Augustus, 1st Roman Emperor

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Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus

Also Known As: "Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus Augustus", "Gaius Octavius Thurinus", "Augustus", "Octavian", "Gaius Julius-Caesar Octavianus"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Rome, Italia, Roman Republic
Death: Died in Nola, Italia, Roman Empire
Cause of death: 63BC - 14 AD
Place of Burial: Rome, Italia, Roman Empire
Immediate Family:

Biological son of Gaius Octavius, IV and Atia Balba Caesonia
Adopted son of Julius Caesar, Roman Dictator and <private>
Husband of Clodia Pulchra; Scribonia and Livia Drusilla, Roman empress
Ex-husband of <private>
Father of Tiberius, Roman Emperor and Julia "the Elder"
Brother of Octavia Major; Octavia Minor and <private>
Half brother of Gnaeus Calpernicus; Julia Caesaris; <private>; Ptolemy XV 'Caesarion', Pharaoh of Egypt; Quintus Pedius and 3 others

Occupation: 1st Roman Emperor, First Emperor of Rome, keizer van Rome, Civil & Military Servant at Roman Republic & Roman Empire
Managed by: FARKAS Mihály László
Last Updated:
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Immediate Family

About Augustus, 1st Roman Emperor

He is known as:

  • Gaius Octavius / or / Octavianus /his original praenomen (~ first) and Cognomen (~ family) name/
  • Augustus (granted the title of Augustus by the Roman Senate, becoming the first emperor of Rome)
  • Augustus Caesar (Julius Caesar was his adoptive father)
  • Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Julius was the "Nomen gentile" =name of gens from his adoptive father was descended) ?Augustus descended from gens Claudia? **Note:

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http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/augustusprofile/

Emperor Augustus Caesar - Octavian

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Links from wikipedia

[https://la.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_(imperator) Augustus (imperator)] Augustus August

Augustus (nomine nato Gaius Octavius, adoptione Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus , moriturus Imperator Caesar Divi filius Augustus, post mortem Divus Augustus), natus die 23 Septembris 63 a.C.n., mortemque die 19 Augusti 14 p.C.n. obiit, fuit dictatoris Gaii Iulii Caesaris heres et bellorum triumviratús secundi victor, qui ab anno 30 a.C.n. usque ad mortem Imperio Romano praefuit.

Augustus 1st Emperor of the Roman Empire

Consort to

  1. Clodia Pulchra 43–40 BC
  2. Scribonia 40–38 BC
  3. Livia Drusilla 38 BC – AD 14

Offspring

  1. Julia the Elder;
  2. Gaius Caesar (adoptive);
  3. Lucius Caesar (adoptive);
  4. Tiberius (adoptive)

Augustus Caesar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus , ( 62 BC - August 19, A.D. 14 ) was the first Roman Emperor. Before he became emperor, he is often referred to as Octavian in English speaking countries. He was accorded the name or title Augustus by the Senate of Rome in 27 BC, and as emperor is often referred to as Augustus Caesar ,Augustus Octavian, or simply Augustus .

Julius Caesar made provisions in his will adopting his great-nephew Gaius Octavius Thurinus as his son and heir. In the Roman custom, Octavius took his uncle's name as part of his own. At the time of Julius Caesar's death Octavianus was 18. Together with Mark Anthony and Lepidus he formed the Second Triumvirate to rule Rome. To take leadership of the Caesarian forces he returned to Rome from Greece and successfully outmaneuvered Marcus Antonius for leadership of Caesar's armies and control of his political forces, ultimately defeating Antony at the Battle of Actium on September 2 ,31 BC . He reformed the Roman state, becoming its sole ruler, although not in name ( Rome was still officially a Republic ). He was given the title Princeps (first citizen) and the title Imperator by the Roman Senate . The Roman Empire was devided into Senatorial and Imperial provinces. The Imperial provinces were on the outskirts of the Empire and held the bulk of the troops. He also created the Praetorian Guard , a 9,000 man private army for his own protection. When the Roman Pontifex Maximus Lepidus died, he also took that title, and thus became head of the Roman religion.

