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The Hollywood Blacklist

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"The Hollywood blacklist—as the broader entertainment industry blacklist is generally known—was the mid-20th-century practice of denying employment to screenwriters, actors, directors, musicians, and other U.S. entertainment professionals because of their suspected political beliefs or associations. Artists were barred from work on the basis of their alleged membership in or sympathy with the American Communist Party, involvement in progressive political causes that enforcers of the blacklist associated with communism, and refusal to assist investigations into Communist Party activities. Even during the period of its strictest enforcement, the late 1940s through the late 1950s, the blacklist was rarely made explicit and verifiable, but it caused direct damage to the careers of scores of individuals working in the film industry."

"The first systematic Hollywood blacklist was instituted on November 25, 1947, the day after ten writers and directors were cited for contempt of Congress for refusing to give testimony to the House Committee on Un-American Activities. A group of studio executives, acting under the aegis of the Motion Picture Association of America, announced the firing of the artists—the so-called Hollywood Ten—in what has become known as the Waldorf Statement. On June 22, 1950, a pamphlet called Red Channels appeared, focusing on the field of broadcasting. It named 151 entertainment industry professionals in the context of "Red Fascists and their sympathizers"; soon most of those named, along with a host of other artists, were barred from employment in much of the entertainment field. The blacklist was effectively broken in 1960 when Dalton Trumbo, an unrepentant communist member of the Hollywood Ten, was publicly acknowledged as the screenwriter of the films Spartacus by Kirk Douglas. A number of those blacklisted, however, were still barred from work in their professions for years afterward."

See Wikipedia link below for full article.

Of the Hollywood Ten, six - John Howard Lawson, Alvah Bessie, Herbert Biberman, Lester Cole, Albert Maltz and Samuel Ornitz — were Jews.

"What Michael Freedland said in the JC: For “communist”, read “Jew”. The hearings that took place in Los Angeles and in Washington between 1947 and the mid-’50s were as much (some would say more) antisemitic as anti-Communist. Hollywood was chosen for the attack because of the great publicity value the movie capital offered. It was also a great opportunity to get at the Jews of Hollywood. One after the other, the people called to give evidence to HUAC (in effect, put on trial by the committee) were Jews — not exclusively so, but enough to make the case." (TheJC.com)

The Hollywood Ten

The following people were cited for contempt of Congress and blacklisted after refusing to answer HUAC questions about their alleged involvement with the Communist Party:[65]

  • Alvah Bessie, screenwriter
  • Herbert Biberman, screenwriter and director
  • Lester Cole, screenwriter
  • Edward Dmytryk, director
  • Ring Lardner Jr., screenwriter
  • John Howard Lawson, screenwriter
  • Albert Maltz, screenwriter
  • Samuel Ornitz, screenwriter
  • Adrian Scott, producer and screenwriter
  • Dalton Trumbo, screenwriter

Others Blacklisted between 1947 - 1950

  • Hanns Eisler, composer
  • Bernard Gordon, screenwriter
  • Joan LaCour Scott, screenwriter
  • Ben Barzman, screenwriter
  • Paul Draper, actor and dancer*
  • Sheridan Gibney, screenwriter
  • Paul Green, playwright and screenwriter
  • Lillian Hellman, playwright and screenwriter*
  • Canada Lee, actor
  • Paul Robeson, actor and singer
  • Edwin Rolfe, screenwriter and poet
  • William Sweets, radio personality*
  • Richard Wright, writer

