prince Alexander Mikhailovich of Tver

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prince Alexander Mikhailovich of Tver

Russian: князь Александр Михайлович Тверской, Lithuanian: kunigaikštis Aleksandras Michailovičius, Riurikaitis
Also Known As: "Rurikids dynasty"
Birthplace: Тверь, Тверское Княжество
Death: October 28, 1339 (38)
Старый Сарай, Золотая Орда (Убит по приказу Хана Узбека )
Place of Burial: Тверь, Тверское Княжество
Immediate Family:

Son of Prince Tverskoy Mikhail Yaroslavich and Saint Princess of Tver Anna Kashirskaya Dmitriyevna
Husband of Anastasia, princess of Halych
Father of Alexandra, Duchess of Smolensk; Aleksandrovich, prince of Tver; Uliana of Tver, queen consort of Lithuania; Prince of Holmsk Vsevolod Aleksandrovich, Rurikid; Princes of Tver Maria Aleksandrovna and 4 others
Brother of Prince Vladimirsky Dmitry "Terrible Eyes" Mikhailovich; Fedora of Tver; Constantine Mikhailovich, prince of Tver and Vasili of Kashyn

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About prince Alexander Mikhailovich of Tver

Grand Prince Alexander or Aleksandr Mikhailovich (Russian: Александр Михайлович Тверской) Prince of Tver as Alexander I and Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal as Alexander II

Born: 7 October 1301 Died: 29 October 1339

Father: Mikhail of Tver

Mother: Anna of Kashin

Spouse: Anastasia of Halych

Issue: Fyodor of Tver (died 1339)

Lev (born 1321, date of death unknown)

Mikhail II of Tver (1333–1399)

Vsevolod of Kholm (died 1364)

Andrey (died 1365)

Vladimir (died 1365)

Maria (died 1399)

Uliana (ca. 1325 – 1392)

Grand Prince Alexander Mikhailovich was a Prince of Tver as Alexander I and Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal as Alexander II.

Aleksandr was a second son of Prince Mikhail of Tver by his wife Anna of Kashin. As a young man, his appanages included Kholm and Mikulin. In 1322, he continued the Tver princes' opposition to the rise of Moscow when he rather spectularly waylaid Yury of Moscow as the grand prince (who had schemed against Aleksandr's father to gain the iarlik or patent of office) as Yury journeyed with the tribute from Novgorod to Moscow. Four years later, Aleksandr succeeded his childless brother Dmitry the Terrible Eyes who had been executed on behest of Uzbeg Khan in the Horde after Dmitry avenged his father's death by murdering Yury. In 1327, a Tatar official, Shevkal (the cousin of Uzbeg), arrived in Tver from the Horde, with a large retinue. They took up residence at Aleksandr's palace and, according to chronicle reports, started terrorizing the city, randomly robbing and killing. Rumors spread that Shevkal wanted to kill the prince, occupy the throne for himself and introduce Islam to the city. When, on 15 August 1327, the Tatars tried to take a horse from a deacon named Dyudko, he cried for help and a mob of furious people rushed on the Tatars and killed them all. Shevkal and his remaining guards were burnt alive in one of the houses where they had attempted to hide. The massacre led, inevitably to Tatar reprisals. (Indeed, the whole incident may have been a provocation by the Tatars to destroy Aleksandr and the Tver princes). Ivan Kalita of Moscow, brother of Yury of Moscow who had been murdered by Dmitri the Terrible Eyes in 1322, immediately went to the Horde and, before Aleksandr had time to justify himself to Uzbeg Khan, persuaded the khan to grant Moscow the yarlik or patent of office for the throne of Vladimir. The khan also sent Ivan at the head of an army of 50,000 soldiers to punishment Tver. Alexander fled with his family to Novgorod, but he not was accepted there for fear of the Tatars, so he went on to Pskov. Pskov not only allowed Aleksandr to enter their city, but made him their prince. Desiring to save the Russian land from further devastation - had Ivan Kalita left Aleksandr in Pskov, the Tatars would have certainly sent another punitive expedition which would have destroyed that city - Aleksandr agreed to abandon the city, but Pskov residents would not let him go. Metropolitan Feognost (Theognostus) arrived in Novgorod and he and Archbishop Moisei of Novgorod (1325–1330; 1352–1359) excommunicated the city at the behest of Ivan Kalita. In 1329, fulfilling the order of the khan, Ivan Kalita and many other princes declared war to Pskov. Aleksander fled into Lithuania and then to Sweden, after which the metropolitan lifted the ban of excommunication against Pskov. Aleksander returned to Pskov a year and a half later under the patronage of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania. In 1335, Aleksandr sent his son, Fyodor, to the Horde in order to gain forgiveness. Two years later in 1337 he went there himself. Uzbeg Khan, at least for a time, forgave his old enemy and sent him back to Tver. This led to renewed hostilities with Moscow, which Tver' could not sustain. On October 29, 1339, Aleksander and Fyodor were quartered in Sarai by orders of the Khan.

