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  • Hesso I von Reinach, Minnesänger (1191 - 1261)
    Hesso von Reinach oder Hesso von Rinach , gelegentlich auch Heß von Reinach , (* 1234 vermutlich auf Burg Unter-Rinach, bei Burg AG; † zwischen 1276 und 1282) war ein aargauischer Adelige...
  • Jaufré Rudel, le Troubadour (c.1100 - c.1148)
    Jaufré Rudel (v. 1113 à Blaye - v. 1170) est un troubadour aquitain de langue d'oc. Surnommé le prince de Blaye, ville dont il fut le seigneur, il prit part à la deuxi...
  • Guillaume IX le Troubadour, duc d'Aquitaine (1071 - 1126)
    NOTE: Please keep his name as Guillaume "le Troubadour" IX Duke of Aquitaine, VII Comte de Poitou From Foundation for Medieval Genealogy: GUILLAUME d’Aquitaine, son of GUILLAUME VIII Duke of...
  • Azalais de Porcairagues (c.1150 - 1209)
    Azalais de Porcairagues (also Azalaïs) or Alasais de Porcaragues was a trobairitz (woman troubadour), composing in Occitan in the late 12th century. The sole source for her life is her vida,...
  • Bertrand "le Troubadour" de Born (c.1140 - 1220)
    Bertran de Born (1140s – by 1215) was a baron from the Limousin in France, and one of the major Occitan troubadours of the twelfth century. Bertran de Born was the eldest son of Bertran de B...

A troubadour (Occitan pronunciation: [tɾuβaˈðuɾ], originally [tɾuβaˈðoɾ]) was a composer and performer of Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350). Since the word "troubadour" is etymologically masculine, a female troubadour is usually called a trobairitz.

The troubadour school or tradition began in the 11th century in Occitania, but it subsequently spread into Italy, Spain, and even Greece. Under the influence of the troubadours, related movements sprang up throughout Europe: the Minnesang in Germany, trovadorismo in Galicia and Portugal, and that of the trouvères in northern France. Dante Alighieri in his De vulgari eloquentia defined the troubadour lyric as fictio rethorica musicaque poita: rhetorical, musical, and poetical fiction. After the "classical" period around the turn of the 13th century and a mid-century resurgence, the art of the troubadours declined in the 14th century and eventually died out around the time of the Black Death (1348).

The texts of troubadour songs deal mainly with themes of chivalry and courtly love. Most were metaphysical, intellectual, and formulaic. Many were humorous or vulgar satires. Works can be grouped into three styles: the trobar leu (light), trobar ric (rich), and trobar clus (closed). Likewise there were many genres, the most popular being the canso, but sirventes and tensos were especially popular in the post-classical period, in Italy, and among the female troubadours, the trobairitz.

Naming Conventions

See: Medieval Kingdoms of Western Europe

Famous Troubadours

The elite troubadours included many famous and influential men of the Middle Ages. The most famous troubadours included:

Famous Trobairitz

Troubadours with vidas

Vida is the usual term for a brief prose biography, written in Occitan, of a troubadour or trobairitz.

The word vida means "life" in Occitan

  • Albert Malaspina
  • Albertet Cailla
  • Albertet de Sestaro
  • Alfonso II of Aragon
  • Almucs de Castelnau
  • Aimeric de Belenoi
  • Aimeric de Peguilhan
  • Aimeric de Sarlat
  • Arnaut de Meruoill
  • Azalais de Porcairagues
  • Beatritz de Dia
  • Berenguier de Palazol
  • Bertolome Zorzi
  • Bernart de Ventadorn
  • Bertran d'Alamanon
  • Bertran de Born
  • Bertran de Born lo Filhs
  • Bertran del Pojet
  • Blacasset
  • Blacatz
  • Cadenet (troubadour)|Cadenet
  • Castelloza
  • Cercamon
  • Dalfi d'Alvernha
  • Daude de Pradas
  • Elias Cairel
  • Elias Fonsalada
  • Henry II of Rodez|Enric de Rodes
  • Ferrari da Ferrara
  • Folquet de Marselha
  • Folquet de Romans
  • Garin d'Apchier
  • Garin lo Brun
  • Gaucelm Faidit
  • Gausbert Amiel
  • Gauseran de Saint Leidier
  • Gui de Cavalhon
  • Gui d'Ussel
  • Guillem Ademar
  • Guillem Augier Novella
  • Guillem de Balaun
  • Guillem de Berguedà
  • Guillem de Cabestany
  • Guillem Figueira
  • Guillem Magret
  • Guillem de Montanhagol
  • William IX of Aquitaine|Guillem de Peiteus
  • Guillem Rainol d'At
  • Guillem de Saint Leidier
  • Guillem de la Tor
  • Guiraudo lo Ros
  • Guiraut de Bornelh
  • Guiraut de Calanso
  • Guiraut de Salignac
  • Iseut de Capio
  • Jaufre de Pons
  • Jaufre Rudel
  • Jausbert de Puycibot
  • Jordan Bonel
  • Lanfranc Cigala
  • Lombarda
  • Marcabru
  • Maria de Ventadorn
  • Monge de Montaudon
  • Peire d'Alvernhe
  • Peire Bremon lo Tort
  • Peire de Bussignac
  • Peire Cardenal
  • Peire Guillem de Tolosa
  • Peire de Maensac
  • Peire de la Mula
  • Peire Raimon de Tolosa
  • Peire Rogier
  • Peire de Valeira
  • Peire Vidal
  • Peirol
  • Perdigon
  • Pons de Capduoill
  • Raimbaut d'Aurenga
  • Raimbaut de Vaqueiras
  • Raimon de Durfort
  • Raimon Jordan
  • Raimon de Miraval
  • Raimon de las Salas
  • Rainaut de Pons
  • Ricau de Tarascon
  • Rigaut de Berbezilh
  • Tibors de Sarenom
  • Tomier and Palaizi
  • Sail d'Escola
  • Savaric de Mauleon
  • Sordello
  • Turc Malec
  • Uc de la Bacalaria
  • Uc Brunet
  • Uc de Mataplana
  • Uc de Pena
  • Uc de Saint Circ