英和 (煦齋)

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【(索綽絡)】英和 (煦齋)

Also Known As: "夢禪居士", " 定圃", " 恩福堂", " 樹琴", " 煦齋", " 粵溪生", " 脀叟", " 脀叟氏", " 藏松書舍", " 觀頤山墅", " 銅琴鐵笛齋", " 隨遇而安精舍"
Birthdate:
Death: 1840 (68-69)
Immediate Family:

Son of 德保 (仲容 潤亭) and 經氏
Husband of 薩克達氏 (介文)
Father of Kuijao Socoro; 索綽絡氏 and Socoro Kuiyao 索綽絡奎耀
Brother of 索綽絡氏
Half brother of 索綽絡氏 and 石椿 (殤)

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Immediate Family

About 英和 (煦齋)

Ying-ho 英和 (T. 樹琴, 煦齋, 脀叟), May 27, 1771-1839, July 18, official and writer, was a Manchu of the Socolo 索綽絡 clan. Certain of his ancestors were probably taken captive by Nurhaci or Abahai [qq.v.], and so went into the service of the Ch'ing Imperial Household as slaves or bondservants. His great-grandfather, Dutu 都圖, served as a department director in the Imperial Household under Emperor Shêng-tsu and was given the Chinese surname, Shih 石. His father, Tê-pao 德保 (T. 仲容, 潤亭 H. 定圃, 1715-1755), became a chin-shih in 173. In that year a cousin of his father, named Kuan-pao 觀保 (T.伯容 H. 補亭, d. 1776), obtained the same degree. The two cousins were selected bachelors of the Hanlin Academy—Kuan-pao serving as president of the Board of Ceremonies (1769) and of the Censorate (1769-74); and Tê-pao as governor of Kwangtung (1770-76) and of Fukien (1776-78), and as president of the Board of Ceremonies (1778-89).

Ying-ho became a chin-shih in 1793, entered the Hanlin Academy, and two years later became a compiler. In 1799, after the corrupt minister, Ho-shên [q.v.], had been superseded, Emperor Jên-tsung gave high posts to some officials who had been courageous enough to oppose that once powerful mandarin. Ying-ho records that he shared in the imperial favor because, when he was young, his father had declined to affiance him to Ho-shên's daughter. Thus, in 1799, Ying-ho became a sub-chancellor of the Grand Secretariat and a year later was made a vice president of the Board of Ceremonies. In 1801 he was given the concurrent post of a minister of the Imperial Household—an office once filled by his father. In the same year he was transferred to the Board of Revenue, and in 1804 was made concurrently a Grand Councilor. In 1805 he ventured to expose a colleague, Liu Ch'üan-chih 劉權之 (T. 德輿 H. 雲房, 1739-1818), for having appointed a favorite to office; but because he informed the Emperor privately and had failed to make his accusation public, he incurred the imperial rebuke. Though the accused official was degraded, Ying-ho himself was also lowered in rank. Nevertheless, later in the same year (1805), he was again made a sub-chancellor of the Grand Secretariat. In 1806 he was promoted to be a vice-president of the Board of Works and was once more made a minister of the Imperial Household. In 1810 he was reinstated in the Board of Revenue. The following year he accompanied the Emperor on a journey to Mt. Wu-t'ai in Shansi. For failure to detect in 1812 an error in the Kao-tsung Ch'un Huang-ti Shêng-yü (see under Hung-li), he was again degraded; but scarcely a year elapsed before he was made a vice-president of the Board of Ceremonies.

During most of his years after 1802 Ying-ho served as one of the Emperor's private secretaries in the Imperial Study. It was in this capacity that he accompanied Emperor Jên-tsung on a hunting trip to Jehôl in the summer of 1813. The Emperor was on his way back from Jehôl when it was reported that the Palaces in Peking were being stormed by the T'ien-li chiao rebels (see under Na-yen-ch'êng). The Emperor at once dispatched Ying-ho to the capital to assume acting command of the Gendarmerie. By swift and efficient action Ying-ho was able to take into custody many leading offenders. His activities during this episode, and in the subsequent campaign in Honan, are recounted in the official publication, 平定教匪紀略 P'ing-ting chiao-fei chi-lüeh, 42 + 1 chüan, printed in 1818. It seems that his services at this juncture were highly appreciated, for in 1813 he was made president of the Board of Works and filled several concurrent posts. The following year he was given the lucrative post of superintendent of the Customs and Octroi of Peking and was promoted to be president of the Board of Civil Office. In 1820, on his fiftieth birthday, Ying-ho was honored with unusual gifts. In that year the new Emperor, Hsüan-tsung, ascended the throne and Ying-ho was transferred to be president of the Board of Revenue. Two years later he was appointed concurrently an Associate Grand Secretary and chancellor of the Hanlin Academy. In 1824 he expressed himself in favor of transporting grain from South China by the sea rather than the canal route (see under T'an Chu), and in 1826 advised the Emperor to undertake an extensive campaign in Turkestan (see under Ch'ang-ling). Late in 1826, however, he incurred the Emperor's displeasure by requesting permission to open silver mines in the vicinity of Peking. For this request he was degraded to be president of the Court of Colonial Affairs. He was also ordered out of the Imperial Study and the Imperial Household. In 1827 a tenant of one of his houses in Tungchow accused him of unjustly raising the rent. In consequence of this charge he was deprived of all his high offices, including that of Associate Grand Secretary, and was degraded to be military governor of Jehôl. In 1828, when he was ordered to go to Ninghsia, he pleaded illness and was allowed to go back to Peking.

