Arghun Khan (Arghavan) (Muhammad) Khan

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Arghun Khan (Arghavan) (Muhammad) Khan

Russian: Аргун син на Абага Ил Хан улс
Also Known As: "Аргун Хаан"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Maraghah, Adhorbijan Province, Persia, Iran
Death: Died in Baghcha, Azarbaijan, Iran
Cause of death: murdered by Ta'achar a Mongol commander
Immediate Family:

Son of Abagha IlKhan (Toqta Khan - Tuzlu Gol ) اباقا خان Sulamish - Chichak and Haimash Hatun khatun
Husband of Uruk-Hatun اروک خاتون; Ulla-Melik daughter of Gaykhatu Ilkhan; Qutlug Shah Khatoun (Hajji Khatun) حاجي خاتون، دختر سولاميش از قبيله اويرات and Buluqhan Khatun Mo'azzama
Father of Oljeitu Ilkhan (Mohammad Khodabandeh - Nikolah); Harbande / Kharbandey; Shaotsu Khan; <private> lived in Alagark near Bakhmanky and bought the whole of Karabakh; Öljetey Khatun Ara daughter of Arghun Khan and 4 others
Brother of Qutlug Shah Khatoun (Hajji Khatun) حاجي خاتون، دختر سولاميش از قبيله اويرات; ALI PADSHAH and Taghan
Half brother of Geikhatu Ilkhan Hulaguid, Grand Khan of Persia; Qutlug Shah Khatoun (Hajji Khatun) حاجي خاتون، دختر سولاميش از قبيله اويرات; Malakeh (Maleka) daughter of Qutui (Bulughan Khatun Bozorg) and Abagha Ilkhan; Uljath Khanum, Queen consort of Georgia; Marija Archautlan "Maria" Khanum of Persia and 1 other

Occupation: 4e Ilkhan 1284 - 1291
Managed by: Douglas John Nimmo
Last Updated:

About Arghun Khan (Arghavan) (Muhammad) Khan

Ne pas confondre avec l'Emir Arghun Aqa des Oirat, civil governor of Khorasan [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arghun_Aqa] ni avec l'Emir Arghun Shah, fils de Emir Nowrouz, fils de Arghun Aqa.

Il precede Geykhatu Ilkhan et succede a Ahmad Takudar Ilkhan. Aussi connu sous le nom de Angutha (The History of the Mongols p.74)

"Arghun had one of his sons baptized, Khordabandah, the future Oljaitu, and in the Pope's honour, went as far as giving him the name Nicholas", Histoire de l'Empire Mongol, Jean-Paul Roux, p.408

Upon the death of his father, Il-Khan Abagha (reigned 1265–82/683-690 H), Prince Arghūn was a candidate for the throne but was forced to yield to a stronger rival, his uncle Tegüder. Arghūn thereafter accused Tegüder’s followers of having poisoned his father, protested Tegüder’s conversion to Islām, and, by the beginning of 1284, was at the head of a rebellion. After some reverses, he succeeded in overthrowing Tegüder and having him executed (Aug. 10, 1284); Arghūn was formally enthroned the following day and, as an ardent Buddhist, countermanded the Islāmic policies of his predecessor.

In 1289 Arghūn appointed an anti-Islāmic Jew, Saʿd ad-Dawlah, first as his minister of finance and then (in June) as vizier of his entire empire. The predominantly Muslim population may have resented the rule of a Buddhist and a Jew, but their administration proved lawful and just and restored order and prosperity.