Octavian's military right-hand-man was Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa , and his link with the important class of the Equites or 'Equestrian class' was Gaius Maecenas . Augustus's evident intention was to have Agrippa succeed him; he arranged for Agrippa to divorce his wife and marry Julia, Augustus's daughter from his first marriage. When Agrippa died unexpectedly in 12 BC , Augustus's plans were upset. Until their deaths, Agrippa's minor sons (who were also Augustus's grandsons) Gaius and Lucius remained his heirs. His succession by his stepson and adopted heir Tiberius created the so-called Julio-Claudian dynasty from their two nomina or family names.

Ara Pacis Augustae --- the altar of the Augustan Peace

The Acts of the Divine Augustus , attributed to Augustus Caesar (summary)

Following is a summary of inscriptions that were found on two pillars in Rome . These pillars were in several Temples dedicated to the god of Rome ( Roma ). These Temples were built in honour of Augustus and the inscriptions recount the great deeds of Augustus.

At the age of nineteen, Augustus recounts that he was able to prepare an army at his own expense and with the blessing of the Senate . In that same year, the people made him consul . With this army and through other means Augustus (then known as Octavian) was able to exile and punish those individuals who had killed his adopted father Julius Caesar .

Augustus then fought many wars to expand the realm and influence of Rome. However, he wisely treated his captive states kindly; even allowing then to continue their customs and form governments so long as they paid tribute to Rome.

Augustus also mentions that he was a reluctant leader who decided to lead so long as his leadership did not break any established customs. He then states that he was made a Triumvir (of the Second Triumvirate ) and then Princeps .

Then Augustus states that he increased the number of patricians and held several censuses of the people in which the size of Roman citizenry rose by nearly one million people. However, he refused to be named Pontifex Maximus (head of the State religion) while a friend of his held that title.

His sons, Gaius and Lucius Caesar were made consuls-designate when they reached the age of fourteen and they were then made Princeps of the Youth.

Augustus then recounts how generous he was both with his own money, and with the money of Rome. Specifically, he mentions that the gifts that he gave "never came through to fewer than 250,000 men." He also mentions that he was able to help out the Public Treasury on four occasions.

Now he turns to the great building projects that he built. For example, he built the Curia (Senate House) and a temple to Apollo , and the Divine Julius. He also built a shrine near the Circus Maximus , temples of Jupiter Feretrius and the Thunderer. Augustus then shows how noble he is when he built both the Capitoline temple and the theater of Pompey without putting his name on them. He then goes into the repairs and expansions of infastructure projects -- including urban renewal.

How Augustus entertained the masses is also described in this document. For example, it describes how he funded three gladiatorial games which included the slaughter of 3500 beasts.

He ends the document with an account of conquests of the sea, Egypt and the recovery of several Roman standards.


ID: I6878

Name: GAIUS @ OCTAVIAN JULIUS CAESAR

Prefix: Emperor

Given Name: GAIUS @ OCTAVIAN JULIUS

Surname: CAESAR

Nickname: Augustus

Sex: M

_UID: B30B2AFA5118D811BE490080C8C142CC52D2

Change Date: 18 Oct 2005

Note:

I INTRODUCTION

Augustus (63 bc- ad 14), first emperor of Rome (27 bc-ad 14), who restored unity and orderly government to the realm after nearly a century of civil wars. He presided over an era of peace, prosperity, and cultural achievement known as the Augustan Age.

Augustus was born Gaius Octavius and granted the title of Augustus by the Roman Senate, becoming the first emperor of Rome. The adopted son of Julius Caesar, he became consul after Caesar’s assassination. Augustus consolidated his power with the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. As emperor, he instituted social reforms and encouraged education, art and literature.

