Henderson is a common Scottish and Northern Irish surname. The name is derived from patronymic form of the name Hendry, which is a Scottish form of Henry. Some Hendersons also derive their name from Henryson.
The surname Henderson is borne by numerous unrelated families in Scotland. For example, the Hendersons of Fordell, in Fifeshire, were the chief Lowland family of the name. This family descended from a family of Henrysons, from Dumfriesshire. A branch of Clan Gunn also bears the name. According to tradition, this family descends from Henry Gunn, a younger son of a chief of the Gunns who lived in the 15th century. The Hendersons of Glencoe derive their surname from the Gaelic MacEanruig.
The surname was unknown in England prior to the 17th century and is first mentioned in a marriage document between one of the Borders Hendersons and the daughter of a Carlisle merchant at Hexham. The surname is rendered in Scottish Gaelic as: MacEanraig or MacEanruig (masculine), and NicEanraig or NicEanruig (feminine).