death) and was buried at the Abbey of St Edmunds: his epitaph described him as the flower of British royalty and as a "praecepto legum" (teacher of the law). Alan gave away most of his monetary wealth while he lived, but his will bequeathed £7000 cash, which has been estimated at about £81 billion today. After Alan's demise, Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury wrote two letters to Gunhild, daughter of Harold Godwinson and Edith Swannessha, chastising her for leaving Wilton Abbey and taking up with Alan Rufus; at the time of these letters she was living with his brother and successor Alan Niger. (Count Alan is not to be confused with his much younger cousin Alan IV "Fergant", Duke of Brittany (born 1063, died 1119) who married as his first wife Constance, a daughter of William I.)

Bully, Roger de - Perhaps from Bully-en-Brai, Seine-Maritime. Desribed as 'famous in Domesday but nowhere else'. Founded priory at Blythe in 1088. Castle at Tikhill, Yorks. Holdings in six counties, mainly in the North but also in Devon.

Burcy, Serlo de - Daughter married William de Falaise. Large holdings in Somerset, also in Dorset.

C

Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury - Norman archbishop, 1070-89. Won famous case against Odo of Bayeux at Penenden, 1072, for taking church lands. Holdings in Berks., Bucks., Kent and Suffolk. Abbey holdings in these and six other southern counties.

Stigand, Archbishop of Canterbury - Saxon archbishop of Canterbury from 1052-70, then deprived of lands. Died 1072.

Chester, Hugh, Earl of - Also Earl of Avaranches. Also called Hugh Lupus (wolf) and Hugh the Fat. Son of Richard le Goz, Viscount of Avranches, and Emma de Conteville, a half-sister of William I. Hugh's sister married Count William d'Eu; Hugh's daughter, Matilda, married Count Robert of Mortain. Virtual sovereign of Cheshire. Captured Anglesea from the Welsh, 1098; became so fat he could barely crawl; died 1101. Holdings in 20 counties.

Chester, Peter, Bishop of - Moved the diocese from Lichfield to Chester in 1075. Succeeded in 1085 by Robert de Limésy.

Chester, Roger, Bishop of - Nominated 1085; moved see to Coventry 1102. Holdings in Herts. Church holdings in six other midland counties.

Chocques, Gunfrid de - From Chocques, Pas-de-Calais. Holdings in Beds., Bucks., Leics., Lincs., Northants.

Chocques, Sigar de - From Chocques, Pas-de-Calais. Holdings in Beds., Glos., Herts., Northants.

Christiana - Princess of West Saxon house. Holdings in Oxon. and Warwicks.

Clare, Gilbert de - Son of Richard; conquered lands in Wales to become Earl of Pembroke. Gilbert held Tonbridge Castle against Rufus in 1088 after William's death, but was reconciled later and also served Henry I. Died 1115.

Clifford, Walter - Domesday commissioner.

Courbépine, Ralph de - Holdings in Kent

Courseulles, Roger de - Also called Roger Whiting. From Courselles-sur-Mer, Calvados. Large holdings in Somerset. Also in Dorset and Wilts.

Coutances, Geoffrey, Bishop of - Also called Bishop of Lô. Bishop of Coutances from 1048; William I's trusted friend. A chief justice. Presided at Penenden, Kent, at case brought by Lanfranc against Odo of Bayeux; rebelled with Odo and others against William Rufus, 1088; died 1093. Church holdings in 13 southern and midland counties.

Craon/Creon, Guy de - Large holdings in Lincolnshire. A member of the noble family of Anjou, one of the most illustrious of those who came into England with William the Conqueror.

Crispin, Miles - Related to Gilbert Crispin, Abbot of Westminster. Married Maud, daughter of Roger d'Oilly. Castle at Wallingford. Lands became Honour of Wallingford. Holdings in Berks., Surrey and five other neighbouring counties.

Curcy, William de - Married William I's daughter Emma.

	

D

Donkey, Hugh - Probably served under Earl William FitzOsbern defending West against the Welsh. Lands later formed the Honour of Snodhill. Holdings in Gloucs., Herefords., Shrops., Wilts., Worcs.

Douai, Walter de - Also called Walscin, a nick-name. From Douai, Nord. Holdings in Devon, Essex, Somerset, Surrey, Wilts.