Originally named Gaius Octavius, Augustus was born in Rome on September 23, 63 bc; he was the grandnephew of Julius Caesar, whom he succeeded as ruler of the Roman state. Caesar was fond of the youth and had him raised to the College of Pontifices—a major Roman priesthood—at the age of 16. When Caesar was assassinated in 44 bc, Octavius was in Illyria, where he had been sent to serve; returning to Italy, he learned that he was Caesar’s adopted heir. He consequently took the name Gaius Julius Caesar, to which historians have added Octavianus; in English, the name is usually shortened to Octavian.

II THE SECOND TRIUMVIRATE

GREAT WORKS OF LITERATURE

Tacitus: From The Annals of Imperial Rome

Cornelius Tacitus was a Roman historian who drew upon fact, rhetoric, psychology, and art in crafting The Annals of Imperial Rome. Only part of the original work has survived, but it represents the most complete literary record available about Rome from just before the death of Augustus, the first emperor, in AD 14 to the death of Nero, the fifth emperor, in AD 68. Although Tacitus claimed to be scrupulously impartial, he was easily roused to indignation, as demonstrated by these passages dealing with Augustus’s reign and Nero’s conspiracy to murder his mother, Agrippina.

Caesar’s assassination plunged Rome into turmoil. Octavian, determined to avenge his adoptive father and secure his own place, vied with Mark Antony, Caesar’s ambitious colleague, for power and honor. After some preliminary skirmishes, both political and military, during which Antony was driven across the Alps while Octavian was made senator and then consul, Octavian recognized the necessity of making peace with his rival. In late 43 bc, therefore, the two—joined by Antony’s ally, the general Marcus Aemilius Lepidus—met and formed the Second Triumvirate to rule the Roman domains. The alliance was sealed by a massive proscription, in which 300 senators and 200 knights—the triumvirs’ enemies—were slain. Among those killed was the aging orator Cicero.

Octavian and Antony next took the field against the leaders of Caesar’s assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus, both of whom committed suicide in 42 bc, after being defeated at Philippi in Macedonia. By 40 bc the triumvirs had divided the Roman world among them. Octavian was in control of most of the western provinces and Antony of the eastern ones; Lepidus was given Africa. Although Antony and Octavian clashed over the control of Italy, they patched up their differences, and Octavian gave Antony his sister, Octavia, in marriage. In 36 BC, Sextus Pompeius, son of Pompey the Great and the last major enemy of the triumvirs, was eliminated. Octavian then forced Lepidus from power, while Antony was in the east fighting the Parthians.

The triumvirate was now breaking up. Having sent Octavia back to Rome, Antony soon married Cleopatra, whom Caesar had installed as queen of Egypt, and recognized Caesarion, her son by Caesar, as her coruler. This undercut Octavian’s position as the only son of Caesar, and war was inevitable. He defeated Antony and Cleopatra’s forces in a naval battle off Actium in 31 bc; they both killed themselves the following year. Caesarion was murdered. In 29 bc Octavian returned to Rome in triumph, at age 34 the sole master of the Roman world.

III THE FIRST CITIZEN

In 27 bc the Roman Senate gave Octavian the title Augustus (“consecrated,” or “holy”) by which he is known, and his reign has often been considered a dyarchy because of the Senate’s participation in it. The Senate bestowed on him a host of other titles and powers that had been held by many different officials in the Republic. In 36 bc he had been given the inviolability of the plebeian tribune, and in 30 bc he also received the tribunician power, which gave him the veto and control over the assemblies. In addition, the Senate granted him ultimate authority in the provinces; together with the consulship, which he held 13 times during his reign and which gave him control of Rome and Italy, this vested in him paramount authority throughout the empire. After the death of Lepidus he also became Pontifex Maximus (“chief priest”) with the consequent control of religion. The summation of his powers was the title princeps, or first citizen. Despite all this, and the title imperator (from which “emperor” is derived), Augustus was always careful not to take on the trappings of monarchy. In fact, he made much of the claim that he was restoring the Roman Republic.