Alexander was married ca. 1320 to Anastasia of Halych and had eight children: Fyodor of Tver (died 1339) Lev (born 1321, date of death unknown) Mikhail II of Tver (1333–1399) Vsevolod of Kholm (died 1364) Andrey (died 1365) Vladimir (died 1365) Maria (died 1399), married to Simeon of Russia Uliana (ca. 1325 – 1392), married to Algirdas

Apie kunigaikštis Aleksandras Michailovičius of Tver, Riurikaitis (Lietuvių)

Aleksandras Michailovičius (arba Aleksandras Tveriškis, rus. Александр Михайлович Тверской, 1301 m. spalio 7 d. – 1339 m. spalio 29 d.) – Naugardo kunigaikštis (1325–1327), Vladimiro kunigaikštis (1326–1327), nuo 1326 m. didysis Tverės kunigaikštis.


Tėvas Michailas Jaroslavičius Šventasis, motina Ana Kašina. Žmona Anastasija, vaikai:

   Levas (mirė mažas);
   Fiodoras (m. 1339 m.);
   Michailas Aleksandrovičius Tveriškis (1333–1399 m.), 1368–1399 m. Tverės kunigaikštis;
   Vsevolodas (m. 1364 m.), 1346–1349 m. Tverės kunigaikštis;
   Vladimiras (m. 1364 m.);
   Andrejus (m. 1364 m.);
   Marija, jos vyras Ivano Kalitos sūnus Simeonas Išdidusis;
   Juliona Aleksandrovna (m. 1392 m.), jos vyras Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis Algirdas, sūnūs: Lenkijos karalius Jogaila, Lietuvos kunigaikščiai Skirgaila, Kaributas, Simonas Algirdaitis, Karigaila, Vygandas, Švitrigaila; dukterys: Kena, Elena, Marija, Vilgeida, Aleksandra, Jadvyga.


Varžėsi su Maskvos kunigaikščiu Ivanu I Kalita dėl valdžios Rusioje. 1326 m. Aukso ordos chanas Uzbekas davė jam jarliką būti Vladimiro didžiuoju kunigaikščiu, nominaliu Rusios siuzerenu.

Kai 1327 m. Tvėrėje rusai sumušė Čolchano totorių būrį, Ivano I Kalitos apskųstas Uzbekui, pabėgo į Pskovą. 1327 m. večės išrinktas Pskovo kunigaikščiu. Maskvos metropolitui Teognostui prakeikus pskoviečius 1329 m. pabėgo į Lietuvą. Remiamas Gedimino 1331–1337 m. vėl valdė Pskovą, 1334 m. trumpam susigrąžino Tverės kunigaikštystę. 1339 m. iškviestas Uzbeko ir ordoje kartu su sūnumi Fiodoru nužudytas. Nuo Aleksandro valdymo Tverės didieji kunigaikščiai pradėjo orientuotis į Lietuvos Didžiąją kunigaikštystę.[1]


   Edvardas Gudavičius. Aleksandras Michailovičius. Visuotinė lietuvių enciklopedija, T. I (A-Ar). – Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas, 2001. 309 psl.


   Карамзин Н. М. История государства Российского. Том IV, глава VIII;
   Janet Martin. Medieval Russia 980–1584 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 176;
   John Fennell. Princely Executions in the Horde 1308–1339, Forschungen zur Osteuropäischen Geschichte 38. 1988.
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prince Alexander Mikhailovich of Tver's Timeline

October 7, 1301
Тверь, Тверское Княжество
Of, Tver, Gorod Tver', Tver Oblast, Russia (Russian Federation)
Тверь, Тверское Княжество
Of, Tver, Gorod Tver', Tver Oblast, Russia (Russian Federation)
Тверь, Тверское Княжество
Псков, Псковская Земля
Of a, Pskov, Gorod Pskov, Pskov Oblast, Russia (Russian Federation)
Of, Pskov, Gorod Pskov, Pskov Oblast, Russia (Russian Federation)