Durham, William de St-Calais, Bishop of - Bishop of Durham, 1082-96. Chief justice and Domesday commissioner, one of his scribes wrote most of the Great Domesday Book. Driven from see by William II "Rufus" in 1088, he became a counsellor to Duke Robert "Curthose" of Normandy and was often at odds with the exiled Odo of Bayeux. Restored by William II in 1091 immediately after the king's Normandy campaign. Tenant in Yorkshire of Count Alan Rufus. Abbey holdings in 9 counties from Yorks. to Beds.

E

East Anglia, Aelfgar, Earl of - Also Earl of Mercia, 1057-62. Son of Countess Godiva and Earl Leofric. Married Countess Aelfeva (Ælfgifu). Father of rebel earls Edwin and Morcar. Earl of East Anglia, 1051-52 and 1053-57; outlawed 1055 and 1058, but pardoned each time.

East Anglia, Ralph, Earl of - Also called Ralph Waher and Ralph de Guarder. Born in England, son of [Ralph the Staller, Earl of Hereford, and Agatha. First Earl of Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridge. Responsible for beginning work on Norwich castle, which involved destroying many houses and 2 churches. Rebelled with Earl Roger of Breteuil and Hereford (son of Earl William FitzOsbern) in 1075 over the king's refusal to sanction his marriage to Roger's sister Emma; subsequently his title and land were taken from him and the castle was taken over by the Crown. Domesday records his lost land as 'forfeited'. Ralph left his wife in charge of Norwich castle to negotiate his men's surrender, while he escaped to Denmark, where he raised a fleet of 200 ships to invade England, to no avail. He then took refuge in Brittany with his wife; had three children, Amicia de Waher, Ralph de Gael de Montford and William de Breteuil. Participated in 1076 rebellion by Count Eudes against Hoel, regent of Brittany, but then helped Hoel repel an invasion by King William I of England. Died in Palestine circa 1096 with his wife while travelling on the first Crusade.

Edeva the fair - Proper name Eadgifu. Owner in 1066 of well over 100 manors in Cambridgeshire, East Anglia and adjacent counties. Possibly King Harold's mistress or sometimes identified with his first wife, Edith "Swannesha" ("Gentle Swan"). Perhaps a relative of King Edward the Confessor as she was exceptionally wealthy, Edith Swannesha married Harold around the time that Edward married Harold's sister Edith, Queen and Edward became Earl of East Anglia, she was discarded when Edward died, and Eadgifu is a name of significance in the ruling House of Cerdic. Most of Edeva's manors passed to Count Alan Rufus, a first cousin once removed of King Edward's, who took Harold's and Edith Swannesha's daughter Gunhild under his wing.

Edith, Queen - Daughter of Earl Godwin. Edward the Confessor's queen (died 1075). She rebuilt Wilton Abbey church for the Benedictine nuns.

Edric - Sheriff of Wiltshire before Edward of Salisbury.

King Edward the Confessor, June 1042-Jan 1066.

Robert FitzWymarc. Probably once Sheriff of Essex; Castle at Raleigh; greatest sheepmaster in Essex. Holdings in Essex and Hunts.

Eu, William d', Count of Eu - From Eu, port of Seine-Maritime. Second son of Count Robert. Second wife, Hugh of Chester's sister. Lord of Sussex rape of Hastings. Rebelled 1088 and 1094; blinded, castrated and executed, 1096. Holdings in 9 southern and western counties.

Eudo, Count - Father of Count Alan of Brittany.

Eustace - Sheriff of Hunts. Holdings in Hunts.

Richard, at Hastings. Holdings in Berks., Hants. and Oxon.

Exeter, Osbern, Bishop of - Brother of Earl William FitzOsbern. Before the conquest a Norman chaplain of Edward the Confessor. Favourite and chaplain of William I. Bishop of Exeter 1072-1103. Holdings in 6 southern counties. Church holdings in three more.

F

Fafiton, Robert - Holdings in Beds., Cambs., Hunts., Middx.

Falaise, William de - From Falaise, Calvados, William the Conqueror's home town. Married daughter of Serlo de Burcy. Holdings in Devon, Dorset, Somerset, Wilts.