The Red Channels List

  • Larry Adler, actor and musician
  • Luther Adler, actor and director
  • Stella Adler, actor and teacher
  • Edith Atwater, actor
  • Howard Bay, scenic designer
  • Ralph Bell, actor
  • Leonard Bernstein, composer and conductor
  • Walter Bernstein, screenwriter
  • Michael Blankfort, screenwriter[c]
  • Marc Blitzstein, composer
  • True Boardman, screenwriter
  • Millen Brand, writer
  • Oscar Brand, folk singer
  • Joseph Edward Bromberg, actor
  • Himan Brown, producer and director
  • John Brown, actor
  • Abe Burrows, playwright and lyricist
  • Morris Carnovsky, actor
  • Vera Caspary, writer
  • Edward Chodorov, screenwriter and producer
  • Jerome Chodorov, writer
  • Mady Christians, actor
  • Lee J. Cobb, actor
  • Marc Connelly, playwright
  • Aaron Copland, composer
  • Norman Corwin, writer
  • Howard Da Silva, actor
  • Roger De Koven, actor
  • Dean Dixon, conductor
  • Olin Downes, music critic
  • Alfred Drake, actor and singer
  • Paul Draper, actor and dancer
  • Howard Duff, actor
  • Clifford J. Durr, attorney
  • Richard Dyer-Bennett, folk singer
  • José Ferrer, actor
  • Louise Fitch (Lewis), actor
  • Martin Gabel, actor
  • Arthur Gaeth, radio commentator
  • William S. Gailmor, journalist and radio commentator
  • John Garfield, actor
  • Will Geer, actor
  • Jack Gilford, actor and comedian
  • Tom Glazer, folk singer
  • Ruth Gordon, actor and screenwriter
  • Lloyd Gough, actor
  • Morton Gould, pianist and composer
  • Shirley Graham, writer
  • Ben Grauer, radio and TV personality
  • Mitchell Grayson, radio producer and director
  • Horace Grenell, conductor and music producer
  • Uta Hagen, actor and teacher
  • Dashiell Hammett, writer
  • E. Y. "Yip" Harburg, lyricist
  • Robert P. Heller, television journalist
  • Lillian Hellman, playwright and screenwriter
  • Nat Hiken, writer and producer
  • Rose Hobart, actor
  • Judy Holliday, actor and comedienne
  • Roderick B. Holmgren, journalist
  • Lena Horne, singer and actor
  • Langston Hughes, writer
  • Marsha Hunt, actor
  • Leo Hurwitz, director
  • Charles Irving, actor
  • Burl Ives, folk singer and actor
  • Sam Jaffe, actor
  • Leon Janney, actor
  • Joe Julian, actor
  • Garson Kanin, writer and director
  • George Keane, actor
  • Donna Keath, radio actor
  • Pert Kelton, actor
  • Alexander Kendrick, journalist and author
  • Adelaide Klein, actor
  • Felix Knight, singer and actor
  • Howard Koch, screenwriter
  • Tony Kraber, actor
  • Millard Lampell, screenwriter
  • John La Touche, lyricist
  • Arthur Laurents, writer
  • Gypsy Rose Lee, actor and ecdysiast
  • Madeline Lee, actress[d]
  • Ray Lev, classical pianist
  • Philip Loeb, actor
  • Ella Logan, actor and singer
  • Alan Lomax, folklorist and musicologist
  • Avon Long, actor and singer
  • Joseph Losey, director
  • Peter Lyon, television writer
  • Aline MacMahon, actor
  • Paul Mann, director and teacher
  • Margo, actor and dancer
  • Myron McCormick, actor
  • Paul McGrath, radio actor
  • Burgess Meredith, actor
  • Arthur Miller, playwright
  • Henry Morgan, actor
  • Zero Mostel, actor and comedian
  • Jean Muir, actor
  • Meg Mundy, actor
  • Lyn Murray, composer and choral director
  • Ben Myers, attorney
  • Dorothy Parker, writer
  • Arnold Perl, producer and writer
  • Minerva Pious, actor
  • Samson Raphaelson, screenwriter and playwright
  • Bernard Reis, accountant
  • Anne Revere, actor
  • Kenneth Roberts, writer
  • Earl Robinson, composer and lyricist
  • Edward G. Robinson, actor
  • William N. Robson, radio and TV writer
  • Harold Rome, composer and lyricist
  • Norman Rosten, writer
  • Selena Royle, actor
  • Coby Ruskin, TV director
  • Robert William St. John, journalist, broadcaster
  • Hazel Scott, jazz and classical musician
  • Pete Seeger, folk singer
  • Lisa Sergio, radio personality
  • Artie Shaw, jazz musician
  • Irwin Shaw, writer, playwright
  • Robert Lewis Shayon, former president of radio and TV directors' guild
  • Ann Shepherd, actor
  • William L. Shirer, journalist, broadcaster
  • Allan Sloane, radio and TV writer
  • Howard K. Smith, journalist, broadcaster
  • Gale Sondergaard, actor
  • Hester Sondergaard, actor
  • Lionel Stander, actor
  • Johannes Steel, journalist, radio commentator
  • Paul Stewart, actor
  • Elliott Sullivan, actor
  • William Sweets, radio personality
  • Helen Tamiris, choreographer
  • Betty Todd, director
  • Louis Untermeyer, poet
  • Hilda Vaughn, actor
  • J. Raymond Walsh, radio commentator
  • Sam Wanamaker, actor
  • Theodore Ward, playwright
  • Fredi Washington, actor
  • Margaret Webster, actor, director and producer
  • Orson Welles, actor, writer and director
  • Josh White, blues musician
  • Irene Wicker, singer and actor
  • Betty Winkler (Keane), actor
  • Martin Wolfson, actor
  • Lesley Woods, actor
  • Richard Yaffe, journalist, broadcaster

