謝韜元 (道韞)

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【(陳郡陽夏)】 謝韜元 (道韞)

Birthdate:
Death: after 399
Immediate Family:

Daughter of 謝奕 (無奕) and 阮容
Wife of Wang Ningzhi 王凝之
Mother of 王蘊之
Sister of 謝寄奴; 謝探遠; 謝泉; 謝攸; 謝靖 and 6 others

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Immediate Family

About 謝韜元 (道韞)

Xie Daoyun 謝道韞 (ca. 334–post 402). Eastern Jin female poet.

Xie Daoyun's personal name was Taoyuan 韜元, but she is commonly known by her zi Daoyun. Her ancestral home was Yangjia 陽夏 in Chen 陳 commandery (modern Taikang 太康, Henan). She was the daughter of Xie Yi 謝奕 (d. 358), elder brother of Xie An 謝安 (320–385). Ca. 354 she married Wang Ningzhi 王凝之 (d. 399), the second son of Wang Xizhi 王羲之 (303–361). However, upon a visit home she reputedly complained to Xie An that he was far inferior to the males in her household. Xie Daoyun participated as an equal with her brothers and cousins in conversation bouts presided over by Xie An. On one occasion, Xie An challenged each of them to compose a line about snow. Xie An expressed strong praise for Xie Daoyun's line, “It is even better than willow catkins lifted on the breeze.” She also admonished her younger brother Xie Xuan 謝玄 (343–388) on his failure to make progress in his studies.

Ca. 399, Wang Ningzhi was sent out as general of the left and administrator of Guiji 會稽 (modern Shaoxing). In the eleventh lunar month of this year Sun En 孫恩 (d. 402) led an attack on Shangyu 上虞 (modern Shangyu, Zhejiang) and Guiji. Wang Ningzhi was a devout adherent of the Heavenly Master Taoist sect. Believing that the Great Way would exorcize the rebel soldiers, he did not prepare a defense. He was killed by Sun En. According to Xie Daoyun's biography in the Jin shu, upon hearing of her husband's death, she ordered her maids to carry her out the gate in a sedan chair, and she killed several of the enemy before being captured. The marauders threatened to kill her two-year-old grandson Liu Tao 柳濤. She told them, “This is a matter of the Wang clan. Why involve some other family? If you insist on going through with this, you had better kill me first.” Although Sun En had a reputation for cruelty, he was moved by her words and spared the child.

Xie Daoyun lived as a widow in Guiji for several more years. During this time the governor of Guiji, Liu Liu 劉柳 (n.d.), made a call on her to engage in conversation. She pinned up her hair in a chignon and sat on a white cushion behind a curtain, while Liu Liu, his belt tightly tied, occupied a separate bench. Xie spoke in a elegant fashion, first about family matters. She then replied to Liu's questions and was never at a loss for words. After Liu left Xie Daoyun's residence, he exclaimed that he had never encountered anyone like her. Xie Daoyun died sometime after 402 at over seventy years of age.

According to Xie Daoyun's biography in the Jin shu, she had written poems, fu, dirges, and eulogies that circulated after her death. The monograph on bibliography of the Sui shu lists her collected works in two juan. This was lost already in the Tang. Only one prose piece, the “Lunyu zan” 論語贊 (Encomium on the Lun yu) is extant. Only two poems attributed to her are preserved.

Bibliography

Studies

  • Xiao Hong 蕭虹. “Xie Daoyun: yiwei nü mingshi de fengfan” 謝道韞:一位女名士的風範. Mingbao yuekan 19.1 (1984): 78–84.
  • Lee, Lily Xiao Hong. “Xie Daoyun: The Style of a Woman Mingshi.” In Lily Xiao Hong Lee. Virtue of Yin: Studies on Chinese Women, 25–46. Sydney: Wild Peony, 1994.
  • Li Jingqi 李景琦. “Yong xu cai gao linxia feng qing—Dong Jin cainü mingshi Xie Daoyun” 詠絮才高林下風清—東晉才女、名士謝道韞. Wenshi zhishi (1994: 4): 46–49.
  • Chen Liao 陳遼. “Xie Daoyun shengzu nian kao” 謝道韞生卒年考. Wenjiao ziliao (1998: 6): 90–91.
  • Ding Fulin 丁福林. Dong Jin Nanbeichao de Xieshi wenxue jituan 東晉南北朝的謝氏文學集團, 39–41. Harbin: Heilongjiang jiaoyu chubanshe, 1999.
  • Xu Gongchi. Wei Jin wenxue shi, 537–38.
  • Yang Hesong 楊賀松. “Celebrated Poetess Xie Daoyun.” Zhongguo funü (2001: 4): 19–20.
  • Chen Xihong 陳希紅. “Xie Daoyun shengzu nian kao” 謝道韞生卒年考. Jiang Huai luntan (2003: 1): 127–29.
  • Cao Daoheng and Shen Yucheng. Zhonggu wenxue shiliao congkao, 22–25.
  • Idema, Wilt and Beata Grant. The Red Brush: Writing Women of Imperial China, 136–44. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2004.
  • Lee, Lily Xiao Hong. “Xie Daoyun.” In Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women: Antiquity through Sui 1600 b.c.e.–618 c.e., ed. Lily Xiao Hong Lee and A.D. Stefanowska, 359–63. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2007.
  • Lu Xiaping 盧夏平. “Linxia zhi feng yong xu cai—ping Xie Daoyun de xuanxueguan ji qi shiwen chuangzuo” 林下之風詠絮才—評謝道韞的玄學觀及其詩文 創作. Zhangzhou shifan xueyuan xuebao (Zhexue shehui kexue ban) 67.1 (2008): 72–74.
  • Zeng Caihua 曾彩華. “Xie Daoyun shengzu nian buzheng” 謝道韞生卒年補正. Liuzhou shizhuan xuebao 25.1 (2010): 43–49.

Works

a. “Deng shan” 登山 (Climbing the mountain), variant title “Taishan yin” 泰山吟 (Song of Mount Tai)

Study

  • Zou Zhifang 鄒志方. “Xie Daoyun ‘Taishan yin' ti ying wei ‘Cheqi shan'” 謝道韞 《山吟》題應為《車騎山》 . Wenxian (1992: 3): 265–67.

Translations

  • Waley, 170 Chinese Poems, 120; Translations, 92.
  • Frodsham, J.D. and Ch'eng Hsi. An Anthology of Chinese Verse, 112.
  • Kroll, Paul. “Verses from on High: The Ascent of T'ai Shan.” T'oung Pao 69.4–5 (1983): 230–31; rpt. in The Vitality of the Lyric Voice: Shih Poetry from the Late Han to the T'ang, Shuen-fu Lin and Stephen Owen, ed., 176–77. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.
  • Yang Hesong. “Celebrated Poetess Xie Daoyun,” 20.
  • Idema and Grant, The Red Brush, 142.
  • Tian Xiaofei. “Seeing with the Mind's Eye: The Eastern Jin Discourse of Visualization and Imagination.” Asia Major, Third Series 18.2 (2005): 84–85.

b. “Ni Xi Zhongsan ‘Yong song'” 擬嵇中散《詠松》

Study

  • Suzuki Toshio 鈴木敏雄. “Sha Dōun no ‘Gi Sei Chūsan ei matsu shi' ni tsuite” 謝道韞の「擬嵇中散詠松詩」について. Chūgoku chūsei bungaku kenkyū 22 (1992): 22–28.

Translations

  • Yang Hesong. “Celebrated Poetess Xie Daoyun,” 20.
  • Idema and Grant, The Red Brush, 141.

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