Ferrers, Henry de - From Ferriers-St. Hilaire, Eure. Lord of Longueville, Normandy; castle at Tutbury, Staffs.; Domesday commissioner. Ancestor of earls of Derby. Large holdings in Derby. Also in 14 other counties.

FitzAnsculf, William - Also called William of Pinkeni. From Picquigny, Somme. Son of Sheriff of Buckinghamshire. Castle at Dudley, Worcs. Holdings in 12 midland and western counties.

FitzAzor, Henry - Holdings in Beds.

FitzAzor, Jocelyn - Large holdings in Isle of Wight.

FitzAzor, William - Large holdings in Isle of Wight. Probably brother of Jocelyn.

FitzBaderon, William - Lord of Monmouth. Holdings in Hants., Herefords., Gloucs.

FitzBaldric, Hugh - Sheriff of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. Holdings in Berks., Hants., Lincoln., Notts., Wilts., Yorks.

FitzBohun, Humphrey (see Humphrey de Bohon) - From Bohun, La Manche. Ancestor of earls of Hereford. Holdings in Norfolk.

FitzCorbucion, William - Became Sheriff of Warwickshire soon after 1086. Holdings in Berks., Staffs., Warwicks., Worcs.

Richard FitzGilbert of Tonbridge; sister married Peter de Valognes. William I's steward, succeeding William FitzOsbern. Founded Abbey of St. John's at Colchester. Castle at Préaux in Normandy. Died 1120. Large holdings in Cambridgeshire, also in Beds., Essex, Herts., Norfolk.

FitzHubert, Ralph - Holdings in Derbys., Leics., Lincoln., Notts., Staffs.

FitzNigel, William - Constable of Earl Hugh of Chester. Ancestor of Lacy earls of Lincoln.

Roger, Earl of Hereford rebelled. Regent, with Odo of Bayeux, 1067.

FitzPoyntz, Drogo - Son of William of Poyntz. Holdings in Gloucs., Herefords., Wilts., Worcs. Also 73 holdings in Devon as under-tenant of Bishop of Coutances.

FitzRalph de Sudeley, Harold - Son of Earl Ralph the Timid. In 1086 held castle of Ewyas Harold in Worcs., named after him. Holdings in Glos., Warwicks., Worcs.

FitzRolf, Thurstan - Perhaps standard bearer at Hastings. Holdings in 8 southern and western counties.

FitzStur, William - From Tourville, near Cherbourg. Holdings in Hants. and Isle of Wight.

FitzThorold, Gilbert - Follower of Earl William FitzOsbern, said to have collected gold for the king. Holdings in Cambridge., Essex, Gloucs., Herefords., Somerset and Warwicks.

FitzWymark (FitzWimarc), Robert - Sheriff of Essex, succeeded by his son, Swein of Essex.

Flambard, Ranulf - One time Chief Justice. Bishop of Durham 1099-1128. Imprisoned by Henry I. Holdings in Hants. and Oxon.

Flanders, Walter of - Perhaps the same as Walter Bec. Large holdings in Beds. Also in Bucks., Herts., Northants.

Fougères, Ralph (Raoul) de - Lord of Fougères in Upper Brittany. Reputed to have captured Robert, Count of Mortain when the latter was defeated in a raid on the border town of Vitre, and held him until he agreed to let him marry one of Robert's daughters (which he did). Holdings in Bucks., Devon, Norfolk, Suffolk, Surrey.

G

Gernon, Robert - Name from grenon, gernon, meaning moustache. Ancestor of Cavendish family. Holdings in Bucks., Cambs., Herefords., Herts., Middx.

Ghent, Gilbert de - Abbot from 1076. Came from French monastery of Marmoutie. Abbey holdings in southern counties. One of few to escape Danish siege of York in 1067; died 1094. Holdings in 15 counties from Berks. northwards.

Giffard, Walter - Son of Osbern of Bolbec. Domesday commissioner; keeper of Windsor Castle; Earl of Buckingham (1100); died 1103. Holdings in 10 counties.

Giffard, Osbern - Holdings in Northamptonshire and five southern counties.

Gilbert Grus - Bishop of Evreux. Made bishop in 1071, died 1118. Holdings in Suffolk.

Giles, brother of Ansculf - Holdings in Berks., Bucks., Northants., Oxon.

Gloucester, Durand of - Constable of Gloucester Castle. Sheriff of Gloucestershire 1086, succeeding his brother Roger. Holdings in Hants., Wilts.

