Tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria Prime Minister of the Republic of Bulgaria

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Simeon II of Bulgaria, Prime Minister of the Republic of Bulgaria

Russian: СИМЕОН Борисов Сакскобургготски, Prime Minister of the Republic of Bulgaria
Also Known As: "Цар Симеон II Сакскобургготски", "Tsar Simeon II Saxe-Coburg-Gotha"
Current Location:: София, България
Birthplace: София, България
Immediate Family:

Son of Boris III Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Tsar of Bulgaria and Giovanna of Italy
Husband of Margarita Gómez-Acebo y Cejuela
Father of Kardam, Prince of Turnovo; Prince Kyril of Preslav; Kubrat, Prince of Panagyurishte; Prince Konstantin-Assen and Princess Kalina of Bulgaria
Brother of Princess Marie Louise of Bulgaria

Occupation: бивш малолетен цар на българите (1943-1946) и бивш премиер на републиката (2001-2005), Prime Minister of Bulgaria 2001-2005
Managed by: Ofir Friedman
Last Updated:

About Tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria Prime Minister of the Republic of Bulgaria


Simeon of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Bulgarian: Симеон Борисов Сакскобургготски, Simeon Borisov Sakskoburggotski; German: Simeon von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha or Simeon von Wettin) or Simeon II of Bulgaria (born 16 June 1937) is an important political and royal figure in Bulgaria. During his reign as the Tsar of Bulgaria from 1943 to 1946 he was a minor, the monarchical authority being exercised over the kingdom on his behalf by a regency. The regents were Simeon's uncle Prince Kiril of Bulgaria, General Nikola Mihov and the prime minister, Bogdan Filov. In 1946 the monarchy was overthrown and Simeon went into exile. Fifty-five years later, on 6 April 2001, Simeon resumed the role of leader of the nation upon taking office as Prime Minister of the Republic of Bulgaria from July 2001 until August 2005.

Simeon is one of the last living heads of state from the World War II-era, the only living person who has borne the Bulgarian title "Tsar", and one of the few monarchs in history to have become the head of government through democratic elections.

Royal history

Simeon is the son of Tsar Boris III and Tsarita Giovanna di Savoia and is related to various European royalty, including Queen Elizabeth II, King Albert II of the Belgians and the former Kings Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and Umberto II of Italy. Following his birth, Boris III sent an air force officer to the River Jordan to obtain water for Simeon's baptism in the Orthodox faith.[1] He became Tsar on 28 August 1943 on the death of his father, who had just returned to Bulgaria from a meeting with Adolf Hitler.[2][3] Since Tsar Simeon was only six years old upon assuming the throne, his uncle Prince Kyril of Bulgaria, Prime Minister Bogdan Filov, and Lieutenant-General Nikola Mihailov Mihov of the Bulgarian Army were appointed regents.[4]

On 5 September 1944 the Soviet Union declared war on Bulgaria and the Red Army invaded the country. On 9 September 1944, Prince Kyril and the other regents were deposed by a Soviet-backed coup and arrested. The three regents, all members of the last three governments, Parliament deputies, heads of the army and eminent journalists were executed by the Communists in February 1945.[5]

Towards exile

The royal family (Queen Giovanna, Simeon II, and his sister Maria-Louisa) remained at Vrana Palace near Sofia, while new communist regents were appointed. In her memoirs, Queen Giovanna recounts that Soviet soldiers at that time would entertain themselves by shooting at random in the direction where she was walking with the children. On 15 September 1946, a plebiscite was held in the presence of the Soviet army. It resulted in over 97% approval for a newly established republic and abolished the monarchy. On 16 September 1946, the royal family was exiled from Bulgaria. However, Simeon II never signed any abdication papers (which were unlikely to have any legality anyway, as he was still a minor). The royal family first went to Alexandria, Egypt, where Queen Giovanna's father Victor Emanuel III, King of Italy, lived in exile. There, Simeon II finished Victoria College (along with Crown Prince Leka of Albania). In July 1951, the Spanish government of Francisco Franco granted asylum to the family.

Education and business career

In Madrid, Simeon studied at the Lycée Français, but did not graduate. On 16 June 1955, upon turning 18, in accordance with the Tarnovo Constitution Simeon II read his proclamation to the Bulgarian people as the Tsar of Bulgaria, confirming his will to be king of all Bulgarians and follow the principles of Tarnovo Constitution and free Bulgaria. In 1958, he enrolled at Valley Forge Military Academy and College in the United States, where he was known as "Cadet Rylski No. 6883",[6] and graduated as a second lieutenant. Once again in Spain, Simeon studied law and business administration.

He became a businessman. For thirteen years, he was chairman of the Spanish subsidiary of Thomson, a French defence and electronics group. He was also an adviser in the banking, hotel, electronics, and catering sectors.

Monarch in exile

Simeon issued several political declarations during his exile through his "chancellery" in Madrid directed at the Communist regime in Bulgaria and his exiled compatriots. His early attempts at forming an official government in exile did not come to fruition, however.[citation needed]

Marriage and family

In 1962 Simeon married a Spanish aristocrat, doña Margarita Gómez-Acebo y Cejuela. The couple have five children — four sons (Kardam, Kiril, Kubrat and Konstantin) and a daughter, Kalina, all of whom subsequently married Spaniards.[7] All of his sons received names of Bulgarian kings.

