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Tsars and Emperors of Russia (Царьство Руско) 1547-1917

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This project aims to identify the Tsars and Emperors of Russia from Ivan "the Terrible" in 1547 to Nicholas II, who abdicated in 1917.

Overview

The Grand Duke Ivan IV (the "Awesome" or "the Terrible") was officially crowned the first Tsar ("Caesar") of Russia in 1547. The Tsar promulgated a new code of laws (Sudebnik of 1550), established the first Russian feudal representative body (Zemsky Sobor) and introduced local self-management into the rural regions.

The February Revolution, of 1917, forced Tsar Nicholas II to abdicate; he and his family were imprisoned and later executed during the Russian Civil War.

The monarchy was replaced by a shaky coalition of political parties that declared itself the Provisional Government. An alternative socialist establishment existed alongside, the Petrograd Soviet, wielding power through the democratically elected councils of workers and peasants, called Soviets.

The rule of the new authorities only aggravated the crisis in the country, instead of resolving it. Eventually, the October Revolution, led by Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Provisional Government and created the world’s first socialist state.

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