Chinese: 〔齊〕太祖高皇帝【(南蘭陵)】蕭道成(三) (紹伯)
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About Xiao Daocheng 蕭道成, Emperor Gao of Southern Qi
Xiao Daocheng 蕭道成 (427–482), zi Shaobo 紹伯, Emperor Gao 高 of Southern Qi (479–482)
Xiao Daocheng's original ancestral home was Lanling 蘭陵 in Donghai 東海 commandery (modern Shandong). In the Eastern Jin the Xiao family moved south to Nan Lanling (northwest of modern Changzhou). Xiao Daocheng's childhood name was Doujiang 斗將. Xiao Daoheng's father Xiao Chengzhi 蕭承之 (384–447) was a prominent military man in the late Eastern Jin and early Song period.
Xiao Daocheng received a good literary education. At the age of thirteen, he studied the Rites Classics and the Zuo zhuan with the famous scholar Lei Cizong 雷次宗 (386–448). In 446, he accompanied the regional inspector of Yongzhou 雍州, Xiao Sihua 蕭思話 (400–455), to his headquarters in Xiangyang, where Xiao Daocheng served as one of his aides. In 452, he led a successful expedition against a Di force at Qiuchi 仇池 (southwest of modern Xihe 西和, Gansu). Upon his return the next year, Xiao Daocheng was assigned as an aide on the staff of Liu Yigong 劉義恭 (413–465), Prince of Jiangxia, who was then serving as commander-in-chief and had full charge of military matters.
During the Daming period (457–464) of Emperor Wu (r. 453–464), Xiao Daocheng served as magistrate of Jiankang, which was part of the capital administration. When Liu Ziye 劉子業 (449–465) took the throne in 465, Xiao Daoheng was named General of the Rear Army. In the following year, with the accession of Emperor Ming (r. 465–472), he was appointed General of the Right Army. He played a leading role in putting down a rebellion in Xunyang 尋陽 (modern Jiujiang, Jiangxi) nominally led by the Prince of Xunyang Liu Zifang 劉子房 (456–466) and the Prince of Jin'an Liu Zixun 劉子勛 (456–466) in February 466. He was rewarded for his good service by receiving an appointment as regional inspector of Nan Yanzhou 南兗州 (administrative seat, Guangling, modern Yangzhou). In June 466, Emperor Ming assigned Xiao Daocheng to take command of a military force sent to subdue Xue Suo'er 薛索兒 (d. 466), who rose in revolt at Huaiyin 淮陰 (southwest of modern Huai'an 淮安 and Huaiyin, Jiangsu) against Emperor Ming in support of Liu Zixun. He defeated Xue's army at Shiliang 石梁 (northwest of modern Tianchang 天長, Anhui).
In 471, Xiao Daocheng was summoned back to the capital. However, Emperor Ming was suspicious of Xiao's ambitions, and he was reluctant to appoint him to an important post. With the accession of Liu Yu 劉昱 (463–477) as emperor in 472, Xiao Daocheng was instrumental in putting down a coup led by Liu Xiufan 劉休範 (448–472), Prince of Guiyang. In 476, he played a leading role in the murder of Liu Yu and the installation of Liu Zhun 劉準 (469–479), Emperor Shun (r. 477–479). Xiao Daocheng soon was named General-in-chief of Agile Cavalry, minister of works, and held the position of regent. Xiao Daocheng first eliminated Yuan Can 袁 粲 (420–478), Liu Bing 劉秉 (433–477), and their supporters who led a “revolt” against Xiao and his collaborators in January 478. He then sent a force against Shen Youzhi 沈攸之 (d. 478), who had established a power base in Xiangyang. Shen Youzhi was defeated and killed in March 478.
On 13 October, Xiao Daocheng had himself named grand mentor and regional inspector of Yangzhou, which had control over the capital area. On 9 April 479, he was appointed counselor-in-chief and granted the title Duke of Qi. Xiao Daocheng followed the ritual code stipulation of declin-ing three times before accepting. On 7 May 479, Xiao Daoheng's title was elevated to that of Prince of Qi and was awarded income from ten com-manderies. On 26 May, Emperor Shun abdicated to Xiao Daocheng. Xiao Daocheng was installed as emperor of the new Qi dynasty on 29 May.
Xiao Daoheng ruled as emperor of the Southern Qi for only three years. He died on 11 April 482 at the age of fifty-six. He was succeeded by his eldest son Xiao Ze 蕭賾 (440–493), Emperor Wu (r. 482–493).
Xiao Daocheng was quite learned and was widely read in the histories and Classics. He also was an accomplished writer, calligrapher, and player of board games. Yan Kejun has preserved seventy of Xiao Daocheng's prose writings, most of which consist of imperial edicts and decrees, in his Quan shanggu Sandai Qin Han Sanguo Liuchao wen. Zhong Rong places Xiao Daocheng in the lower grade of the Shi pin. He writes that his “language is ornate and his ideas are profound, and there is nothing that he lacks.” Only two of his poems are extant. One is a long piece in mixed meters, “Sai ke yin” 塞客吟 (Lament of a frontier sojourner) that he composed at Huaiyin to express his frustration at the lack of recognition he received from the Emperor Ming court.
David R. Knechtges
About 齊高帝 蕭道成(三) (中文)
南朝齊創建者。字紹伯﹐小名鬥將。在位四年。先世居東海蘭陵(今山東棗莊嶧城鎮東)。高祖蕭整於東晉初過江﹐寓晉陵武進(今屬江蘇)﹐晉於此地僑置蘭陵郡﹐稱南蘭陵﹐故蕭氏遂為南蘭陵人。少從名儒雷次宗受業﹐治《禮》及《左氏春秋》。仕宋﹐初為左軍中兵參軍﹐後領偏軍征仇池﹐進軍距長安八十里﹐以兵少﹐又聞宋文帝卒﹐乃還。明帝時為右軍將軍﹐先後鎮會稽(今浙江紹興)﹑淮陰(今江蘇清江西)﹐以軍功累官至南兗州刺史。明帝卒﹐他與尚書令袁粲等共掌朝政﹐並領石頭戍軍事。元徽二年 (474)平江州刺史桂陽王休范的反叛﹐進爵為公﹐遷中領軍將軍﹐掌握了禁衛軍﹐督五州軍事。與袁粲﹑褚淵﹑劉秉號稱“四貴”。宋皇室成員爭權﹐自相殘殺﹐朝廷實權漸集於道成。昇明元年(477)七月﹐道成殺後廢帝劉昱﹐立劉準(順帝)。蕭道成封齊王﹐兼總軍國﹐次第誅滅忠於宋室的袁粲﹑荊州刺史沈攸之﹑黃回等。三年四月受宋禪即皇帝位﹐國號齊﹐改元建元﹐史稱南齊。道成懲宋之亡﹐務從儉約﹐減免百姓逋租宿債﹐寬簡刑罰﹐但對宋之宗室王侯﹐無少長皆幽死。次年下令擴大清理戶籍﹐按虞玩之的建議﹐設立校籍官﹐以宋元嘉二十七年 (450)版籍為準整理戶籍。但校籍工作弊端百出﹐貧苦人民常被誣為戶籍詐偽而“卻籍”(即從戶籍中剔除出來)﹐同時也侵犯了庶族地主的利益。因而﹐在其死後不久﹐即因反對校籍而引發了唐寓之暴動。
楊廷福 - 《中國大百科全書 · 中國歷史卷》