Arghun et son frere sont eleves par leur belle mere Buluquan Khatun Bozorg http://bit.ly/1O0gdRF

Son ministre est Sa'ad al-Dawla ibn Hibbat Allah ibn Muhasib Ebheri, un medecin juif. http://bit.ly/1YvyGoI

Son regne dure 30 ans

[---In his middle age, Rabban Bar Sauma and one of his younger students Rabban Marcos embarked on a journey from China, to make a pilgrimage to the religious center of Jerusalem.[6] They travelled by way of the former Tangut country, Khotan, Kashgar, Talas in the Syr Darya valley, Khorasan (present day Afghanistan), Maragha (Azerbaijan) and Mosul, arriving at Ani in Armenia. Warnings of danger on the routes to southern Syria turned them from their purpose, and they traveled to Mongol-controlled Persia, the Ilkhanate, where they were welcomed by the Patriarch of the Church of the East, Mar Denha I. The Patriarch requested the two monks to visit the court of the Mongol Ilkhanate ruler Abaqa, in order to obtain confirmation letters for Mar Denha's ordination as Patriarch in 1266. During the journey, Rabban Markos was declared a "Nestorian" bishop. The Patriarch then attempted to send the monks as messengers back to China, but military conflict along the route delayed their departure, and they remained in Baghdad. When the Patriarch died, Rabban Marcos was elected as his replacement, Mar Yaballaha III in 1281. The two monks traveled to Maragha to have the selection confirmed by Abagha, but the Ilkhanate ruler died before their arrival, and was succeeded by his son, Arghun Khan.


]

Arghun Khan aka Argon (Mongolian Cyrillic: Аргун хан) (c. 1258 – March 7,[1] 1291) was the fourth ruler of the Mongol empire's Ilkhanate, from 1284 to 1291. He was the son of Abaqa Khan, and like his father, was a devout Buddhist (although pro-Christian). He was known for sending several embassies to Europe in an unsuccessful attempt to form a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Muslims in the Holy Land. It was also Arghun who requested a new bride from his great-uncle Kublai Khan. The mission to escort the young Kökötchin across Asia to Arghun was reportedly taken by Marco Polo. Arghun died before Kökötchin arrived, so she instead married Arghun's son, Ghazan.

[...He (Gaykhatu) had originally been governor of Seljuk Anatolia, and was nominated for the throne by an influential Mongol commander, Ta'achar, who had murdered Gaykhatu's brother, the then paralyzed Ilkhan Arghun.

His childhood friend Ala al dowlah al Simnani turns into a Sufi before Arghun can use his services in his Ilkhanid court (p256 The Mongols in Iran).

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Ahmed-bek Javanshir, author of a political history of the Karabakh Khanate traced his clan back to the descendants of Argun Khan (1284-1291), the ruler of the Ilkhanate Empire. According to the legend to which the author referred in his book, an ancestor of the Javanshirs was a descendant of Argun Khan called Mamed Khan (Mohammad Khodabandeh Nikola?) , “who lived in the Alagark stow on the shores of the Arax close to the village of Bakhmanly. According to a purchase deed written on a piece of parchment made of gazelle skin, he bought the whole of Karabakh, about 200 versts along and the same length across between the Kurakchay, Kura, Arax, and Alynjachay rivers and Lake Gokcha. He was the only owner, but during his lifetime he divided his dominions between his three sons.”


Arghun Agha, also Arghun Aqa or Arghun the Elder (died 1278) was a Mongol noble of the Oirat clan in the 13th century. He was a governor in the Mongol-controlled area of Persia from 1243 to 1255, before the Ilkhanate was created by Hulagu.[1] Arghun Agha was in control of the four districts of eastern and central Persia, as decreed by the great khan Möngke Khan.

When he was young, his father sold his son Arghun to Ilugei of the Jalayir, tutor of Ogedei Khan. During his years with the Ogedeyid family, he gained reputation among the members of the Royal blood because he was well educated. Arghun started his career as court official during the reign of the Qaghan Ogedei. Later on, the latter's consort, Toregene Khatun, appointed him civil governor in Transoxiana in c.1242. Ascelin of Lombardia might have met him while he was at the court of Baiju in c.1247. In 1259-61 he directed punitive operations against rebels in Georgia, and then was sent to Khorasan to fight the Golden Horde. He is described as faithful servant of the Qaghan in Persian sources while the Georgian and Armenian sources say he was cruel and violent overseer. However, one Georgian chronicle mentions he was a friend of equity, trustful in his language, a deep thinker, and profound in counsel. It also says Arghun conducted the empire-wide census in Russia, Arctic, Alania, Pontic steppe, Georgia, Armenia, and Anatolia.