A patron of the arts, Augustus was a friend of the poets Ovid, Horace, and Virgil, as well as the historian Livy. His love for architectural splendor was summed up in his boast that he “had found Rome brick and left it marble.” As a straitlaced adherent of Roman virtues in times of growing permissiveness, he attempted moral legislation that included sumptuary and marriage laws. In the economic field, he tried to restore agriculture in Italy.

Augustus’ third wife was Livia Drusilla, who had two sons, Tiberius and Drusus Germanicus, by a previous marriage. Augustus, in turn, had a daughter, Julia, by a previous wife. His heirs, however, died, one after another, leaving his stepson and son-in-law, Tiberius, to succeed him when he died at Nola on August 19, ad 14.

IV EVALUATION

Both ancient and modern writers have been ambivalent about Augustus. Some have condemned his ruthless quest for power, especially his part in the proscription at the time of the triumvirate. Others, even such a Republican diehard as Tacitus, have admitted his good points as a ruler. Modern scholars sometimes criticize his unscrupulous methods and compare him to 20th-century authoritarians, but they usually recognize his genuine achievements.

Contributed By: Michael S. Cheilik

© 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Birth: 23 SEP 63 BC

Death: 19 AUG 14

Father: Caius IV Octavius

Mother: Atia\Atila of Rome

Marriage 1 Livia Drusilla b: ABT 58 BC

Married:

Marriage 2 Clodia Pulcher

Married:

Marriage 3 Scribonia of Rome

Married:

Children

Julia Augusta b: 39 BC

Forrás / Source:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp-fam&id=I6878


Augustus adopted Livia's son Tiberius who became his successor by promissing to let Germanicus to reign after him.

Early Career of Augustus

Augustus or Octavius (as he was called until the adoption by Caesar) was born 23 September, 63 BC. In 48 B.C. he was elected to the pontifical college. In 45 he followed Caesar to Spain. In 43 or 42 Caesar named Octavius Master of Horse. In March 44 B.C. when his great-uncle, Julius Caesar, died, Octavius discovered he had been adopted.

"Augustus" Gains Imperial Powers

Octavian styled himself "Caesar" and gathered troops (from Brundisium and along the road) as he went to Rome to have his adoption made official. There Antony prevented him from standing for office and blocked his adoption.

Through the oratory of Cicero, not only was Octavian's close to illegal command of troops legitimized, but also Antony was declared a public enemy. Octavian then marched on Rome with eight legions and was made consul in 43.

The Second Triumvirate soon formed (legally). Octavian gained control of Sardinia, Sicily, and Africa; Antony (no longer a public enemy), Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul; M. Aemilius Lepidus, Spain and Gallia Narbonensis. They revived proscriptions, an extra-legal means of padding their treasury, and pursued those who had killed Caesar. From then on Octavian acted to secure his troops and to concentrate the power in himself.

Octavian, Antony and Cleopatra

Relations deteriorated between Octavian and Antony in 32 B.C. when Antony renounced his wife Octavia in favor of Cleopatra. Augustus took Roman troops to fight the Roman traitor and defeated him decisively in a sea battle in the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium.

The New Role of Emperor of Rome

Over the next few decades the new powers of Augustus, the one leader of Rome had to be ironed out through two constitutional settlements and then the added title of Pater Patriae father of the country that was given him in 2 B.C.

Augustus' Longevity

Despite serious illnesses, Augustus managed to outlive various men he had been grooming as successor. Augustus died in 14 A.D. and was succeeded by his son-in-law Tiberius.

Augustus

Names of Augustus

63-44 B.C.: Gaius Octavius

44-27 B.C.: Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Octavian)

27 B.C. - 14 A.D.: Augustus


Born : 23 Sep 63 BC


Born : 23 Sep 63 BC


Augustus (63 bc- ad 14), first emperor of Rome (27 bc-ad 14), who restored unity and orderly government to the realm after nearly a century of civil wars. He presided over an era of peace, prosperity, and cultural achievement known as the Augustan Age.