Goda, Countess - Birth name Godgifu. Sister of Edward the Confessor, wife of Drogo of Mantes, then first wife of Count Eustace of Boulogne; died 1056.

Thorold, sheriff of Lincs.

Godiva, Countess - grandmother of rebel earls Edwin and Morcar. Famous for her (allegedly) naked bareback ride on a horse at Coventry; founded Stow Priory near Lincoln. Holdings not yet re-granted, in Leics., Notts. and Warwicks.

Godwin, Earl - Father of King Harold. Father-in-law of King Edward the Confessor, who married his daughter, Edith. Earl of the West Saxons; died 1053.

Grandmesnil (Grentemesnil), Hugh de - From Grandmesnil, Calvados in Normandy. His maternal grandfather was the famous Breton knight Giroie. Hugh is a proven companion of William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Daughter married Roger of d'Ivry. Sheriff of Leicestershire, constable of Leicester Castle. Went into St. Evroul's monastery in Normandy and died there, 1094. Holdings in eight southern and midland counties. Wife's holdings listed separately, in Beds., Herts., Leics., Warwicks.

La Guerche, Geoffrey de - From Brittany. Holdings in Leics., Lincs., Northants., Notts., Warwicks.

Earl Leofwin.

Gytha, Countess - Wife of Earl Ralph of Hereford (Ralph the Timid).

H

Hamo the Steward - Also called Hamo the Sheriff. Sheriff of Kent; a judge at Penenden in case between Lanfranc and Odo of Bayeux. Holdings in Essex, Kent and Surrey.

Harold Godwineson, King of England, Jan-Oct 1066; usually called Earl Harold in Domesday since the Normans did not admit his claim to the throne. Appointed Earl of East Anglia during the 1040s and later made Earl of Wessex. Invaded Wales in the 1060s with the approval of Edward the Confessor. Shipwrecked in northern France, and captured first by Count Guy de Ponthieu and then by Duke William II of Normandy. Within hours of King Edward's death on 5 January 1066, Harold was elected by an incomplete Witan (council of elders) that excluded the lords of the North, a possible contributory cause of their not joining him in the battle of Hastings, where he met his death.

Hereford, Earl Ralph of - Also called Ralph the Timid de Sudeley. Son of Count Drogo of Mantes and Goda (Godgifu), Edward the Confessor's sister. Earl of Hereford 1053-57; disgraced in 1055 for cowardice against the Welsh.

Hereford, Robert, Bishop of - Bishop of Hereford 1079-95. Church holdings in Essex, Gloucs., Herefords., Oxon., Shrops., Worcs.

Hereford, Walter, Bishop of - Bishop of Hereford 1061-79. Chaplain to Edward the Confessor's Edith.

Hesdin, Arnulf de - From Hesdin, Pas-de-Calais. Large holdings in Wilts. Also in 10 other southern counties.

Hugh, son of Grip - Also called Hugh of Warham. Sheriff of Dorset before Aiulf the Chamberlain; wife held his lands. Exon Domesday comments on his lack of land. Wife remarried Alfred of Lincoln.

Humphrey the Chamberlain - Brother of Aiulf, Sheriff of Dorset; in service of Queen Matilda. Holdings in 9 counties from Leics. south.

Countess Judith. Countess of Lens. Daughter of Adelaide, Countess of Aumale, the sister of William the Conqueror. Married Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria but betrayed him.

I

Ilbert - Sheriff of Hertfordshire.

Ivry, Roger d' - Also called 'Butler'. From Ivry la Bataille, Eure. Married to Adeline, daughter of Hugh de Grandmesnil. Sworn brother-in-arms of Robert d'Oilly. Held several estates jointly. Perhaps Sheriff of Gloucestershire at one time. Holdings in Beds., Bucks., Gloucs., Hunts., Oxon., Warwicks.

Ivry, Hugh d' - Butler in Norman household before 1066. Probably brother of Roger d'Ivry. Holdings in Oxon.

J

Jocelyn le Breton - Holdings in Beds., Bucks., Gloucs.

Judith, Countess - Niece of William I, daughter of his half-sister Adelaide and Lambert, Count of Lens. Widow of Earl Waltheof of Huntingdon and Northumbria, whom she betrayed. Holdings in 10 counties in Midlands and East Anglia.