Arghun had many political enemies at the headquarters, so he had to often visit the ordo (palace) of the Qaghan in Mongolia to prove his loyalty. Although, Möngke appointed him to his former position after his accession in 1252, the Emperor summoned Arghun to answer a charge of treason. The Armenian noble, Sempad Orpelian, justified Arghun completely and charged his enemy a Khorazmi lieutenant with being the real offender.

Arghun was released and they returned together.

Arghun made a census in Persia in accordance with the decree of Mongke in 1254.

Arghun's son Nowruz was a powerful Mongol emir in his own right, an early convert to Islam, and persuaded Ghazan to convert in 1295 when he took the throne.

About Аргун хан (Persian)

http://bit.ly/1ZcsYKB ارغون خان یکی از ایلخانان مغول در ایران بوده است. پس از مرگ غازان‌خان به ایلخانی مغول در ایران رسید. الجایتو نام ایرانی محمد خدابنده را برای خود برگزید. الجایتو پس از رسیدن به فرمان‌روایی، دستور به قتل آلافرنک پسر گیخاتو داد. او پسرش ابوسعید را به فرمان‌روایی خراسان فرستاد. بعد از آن رعایت قانون اسلام و یاسای غازانی را الزام کرد. الجایتو شهر سلطانیه را به وجود آورد (این کار را پپشتر پدرش ارغون آغاز کرده بود) و آن را پایتخت خود قرار داد. او دیلم (گیلان) را که با وجود گذشت پنجاه سال از برقراری ایلخانیان هنوز کاملاً مطیع نشده بود فتح کرد، اما سپاهش در این راه متحمل تلفات زیادی شد.

الجایتو نیز همچون ایلخانان پیشین برای کسب حمایت اروپاییان در برابر مملوکان مصر با پاپ نوشت و خواند داشت اما نتوانست در عمل کمکی از آنان برای جنگ با مصریان دریافت کند، سرانجام در سال ۷۱۲ ه. ق. / ۱۳۱۲ م. به تشویق گروهی از امرای ناراضی سوریه رهسپار موصل شد، از فرات گذشت و در کنار فرات، شهر رحبه‌الشام را به محاصره درآورد اما موفق به فتح آن نشد، اهل شهر در برابر مهاجمان سرسختانه مقاومت کردند و چون مغولان متحمل تلفات سنگین گردیدند و نیز آذوقه آنان تمام شده بود دست از محاصره شهر برداشتند و از طریق فرات مراجعت نمودند و بدین ترتیب تاریخ پنجاه ساله مبارزه مغولان و ممالیک بر سر تصرف سوریه پایان یافت.

شیعه شدن[ویرایش] الجایتو که در کودکی با نام مسیحی نیکولا تعمید یافته بود پس از چندی به آیین بودایی درآمد و سرانجام قبول اسلام کرد و پیرو مذهب ابوحنیفه گردید، ظاهراً مناظره زشتی که در حضور ایلخان بین فقهای مذاهب حنفی و شافعی درگرفت در تغییر مذهب الچایتو به شیعه بی‌تاثیر نبوده‌است. نمایندگان این مکاتب فقهی آنچنان اتهامات زشت و ناروایی بر یکدیگر وارد ساختند که الجایتو از هردو رنجیده خاطر گشت.[۱] پس از مناظره با علامه حلی و نظام‌الدین مراغه‌ای مذهب تشیع را اختیار کرد. الجایتو نخست دستور داد که نام ابوبکر، عمر و عثمان از خطبه‌های نماز جمعه و از سکه‌ها برداشته شود. الجایتو در سن سی و شش سالگی وفات یافت و پیکرش در سلطانیه به خاک سپرده شد.