Augustus was born Gaius Octavius and granted the title of Augustus by the Roman Senate, becoming the first emperor of Rome. The adopted son of Julius Caesar, he became consul after Caesar’s assassination. Augustus consolidated his power with the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. As emperor, he instituted social reforms and encouraged education, art and literature.

Originally named Gaius Octavius, Augustus was born in Rome on September 23, 63 bc; he was the grandnephew of Julius Caesar, whom he succeeded as ruler of the Roman state. Caesar was fond of the youth and had him raised to the College of Pontifices—a major Roman priesthood—at the age of 16. When Caesar was assassinated in 44 bc, Octavius was in Illyria, where he had been sent to serve; returning to Italy, he learned that he was Caesar’s adopted heir. He consequently took the name Gaius Julius Caesar, to which historians have added Octavianus; in English, the name is usually shortened to Octavian.

II THE SECOND TRIUMVIRATE

GREAT WORKS OF LITERATURE

Tacitus: From The Annals of Imperial Rome

Cornelius Tacitus was a Roman historian who drew upon fact, rhetoric, psychology, and art in crafting The Annals of Imperial Rome. Only part of the original work has survived, but it represents the most complete literary record available about Rome from just before the death of Augustus, the first emperor, in AD 14 to the death of Nero, the fifth emperor, in AD 68. Although Tacitus claimed to be scrupulously impartial, he was easily roused to indignation, as demonstrated by these passages dealing with Augustus’s reign and Nero’s conspiracy to murder his mother, Agrippina.

Caesar’s assassination plunged Rome into turmoil. Octavian, determined to avenge his adoptive father and secure his own place, vied with Mark Antony, Caesar’s ambitious colleague, for power and honor. After some preliminary skirmishes, both political and military, during which Antony was driven across the Alps while Octavian was made senator and then consul, Octavian recognized the necessity of making peace with his rival. In late 43 bc, therefore, the two—joined by Antony’s ally, the general Marcus Aemilius Lepidus—met and formed the Second Triumvirate to rule the Roman domains. The alliance was sealed by a massive proscription, in which 300 senators and 200 knights—the triumvirs’ enemies—were slain. Among those killed was the aging orator Cicero.

Octavian and Antony next took the field against the leaders of Caesar’s assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus, both of whom committed suicide in 42 bc, after being defeated at Philippi in Macedonia. By 40 bc the triumvirs had divided the Roman world among them. Octavian was in control of most of the western provinces and Antony of the eastern ones; Lepidus was given Africa. Although Antony and Octavian clashed over the control of Italy, they patched up their differences, and Octavian gave Antony his sister, Octavia, in marriage. In 36 BC, Sextus Pompeius, son of Pompey the Great and the last major enemy of the triumvirs, was eliminated. Octavian then forced Lepidus from power, while Antony was in the east fighting the Parthians.

The triumvirate was now breaking up. Having sent Octavia back to Rome, Antony soon married Cleopatra, whom Caesar had installed as queen of Egypt, and recognized Caesarion, her son by Caesar, as her coruler. This undercut Octavian’s position as the only son of Caesar, and war was inevitable. He defeated Antony and Cleopatra’s forces in a naval battle off Actium in 31 bc; they both killed themselves the following year. Caesarion was murdered. In 29 bc Octavian returned to Rome in triumph, at age 34 the sole master of the Roman world.

III THE FIRST CITIZEN

In 27 bc the Roman Senate gave Octavian the title Augustus (“consecrated,” or “holy”) by which he is known, and his reign has often been considered a dyarchy because of the Senate’s participation in it. The Senate bestowed on him a host of other titles and powers that had been held by many different officials in the Republic. In 36 bc he had been given the inviolability of the plebeian tribune, and in 30 bc he also received the tribunician power, which gave him the veto and control over the assemblies. In addition, the Senate granted him ultimate authority in the provinces; together with the consulship, which he held 13 times during his reign and which gave him control of Rome and Italy, this vested in him paramount authority throughout the empire. After the death of Lepidus he also became Pontifex Maximus (“chief priest”) with the consequent control of religion. The summation of his powers was the title princeps, or first citizen. Despite all this, and the title imperator (from which “emperor” is derived), Augustus was always careful not to take on the trappings of monarchy. In fact, he made much of the claim that he was restoring the Roman Republic.