K

Kent, Leofwin, Earl of - Son of Countess Gytha and Earl Godwin, younger brother of King Harold. Earl of Kent and the home counties.

Keynes, William of - Sheriff of Northamptonshire.

L

Lacy, Roger de - Son of Walter de Lacy, succeeded him in 1085. Rebelled 1088 and 1094. Banished 1096; died 1106. Head of his fief at Woebley. Became Abbot of St. Peters, Glos. Holdings in Berks., Glos., Herefords., Shrops., Worcs.

Lacy, Walter de - From Lassy, Calvados. Western lands made him an important defender against Welsh. Helped crush rebellion of Earl William FitzOsbern's son, Roger; died 1085. Succeeded by son Roger.

Limesy, Ralph de - From Limésy, Seine-Maritime. King William's sister's son, probably brother of Roger de Limesy. Holdings in 10 counties in East, West and Midlands.

Limesy, Roger de - Probably brother of Ralph de Limesy. See Chester.

Lincoln, Remigius de Fécamp, Bishop of - Blood relative of Walter d'Aincourt. Remigius provided William I with ships for invasion of 1066; moved see from Dorchester, Oxon., to Lincoln between 1072 and 1086; Domesday commissioner. Holdings in Beds., Berks., Bucks., Lincs. Church holdings in five other counties.

Lisieux, Gilbert, Bishop of - Bishop of Lisieux, Calvados, 1077-1101. William I's doctor. Holdings in Yorkshire. Church holdings in Dorset Herts., Gloucs., Oxon., Wilts.

London, Maurice, Bishop of - Bishop of London, 1086-1107. Chancellor after Bishop Osmund of Salisbury. Holdings in Somerset. Church holdings in Dorset, Essex, Herts. and Middx.

London, William, Bishop of - Bishop of London, 1051-75. Church holdings in Dorset, Essex, Herts., Middx.

Lorraine, Albert de - A clerk or chaplain favoured by Edward the Confessor and William I. Holdings in Beds., Herefords., Rutland and Surrey.

M

Mainard - chamberlain of Count Alan Rufus; former chamberlain of Ralph the Staller; lord of Sibton manor, courtesy of marrying Orwen, Alan's wet-nurse.

Malet, Robert - From Gravelle-Ste-Honorine, Seine-Inf. Son of William Malet. King William's great chamberlain; stronghold in Suffolk; probably Sheriff of Suffolk. Holdings in 10 counties from Essex and Surrey to Yorks.

Mandeville, Geoffrey de - Perhaps from Mandeville, Eure. Ancestor of Earls of Essex. Lord of Pleshey. Holdings in 11 home and midlands counties.

Ralph the Timid, Earl of Hereford.

Marlborough, Alfred of - Like many Alfreds, surprisingly a Breton. Lord of Ewyas Harold Castle, Herefordshire. Holdings in Devon, Hants., Herefords., Somerset, Surrey, Wilts.

Matilda, Queen - Matilda of Flanders. William I's queen, died 1083. Holdings still listed as hers in Bucks., Corn., Gloucs.

Mercia, Edwin, Earl of - Son of Earl Algar of East Anglia. Had 164 holdings in 1066.: in Cheshire, Derbyshire, Herefordshire, Lincolnshire, Oxfordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, Worcestershire and Yorkshire. Killed by his own men during a rebellion in 1071.

Mercia, Leofric, Earl of - Married to Countess Godiva. Grandfather of rebel earls Edwin and Morcar.

Merleswein - Sheriff of Lincolnshire.

[http://www.geni.com/people/Baldwin-comte-de-Brionne/6000000003649647347 Moeles, BaldwinFitzGilbert de Brionne of] - Also called Baldwin of Exeter, Baldwin de Brion and Baldwin de Sap. From Meulles, Calvados. Son of Gilbert of Brion, brother of Richard FitzGilbert of Tonbridge. Sheriff of Devon. Castle at Okehampton. Custody of Castle of Exeter. Large holdings in Devon. Also in Dorset and Somerset.

Mohun, William de - From Moyon, La Manche. Head of Fief at Dunster, where he founded the Priory, 1095. Holdings in Devon, Dorset, Somerset and Wilts.