After two months in Peking, a serious charge was lodged against him. From 1821 to 1827 he had been assigned the task of constructing the tomb of the reigning Emperor, at Pao-hua yü 寶華峪 in the Eastern Mausoleum, on a site that had been selected by Grand Secretary Tai Chün-yüan 戴均元 (T.可亭 H. 恆泰, 修原, 1746-1840, chin-shih of 1775). In his frugality, however, the Emperor had not allowed an adequate sum for construction. In 1827 the tomb was completed, and Ying-ho, Tai Chün-yüan and others were rewarded. After a lapse of only a year the walls were reported to be damp and the stone floor covered with a thin sheet of water. Angered by this report, the Emperor ordered the arrest of all concerned, as well as a thorough investigation. Ying-ho, Tai, and several other officials were deprived of their ranks and had their property confiscated. None of these officials were found to have misappropriated funds—their mistake was one of faulty engineering. But because he had the final decision in these matters, Ying-ho was punished with banishment to Heilungkiang; while his sons, K'uei-chao 奎照 (T. 伯沖 H. 玉庭, chin-shih of 1814) and K'uei-yüeh 奎耀 (T. 仲華 H. 芝圃, chin-shih of 1811), were dismissed from the posts they held, and sent to Heilungkiang to keep their father company. Several other officials were banished to Turkestan. Owing to his advanced age of eighty-three (sui), Tai was pardoned and was allowed to return to his home in Ta-yü, Kiangsi. The Emperor abandoned the Eastern Mausoleum as a site for his tomb and built a less pretentious one at the Western Mausoleum. The new tomb was completed in 1835, and he was buried there.

While in exile, Ying-ho studied local conditions at Tsitsihar, capital of Heilungkiang, and wrote two works about the region; one, entitled 卜魁紀略 Pu-k'uei chi-lüeh. is a collection of miscellaneous notes; the other, entitled Pu-k'uei ch'êng fu (城賦), is an essay in rhythmic prose. After more than two years in exile he was pardoned (1831) and given permission to return to Peking where he lived in retirement for eight years more. In 1835 he had the satisfaction of seeing his grandson, Hsi-chih 錫祉 (T. 孟繁 H. 子受), become a chin-shih and be selected a bachelor in the Hanlin Academy. Six members of his family—in four generations—thus became Hanlin: his father, himself, his uncle, his two sons, and a grandson, making a record rarely surpassed in the history of the Ch'ing dynasty. In 1836 he bought a garden in the Western Hills where he spent much of his remaining years. He died in 1839 and was given posthumously the rank of a third-grade official.

In his last years Ying-ho edited his own writings under eight titles, known collectively as the 恩福堂全集 Ên-fu-t'ang ch'üan-chi. The collection contains, among others, the following: Pu-k'uei chi, his writings at Tsitsihar; Ên-fu-t'ang chih-i, his essays written in the examination hall style, of which a manuscript copy is in the Library of Congress; Ên-fu-t'ang pi-chi (筆記), 2 chüan, printed in 1837, being miscellaneous notes about his family, his friends, and himself; Ên-fu-t'ang nien-p'u (年譜), an autobiography; and Ên-fu-t'ang shih-ch'ao (詩鈔) 12 + 2 chüan, his collected poems, which probably exist only in manuscript. His wife (née Sakda 薩克達, T. 介文 H. 觀生閣主) achieved some skill as a writer of verse and as a painter.