Kardam (born 1962) married doña Miriam de Ungría y López. They have two sons, Boris and Beltran.

Kirill (born 1964) married doña María del Rosario Nadal y Fuster-Puigdórfila. They have two daughters, Mafalda and Olimpia, and one son, Tassilo.

Kubrat (born 1965) married doña Carla María de la Soledad Royo-Villanova y Urrestarazu. They have three sons: Mirko, Lukás and Tirso.

Konstantin-Assen (born 1967) married doña María García de la Rasilla y Gortázar. They have twins, Umberto and Sofia.

Kalina (born 1972) married don Antonio "Kitín" Muñoz y Valcárcel. They have one son, Simeon Hassan.

[edit] Political return

In 1990, after the fall of communism, Simeon was issued a new Bulgarian passport. In 1996, 50 years after the abolition of the monarchy, Simeon returned to Bulgaria and was met in many places by crowds cheering: "We want our King!" [8] He did not, at that point, make any political announcements or moves.

Various estates in Bulgaria that had been nationalized under the republic were returned to Simeon and his family. In 2001, Simeon announced he would return to Bulgaria to form a new political party, the National Movement Simeon II (NMSII), dedicated to "reforms and political integrity." Simeon promised that in 800 days the Bulgarian people would feel tangible positive effects of his government and would enjoy significantly higher standards of living.

NMSII won a large victory in the parliamentary elections held on 17 June 2001, capturing 120 of the 240 seats in Parliament and defeating the two main pre-existing political parties. Simeon gave an oath as Prime Minister of Bulgaria on 24 July, forming a coalition with the ethnic Turkish party Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF). He gave ministerial positions in his government mainly to technocrats and Western-educated economic specialists. In 2002, his efforts were recognized by his receiving the 2002 Path to Peace Award from the Path to Peace Foundation.[9] The development of Bulgaria's capital markets moved forward, with the first Eurolev issue in 2004. During his time in power, Bulgaria joined NATO, but the country remained mired in the poverty, deteriorating public services, official corruption and organized crime.

In the 2005 elections, Simeon's party ranked second and participated in the grand coalition government with the Bulgarian Socialist Party and the Movement for Rights and Freedoms. Simeon II was given the unofficial ceremonial post of Chairman of the Coalition Council.

The party got just 3.01% of votes and no seats at the parliamentary elections of 2009. Shortly after, on 6 July, Simeon also resigned as NDSV leader .[10]

Views on restoration of the Bulgarian monarchy

Simeon II has never renounced his royal claim to the Bulgarian throne. He used the title "Tsar of the Bulgarians" in his political statements during his exile. Since his return to Bulgaria, however, Simeon has consistently declined to reveal his views on the restoration of the Bulgarian monarchy. Upon taking office as prime minister, he took an oath to protect the country's republican Constitution.

Heir to the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Koháry

After the death of his distant cousin Prince John Henry of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 2010 and due to the exclusion of the late's uncle Philipp Josias Maria Joseph Ignatius Michael Gabriel Raphael Gonzaga (Walterskirchen, 18 August 1901 –), married morganatically on 23 April 1944 to Sarah Aurelia Halasz, and his descendants (their only son and four grandchildren were barred from the succession), Simeon became the Head and 6th Prince of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Koháry, former Magnates of Hungary, and a claimant to the holding of the castles of Csábrág and Szitnya, both in modern day Slovakia, lost to communist regime of Czechoslovakia in 1945.

О Цар Симеон (русский)

СИМЕОН II, Симеон Борисов Сакскобургготски (1937)

Бивш български цар (28 авг. 1943-15 септ. 1946). Син на цар Борис III и на царица Йоанна. Заема престола след смъртта на баща си. Поради непълнолетието му монархическата власт се упражнява от регенти. След обявяването на България за народна република (15 септ. 1946) живее в изгнание. Установява се в Египет, след 1951 - в Испания. Следва право и политически науки в Мадрид. Завършва Военната академия "Вали фордж" в САЩ. През 1996 се завръща в България след 50-годишно изгнание. През 2001 се установява в България и създава Национално движение Симеон Втори, което печели парламентарните избори за 39 и 40 народно събрание. Министър-председател на България (24 юли 2001-16 август 2005), в следствие на което фактически абдикира и прекъсва по-нататъшните си претенции към трона. Орден "Стара планина" І степен (2007).

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Tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria Prime Minister of the Republic of Bulgaria's Timeline

June 16, 1937
София, България
December 2, 1962
Age 25
Madrid, Comunidad de Madrid, España
July 11, 1964
Age 27
Madrid, Comunidad de Madrid, España
November 5, 1965
Age 28
Madrid, Comunidad de Madrid, España
December 5, 1967
Age 30
Madrid, Spain
January 19, 1972
Age 34
Madrid, Comunidad de Madrid, España