Montfort, Hugh de - Also called Hugh Beard. From Montfort-sur-Risle, Eure. Regent with Odo of Bayeux and Earl William FitzOsbern in 1067. Castle at Saltwood, with extensive Kent holdings to defend coast. Also holdings in Essex, Norfolk and Suffolk.

Montgomery, Roger de - See Roger, Earl of Shrewsbury.

Mortagne, Matthew de - From Mortagne, La Manche. Holdings in Berk., Dorset, Essex, Gloucs., Somerset, Wilts.

de Mortain, Robert, Count of Mortain - Half-brother of William I, younger brother of Odo of Bayeux. Married Earl Hugh of Chester's daughter. Lord of the Sussex rape of Pevensey, with castle there. Virtual Earl of Cornwall; fief included Honour of Berkhamsted with castle there. Rebelled 1088; pardoned; died 1091. Largest landholder in the country after the King. Holdings in 19 counties.

Mortimer, Ralph de - From Mortemer, Seine-Maritime. Son of Roger. Lord of Wigmore Castle. Received lands which had been Earl Roger of Hereford's after his rebellion, 1075. Lands in 13 counties all over the country.

Musard, Enisant - Native of Pleven in Brittany. Husband of a half-sister of Count Alan Rufus. Holdings in Cambs., Norfolk, Yorks.

Musard, Hascoit or Hasculfus - Named perhaps from muscardus, lazy or stupid, or a word related to "Muse" meaning dreamer. A Breton. Holdings in Berks., Bucks., Gloucs., Oxon. Warwicks.

N

Nigel the Doctor - One of Willam I's doctors and perhaps also of Roger of Shrewsbury. Holdings in Hants., Herefords., Shrops. and Wilts.

Northumbria, Aubrey, Earl of - Also called Aubrey of Coucy. Made Earl of Northumbria, 1080, but sent back in 1086 as incompetent. Holdings still listed as his in 7 counties from Bucks. to Yorks.

Northumbria, Morcar, Earl of - Son of Earl Algar of East Anglia. Chosen Earl by Northumbrians in 1065 when they deposed Tosti, King Harold's brother. Had 108 holdings in 1066, in Buckinghamshire, Cheshire, Herefordshire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire and Yorkshire. Rebelled against King William with his brother Edwin in 1071. Lost his holdings to various others, among them Count Alan, Alfred of Lincoln, Drogo de la Beuvriere, Roger Montgomery, William de St Calais, and especially King William. In prison in 1086.

Northumbria, Tosti, Earl of - Brother of King Harold. Became Earl, 1055, deposed 1065 in favour of Morcar. Killed at Stamford Bridge in September 1066.

Noyers, William de - Probably from Noyers, Calvados. Had charge of many Norfolk and Suffolk manors for the king which had been Archbishop Stigand's.

P

Pagnell, Ralph - Sheriff of Yorkshire. Holdings in five other counties.

Percy, William de - Holdings in Hunts., Lincs., Notts., Yorks. Patron of Whitby abbey.

Peverel, Ranulf - Married former mistress of William I. Holdings in Berks., Norfolk, Oxon. and Suffolk.

Peverel, William - Perhaps illegitimate son of William I by his mistress; took name of Peverel from stepfather who married her. Large holdings in Notts. and Derby. Also in 6 other counties.

Picot of Cambridge - Sheriff of Cambridgeshire; described as 'a roving wolf, a crafty fox, a greedy hog, a shameless dog, who feared not God'. Holdings in Cambs.

Poitou, Roger de (de Montgomery) - Third son of Roger Montgomery. In 1086 already had his holdings confiscated, perhaps for supporting William I's son, Robert of Normandy; later got most of them back. Holdings in Essex, Lincs., Suffolk and Yorks. shown as his; in Norfolk as once his; in Derbys., Lancs. and Notts. as in the king's hands. Rebelled again in 1088, but forgiven, then participated in army sent to arrest William de St-Calais, Bishop of Durham.

Port, Hugh de - From Port-en-Bessin, near Bayeux. Sheriff of Hampshire, 1070-96 and of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, 1081-87; vassal of Odo of Bayeux; founded Sherbourne Priory. Large holdings in Hants. Also in Berks., Cambs., and Dorset.

R

Ranulf, brother of Ilger - Holdings in 8 Home and East Anglian counties.