In the course of his official career Ying-ho directed two provincial examinations (Shun-t'ien 1800, Kiangnan 1801) and two metropolitan examinations (1805, 1809). Many famous scholars and officials styled themselves his mên-shêng 門生, or disciples, because they had entered officialdom by examinations which he had conducted. Among them may be mentioned Mu-chang-a, Hsü Sung, and Chiao Hsün [qq.v.]. With most of his contemporaries he was on friendly terms except, perhaps, with Ts'ao Chên-yung [q.v.] whose ill-will he incurred in 1814 when he vetoed a proposal to raise funds by the sale of official ranks-a measure which it seems Ts'ao favored. It is believed by some that Ying-ho's recurrent rise and fall may have been in part due to Ts'ao's opposition. Doubtless another factor was the notorious corruption which obtained among the functionaries in the Imperial Household. They resented the efforts of a minister to economize or to interfere with their perquisites, and had their own ways to effect his downfall. Other ministers of the Imperial Household who suffered similarly were: Sung-yün [q.v.], Ching-chêng (see under Shêng-yü), Hsi-ên 禧恩 (T. 仲蕃, posthumous name 文莊, 1784-1852), and I-chi 奕紀 (d. 1863). Hsi-ên, a son of Ch'un-ying (see under Dorgon), was intermittently for nearly thirty years (1815-45) a. minister of the Household and was several times disgraced. I-chi was a grandson of Yung-hsing and younger brother of I-ching [qq. v.]. After serving for six years (1834-40) as a minister in the Household, he was sentenced to hard labor in Hei lungkiang. Officially he was accused of having accepted a. bribe from a. Mongolian Lama in 1839, and of having retained the gift for eight days before he made up his mind to return it, Actually his offense was that, having claimed to be a physician, and having been named to attend Empress Hsiao-ch'üan (see under I-chu) in her last illness, he had failed to prevent her death which took place on February 13, 1840. Seven days later he was put on trial on the bribery charge and on March 2 was banished.

[1/369/3a; 3/39/20a; 20/3/00; 3/82/23a; 2/41/21a; 2/50/38a; Yenching University Library Bulletin No. 19 (December 15, 1931); Tai K'o-t'ing hsiang-kuo nien-p'u (chronological biography of Tai Chün-yüan); T'ien-chih ou-wên (see bibl. under Pao-t'ing), 4/40b; Pa-ch'i wên-ching (see under Shêng-yü).]

FANG CHAO-YING


Suochuoluo Yinghe 索綽絡英和 《清代人物生卒年表》定其生卒年為乾隆36年~道光20年。 【參考《清代人物生卒年表》#13985.】


MQWW: 英和

英和 (煦齋)生平 (中文)

號煦齋 一號樹琴 晚號脀叟 內務府正白旗滿洲 乾隆壬子科舉人 癸丑科進士 翰林院編修 戶部尚書 協辦大學士

《清史稿》卷363

英和 ,字煦齋,索綽絡氏,滿洲正白旗人,尚書德保子。少有雋才,和珅欲妻以女,德保不可。乾隆五十八年,成進士,選庶吉士,授編修,累遷侍讀。嘉慶三年,大考二等,擢侍讀學士。洎仁宗親政。知其拒婚事,嘉焉,遂嚮用,累遷內閣學士。五年,授禮部侍郎,兼副都統。六年,充內務府大臣,調戶部。以不到旗署為儀親王所糾,罷副都統。七年,直南書房。扈蹕木蘭,射鹿以獻,賜黃馬褂。授翰林院掌院學士。九年,帝幸翰林院,賜一品服,加太子少保,命在軍機大臣上學習行走。時詔稽巡幸五臺典禮,英和疏言教匪甫平,民未蘇息,請俟數年後再議,上嘉納之。尋自請獨對,論大學士劉權之徇情欲保薦軍機章京袁煦,上不悅,兩斥之。遂罷直書房、軍機,降太僕寺卿。歷內閣學士,理藩院、工部侍郎。

數奉使出按事,河東鹽課歸入地丁,而蒙古鹽侵越內地,命偕內閣學士初彭齡往會巡撫察議。疏言:「非禁水運不能限制蒙鹽,非設官商不能杜絕私販。請阿拉善鹽祗由陸路行銷,河東鹽仍改商運。吉蘭泰鹽池所產亦招商運辦。」事詳鹽法志。兼左翼總兵,復為內務府大臣。十二年,偕侍郎蔣予蒲查南河料物加價,議准增添,仍示限制,從之。復直南書房。十三年,命暫在軍機大臣上行走,調戶部、武英殿。進高宗聖訓廟號有誤,坐降調內閣學士。尋遷禮部侍郎。十八年,隨扈熱河,會林清逆黨為變,命先回京署步軍統領。擒林清於黃村西宋家莊,實授步軍統領、工部尚書。滑縣平,復太子少保。

