This interesting name is of early medieval English origin, and a locational surname deriving from any of the various places named Newby in the North of England, for instance in Cumberland, Westmorland and the North Riding of Yorkshire. Newby in Cumberland is recorded as "Neubi" in the Register of the Priory of Wetherhal (circa 1165); the place in Westmorland is registered in the Early Yorkshire Charters as "Neuby" (circa 1160); and in the North Riding of Yorkshire as "Neuby" in the Percy Chartulary of circa 1200. They all derive from the Middle English elements "newe" meaning new and "by" a farm; hence "new farm". It may also be a topographical name for someone residing at the New Farm. The surname is first recorded in the latter half of the 13th Century (see below). Recordings from London Church Registers include: the christening of Elizabeth, daughter of Roger Newby, on November 7th 1574, at St. Giles, Cripplegate; the marriage of Elizabeth Newby and Jeffrey Segwick on July 17th 1575, at St. Mary Magdelene, Old Fish Street; and the christening of Anne, daughter of Robert Newby, on August 25th 1577, at St. Giles, Cripplegate. A Coat of Arms granted to John de Newby in the time of Richard 11 (1377 - 1399) depicts a red fess between three red roses on a white (argent) shield. The Crest is an arm in armour, brandishing a sword, all proper. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Nicholas de Neuby, which was dated 1273, in the "Hundred Rolls of Yorkshire", during the reign of King Edward 1, known as "The Hammer of the Scots", 1272 - 1307. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.