Reinbald the priest - Also called Rainbald the Chancellor and Reinbald of Chichester. Appointed first chancellor of England by Edward the Confessor in 1042. Holdings in Bucks. and probably several other counties.

Ribald FitzEudo de Bretagne, Lord of Middleham - Brother of Count Alan of Brittany, probably an illegitimate son of Count Eudo.

Rhuddlan, Robert - Cousin and lieutenant of Count Hugh of Chester. Extended his territory into Wales.

Robert the Bursar (Despenser) - Brother of Urso d'Abetot, who was Sheriff of Worcestershire; castle at Tamworth, Staffs. Holdings in Glos., Leics., Lincs., Warwicks.

Robert, son of Fafiton - Holdings in Beds., Cambs., Hunts., Middx.

Robert, son of Gerald - Holdings in Berks., Dorset, Hants., Somerset and Wilts.

Rochester, Gundulf, Bishop of - Church holdings in Kent and 16 other southern and midland counties.

Ryes, Hubert de - Father of Adam de Ryes and of Eudo the Steward. William I's ambassador to Edward the Confessor; persuaded the king to appoint William as his successor to English throne.

S

Salisbury, Edward of - Also called Edward the Sheriff. Possibly an Englishman. Daughter married the second Humphrey de Bohun. Sheriff of Wiltshire; ancestor of Earls of Salisbury. Holdings in 9 southern counties.

Salisbury, Osmund, Bishop of - Earl of Seez, Normandy. Bishop of Salisbury, 1078-99; Member of Privy Council, chancellor, 1073-82; probably Earl of Dorset and Somerset. Canonised 1457. Holdings in Berks. and Lincs. Church holdings also in Dorset, Oxon., Surrey and Wilts.

Samson the Chaplain - Chaplain to William I; Bishop of Worcester, 1096-1112. Possibly the Domesday scribe. A former canon at Bayeux. Named after a Breton saint. Brother of Thomas, Archbishop of York.

Scrope, Richard - A Norman who settled in Herefordshire before the conquest. Castle there.

Serlo, Abbot of St. Peter's, Gloucester - Abbot, 1072-1104. Abbey holdings in Herefords., Hants., Worcs.

Shrewsbury, Roger, Earl of - Also Roger of Montgomery. From Saint Germain de Montgomery, south of Lisieux in Normandy. Born in 1022, married Mabel Talvas from Alencon, France; had four children: Robert (Count of Alencon), Hugh (who inherited the Earldoms of Arundel and Shrewsbury), Roger (Count de Poitou, first Earl of Lancaster) and Philip, who died on the first Crusade. Montgomery promised some 60 ships for the Conquest of 1066, and was responsible for ensuring safety of Normandy while William ruled England. For this part he was rewarded with title Lord of Sussex rape of Arundel, with castle there; Earl of Shrewsbury from 1071-74 to death in 1094. Montgomeryshire and the town and castle of Montgomery, in modern Wales, are named after him. Built many defensive castles along the Welsh border including Shrewsbury, Ludlow and Oswestry. Holdings in 12 counties in south, east and west.

Siward, Earl - Also called Siward bairn (the warrior). Joined Edwin and Morcar in rebellion of 1071. Holdings in Notts.

Siward, Earl Digera - (the strong) Father of Waltheof, died 1056.

Spain, Alfred of - From Espaignes, Eure. Large holdings in Somerset. Also in five other western and south-western counties.

Stafford, Robert of Large holdings in Staffs. Also in 5 other western and Home counties.

Sturmy, Richard - Probably Forester of Savernake, and ancestor of all subsequent Wardens of Savernake. Holdings in Hants. and Wilts.

Swein - Son of Robert FitzWymark. Sheriff of Essex for a period between 1066 and 1086; built Rayleigh Castle. Holdings in Essex.

T

Tallboys, Ivo - Also called 'cut-bush'. Married Lucy. In charge of siege of Hereward the Wake at Ely, 1069. Steward to William II. Holdings in Lincs. and Norfolk.

Tirel, Walter - Under-tenant in Somerset and Essex. Thought to be the grandfather of Walter Tirel who shot and killed William Rufus with an arrow in the New Forest in 1100, possibly accidentally.