十九年。將開捐例,廷議不一。偕大學士曹振鏞等覆議,獨上疏曰:「理財之道,不外開源節流。大捐為權宜之計,本朝屢經舉行。但觀前事,即知此次未必大效。竊以開捐不如節用,開捐暫時取給,節用歲有所餘。請嗣後謁陵,或三年五年一舉行,民力可紓。木蘭秋獮,為我朝家法,然蒙古迥非昔比,亦請間歲一行,於外藩生計所全實大。各處工程奉旨停止,每歲可省數十萬至百餘萬不等。天下無名之費甚多,苟於國體無傷,不得任其糜費。即如裁撤武職名糧,未必能禁武官不役兵丁,而驟增養廉百餘萬,應請敕下部臣詳查正項經費外,歷年增出各款,可裁則裁,可減則減,積久行之,國計日裕。至開源之計,不得以事涉言利,概行斥駁。新疆歲支兵餉百數十萬,為內地之累,其地金銀礦久經封閉,開之而礦苗旺盛,足敷兵餉;各省礦廠,亦應詳查興辦。又戶部入官地畝,請嚴催升科,於國用亦有裨益。」疏入,詔以名糧已飭覈辦,開礦流弊滋多,仍依眾議,豫工事例遂開。是歲調吏部,復命暫在軍機大臣上行走。

二十五年,宣宗即位,命為軍機大臣,調戶部。宣宗方銳意求治,英和竭誠獻替。面陳各省府、州、縣養廉不敷辦公,莫不取給陋規,請查明分別存革,示以限制。上採其言,下疆吏詳議,而中外臣工多言其不可,詔停其議,遂罷直軍機,專任部務。道光二年,以戶部尚書協辦大學士,兼翰林院掌院學士。四年,仁宗實錄成,加太子太保。五年,洪澤湖決,阻運道,河、漕交敝,詔籌海運,疆臣率拘牽成例,以為不可。英和奏陳海運、折漕二事為救時之計,越日復上疏,略謂:「河、漕不能兼顧,惟有暫停河運以治河,雇募海船以利運,而任事諸臣未敢議行者,一則慮商船到津,難以交卸;一則慮海運既行,漕運員弁、旗丁、水手難以安插。」因陳防弊處置之策甚悉。詔下各省妥議,仍多諉為未便,惟江蘇巡撫陶澍力行之,撥蘇、松、常、鎮、太五屬漕米,以河船分次海運。六年八月,悉數抵天津,上大悅,詔嘉英和創議,予議敘,特賜紫韁以旌異之。

張格爾犯回疆,英和疏陳進兵方略,籌備軍需,並舉長齡、武隆阿可任事,多被採用。七年,奏商人請於易州開採銀礦,詔斥其冒昧。調理藩院,罷南書房、內務府大臣。未幾,坐家人增租擾累,出為熱河都統。八年,命勘南河工程。回疆平,復太子少保。授寧夏將軍,以病請解職,允之。

初,營萬年吉地於寶華峪,命英和監修,嘗從容言漢文帝薄葬事,上稱善,議於舊制有所裁省,工竣,孝穆皇后奉安,優予獎敘。至是地宮浸水,譴責在事諸臣。詔以英和始終其事,責尤重,奪職,籍其家。逮訊,得開工時見有石母滴水,僅以土攔,議設龍鬚溝出水,英和未允狀,讞擬大辟,會太后為上言不欲以家事誅大臣,乃解發黑龍江充當苦差,子孫並褫職。十一年,釋回,復予子孫官。二十年。卒,贈三品卿銜。

英和通達政體,遇事有為,而數以罪黜。屢掌文衡,愛才好士。自其父及兩子一孫,皆以詞林起家,為八旗士族之冠。子奎照,嘉慶十九年進士,歷官至禮部尚書、軍機大臣,緣事奪職,復起為左都御史;奎耀,嘉慶十六年進士,官至通政使,後為南河同知。奎照子錫祉,道光十五年進士,歷翰林院侍講學士,後官長蘆鹽運使。

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英和 (煦齋)'s Timeline

1771
1771

乾隆三十六年辛卯四月十四日辰時

1840
1840
Age 69

道光二十五年庚子六月初十日未時疾終於家

1841
1841
Age 69

道光二十一年三月十九日申時葬於長營祖塋

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