Others Blacklisted After 1950

  • Eddie Albert, actor
  • Lew Amster, screenwriter
  • Richard Attenborough, actor, director and producer
  • Norma Barzman, screenwriter
  • Sol Barzman, screenwriter
  • Orson Bean, actor
  • Albert Bein, screenwriter
  • Harry Belafonte, actor and singer
  • Barbara Bel Geddes, actress
  • Ben Bengal, screenwriter
  • Seymour Bennett, screenwriter
  • Leonardo Bercovici, screenwriter
  • Herschel Bernardi, actor
  • John Berry, actor, screenwriter and director
  • Henry Blankfort, screenwriter
  • Laurie Blankfort, artist
  • Roman Bohnen, actor
  • Allen Boretz, screenwriter and songwriter
  • Phoebe Brand, actress
  • John Bright, screenwriter
  • Phil Brown, actor
  • Harold Buchman, screenwriter
  • Sidney Buchman, screenwriter
  • Luis Buñuel, director
  • Val Burton, screenwriter
  • Hugo Butler, screenwriter
  • Alan Campbell, screenwriter
  • Charles Chaplin, actor, director and producer
  • Maurice Clark, screenwriter
  • Richard Collins, screenwriter
  • Charles Collingwood, radio commentator
  • Dorothy Comingore, actress
  • Jeff Corey, actor
  • George Corey, screenwriter
  • Irwin Corey, actor and comedian
  • Oliver Crawford, screenwriter
  • John Cromwell, director
  • Charles Dagget, animator
  • Danny Dare, choreographer
  • Jules Dassin, director
  • Ossie Davis, actor
  • Ruby Dee, actress
  • Dolores del Río, actress
  • Karen DeWolf, screenwriter
  • Howard Dimsdale, writer
  • Ludwig Donath, actor
  • Arnaud d'Usseau, screenwriter
  • Phil Eastman, cartoon writer
  • Leslie Edgley, screenwriter
  • Edward Eliscu, screenwriter
  • Faith Elliott, animator
  • Cy Endfield, screenwriter and director
  • Guy Endore, screenwriter
  • Francis Edward Faragoh, screenwriter
  • Frances Farmer, actress
  • Howard Fast, writer
  • John Henry Faulk, radio personality
  • Jerry Fielding, composer
  • Carl Foreman, producer and screenwriter
  • Anne Froelick, screenwriter
  • Lester Fuller, director
  • Bert Gilden, screenwriter
  • Lee Gold, screenwriter
  • Harold Goldman, screenwriter
  • Michael Gordon, director
  • Jay Gorney, screenwriter
  • Lee Grant, actress
  • Morton Grant, screenwriter
  • Anne Green, screenwriter
  • Jack T. Gross, producer
  • Margaret Gruen, screenwriter
  • David Hilberman, animator
  • Tamara Hovey, screenwriter
  • John Hubley, animator
  • Edward Huebsch, screenwriter
  • Ian McLellan Hunter, screenwriter
  • Kim Hunter, actress
  • John Ireland, actor
  • Daniel James, screenwriter
  • Paul Jarrico, producer and screenwriter
  • Gordon Kahn, screenwriter
  • Victor Kilian, actor