Tonbridge, Richard of - Also called Richard de Clare, and Richard FitzGilbert. Son of Count Gilbert of Brion, brother of Baldwin of Exeter. Lord of Clare, Suffolk, Lord of Lowry of Tonbridge and Tonbridge Castle. Holdings in 8 counties from Suffolk to Devon.

Tosny, Berenger de - Second son of Robert de Tosny. Holdings in Lincs., Notts., Oxon., Yorks.

Tosny, Ralph de - Also called Ralph of Conches. From Tosny, Eure. Son of Roger de Tosny; older brother of Robert of Stafford; sister, Adeline, married Earl William FitzOsbern. Ralph married Dame Isabel de Montfort, a knight (sic) celebrated by Orderic Vitalis. Seat at Flamstead, Herts.; Lord of Clifford Castle, Herefordshire. Holdings in 7 southern, East Anglian and Home counties.

Tosny, Robert de - Founder of Belvoir Castle. Holdings in 13 counties from Herts. north.

Totnes, Iudhael of - Large holdings in Devon. Also in Cornwall.

	

V

Valognes, Peter de - Nephew of William I; married Albreda, sister of Eudo the Steward; Sheriff of Essex and Herts. in 1086. Possibly of Breton descent as the name Muriel occurs in his immediate family. Founded Binham Priory, Norfolk. Holdings in 6 counties in the east. Among these was Wyken Farm in Suffolk, held by Alan in 1066.

Vere, Aubrey de - Perhaps from Ver, La Manche, or Ver, Calvados. Ancestor of de Vere earls of Oxford. Tenant of Bishop Geoffrey of Coutances and Count Alan of Brittany. Large holdings in Hunts. Also in Cambs., Essex, Middx., Suffolk.

Vessey, Robert of - Holdings in Leics., Lincs., Northants. and Warwicks.

W

Wallingford, Wigot of - Related to Edward the Confessor. His Butler. Sheriff of Oxon. Made peace with William I. By 1086 his lands had gone to Miles Crispin and Robert d'Oilly.

Walter FitzOther - Founder of the House of Windsor; keeper of the Forests of Berkshire and Constable of Windsor Castle; ancestor of FitzGeralds of Ireland. Large holdings in Bucks. Also in Berks., Hants., Middx., Surrey.

Walter, Abbot of St. Mary's of Evesham - Abbey 1077-1104. Abbey holdings in Gloucs., Northants., Warwicks. and Worcs.

Waltheof - Earl of Northumbria 1072-75; married Judith of Lens. Executed 1076.

Warenne, William de - From Varenne, near Bellencombre, Seine-Inf. Fought with William I at Hastings. Lord of the Sussex rape of Lewes, with castle there. Fought in latter stages of Siege of Sainte-Suzanne (circa 1085-1087?), where he was wounded. Created Earl of Surrey, 1088; died same year from an arrow during the Siege of Pevensey Castle. Holdings in 13 counties all over the country. In modern money his holdings would be worth £57 billion.

William, (the) King - William the Conqueror. Duke of Normandy 1035-87. King William I of England 1066-87. Suffered a lingering death due to stomach injury caused by heavy contact with pommel when his horse reared on stepping on a cinder during the burning of Mantes near the border between Normandy and the French royal domain. Appointed his first son, Robert "Curthose" his successor as Duke of Normandy, and sent his second son William II to England to claim the throne; gave his third son Henry 3000 pounds.

William the Chamberlain - Son called 'William the Chamberlain of London'. Holdings in Beds., Bucks. and Gloucs.

Winchester, Walkelin, Bishop of - Bishop of Winchester, 1070-98; builder of the cathedral. Church holdings in 9 southern counties, including Cambs. and Oxon.

Worcester, Wulfstan, Bishop of - English Bishop of Worcester, 1061-95, only English bishop to be retained by William; simple and saintly man. Holdings in Gloucs., Warwicks., Worcs.

Wulfwold, Abbot of Chertsey - Holdings in Berks., Hants. and Surrey.

Y

York, Thomas, Archbishop of - Thomas of Bayeux. Brother of Samson, Bishop of Worcester. Archbishop of York, 1070-1100. Holdings in Gloucs., Hants. and Lincs. Church holdings in Leics., Lincs., Notts., Yorks. Tenant in Yorkshire of Count Alan Rufus. Helped suppress Rebellion of 1088.

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