  • Sidney Kingsley, playwright
  • Alexander Knox, actor
  • Mickey Knox, actor
  • Lester Koenig, producer
  • Charles Korvin, actor
  • Hy Kraft, screenwriter
  • Canada Lee, actor
  • Constance Lee, screenwriter
  • Robert Lees, screenwriter
  • Carl Lerner, editor and director
  • Irving Lerner, director
  • Lewis Leverett, actor
  • Alfred Lewis Levitt, screenwriter
  • Helen Slote Levitt, screenwriter
  • Mitch Lindemann, screenwriter
  • Norman Lloyd, actor
  • Ben Maddow, screenwriter
  • Arnold Manoff, screenwriter
  • John McGrew, animator
  • Ruth McKenney, writer
  • Bill Meléndez, animator
  • John "Skins" Miller, actor
  • Paula Miller, actress
  • Josef Mischel, screenwriter
  • Karen Morley, actress
  • Henry Myers, screenwriter
  • Mortimer Offner, screenwriter
  • Alfred Palca, writer and producer
  • Larry Parks, actor
  • Leo Penn, actor
  • Irving Pichel, director
  • Louis Pollock, screenwriter
  • Abraham Polonsky, screenwriter and director
  • William Pomerance, animation executive
  • Vladimir Pozner, screenwriter
  • Stanley Prager, director
  • John Randolph, actor
  • Maurice Rapf, screenwriter
  • Rosaura Revueltas, actress
  • Robert L. Richards, screenwriter
  • Frederic I. Rinaldo, screenwriter
  • Martin Ritt, actor and director
  • W. L. River, screenwriter
  • Marguerite Roberts, screenwriter
  • David Robison, screenwriter
  • Naomi Robison, actress
  • Louise Rousseau, screenwriter
  • Jean Rouverol (Butler), actress and writer
  • Shimen Ruskin, actor
  • Madeleine Ruthven, screenwriter
  • Waldo Salt, screenwriter
  • John Sanford, screenwriter
  • Bill Scott, voice actor
  • Martha Scott, actress
  • Joshua Shelley, actor
  • Madeleine Sherwood, actress
  • Reuben Ship, screenwriter
  • Viola Brothers Shore, screenwriter
  • George Sklar, playwright
  • Art Smith, actor
  • Louis Solomon, screenwriter and producer
  • Ray Spencer, screenwriter
  • Janet Stevenson, writer
  • Philip Stevenson, writer
  • Donald Ogden Stewart, screenwriter
  • Arthur Strawn, screenwriter
  • Bess Taffel, screenwriter
  • Julius Tannenbaum, producer
  • Frank Tarloff, screenwriter
  • Shepard Traube, director and screenwriter
  • Dorothy Tree, actress
  • Paul Trivers, screenwriter
  • George Tyne, actor
  • Michael Uris, writer
  • Peter Viertel, screenwriter
  • Bernard Vorhaus, director
  • John Weber, producer
  • Richard Weil, screenwriter
  • Hannah Weinstein, producer
  • John Wexley, screenwriter
  • Michael Wilson, screenwriter[
  • Nedrick Young, actor and screenwriter
  • Julian Zimet, screenwriter

Sources