A patron of the arts, Augustus was a friend of the poets Ovid, Horace, and Virgil, as well as the historian Livy. His love for architectural splendor was summed up in his boast that he “had found Rome brick and left it marble.” As a straitlaced adherent of Roman virtues in times of growing permissiveness, he attempted moral legislation that included sumptuary and marriage laws. In the economic field, he tried to restore agriculture in Italy.

Augustus’ third wife was Livia Drusilla, who had two sons, Tiberius and Drusus Germanicus, by a previous marriage. Augustus, in turn, had a daughter, Julia, by a previous wife. His heirs, however, died, one after another, leaving his stepson and son-in-law, Tiberius, to succeed him when he died at Nola on August 19, ad 14.

IV EVALUATION

Both ancient and modern writers have been ambivalent about Augustus. Some have condemned his ruthless quest for power, especially his part in the proscription at the time of the triumvirate. Others, even such a Republican diehard as Tacitus, have admitted his good points as a ruler. Modern scholars sometimes criticize his unscrupulous methods and compare him to 20th-century authoritarians, but they usually recognize his genuine achievements.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus


1st Emperor of the Roman Empire: 16 Jan 27 BC to 19 Aug 14 AD . Adopted son of Julius Caesar Dictator of the Roman Republic.
Augustus adoptivfar er Julius Caesar
Born : 23 Sep 63 BC

===================================================

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narona Narona Narona was the name of the ancient Roman city that was located in the Neretva valley in present day Croatia. It was part of the Roman province of Dalmatia. The city was established after the Illyrian Wars [1] and was located on the alluvial planes, between present day city of Metković and village of Vid. It was founded as Hellenistic emporium in c. 3rd/2nd century B.C., first time mentioned in the chapter 24 of the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax. Narona became the major Roman stronghold in the 1st century BC [2]. In the 6th century AD it came under Byzantine rule. The settlement ceased to be in 7th century after the arrival of Slavic tribes in the region.

In 1995 a Roman temple building was discovered, which had been dedicated by the governor Dolabella and contained statues of the emperors Claudius and Vespasian, as well as two of Augustus and his wife Livia. The statues had been vandalized in the 4th century: they were lying on the floor and their heads had been broken off. The heads of Vespasian and one of the Livias had been acquired in the surrounding area by Arthur Evans in 1878. The heads were reunited with their bodies, and the shrine's statues. The famous Roman statues have toured major European museums.


Född: 63-09-23 f.Kr.

Död: 14-08-19 Nola

Noteringar

Räknas som det gamla Roms första kejsare.

Han hette egentligen Gaius Octavianus och var son till Atia, Julius Caesars systerdotter. Strax före sin död adopterade Julius Caesar Octavianus som sin son. Efter mordet på Caesar 44 f.Kr. hämnades Octavianus adoptivfadern och tog upp kampen om hans arv, vilket hade omhändertagits av Marcus Antonius. Trots detta, bildade Antonius och Octavianus, tillsammans med Lepidus det andra triumviratet och bekämpade framgångsrikt Caesars mördare.

Med kejsar Augustus fick Rom en ny start efter det kaos som rått i riket under många år. Mycket av detta åstadkom han genom att effektivisera administrationen och införa en sund penningpolitik. Utrikespolitiskt utvidgade Augustus Romarriket genom erövringar. När dessa väl var gjorda, förvaltade han erövringarna genom att åstadkomma och upprätthålla fred med rikets forna fiender, vilket ytterligare ökade Roms välstånd.

Genom samtliga dessa gärningar, lade Augustus grunden till den tvåhundraåriga freden - Pax romana - (romerska freden) vilket blev Romarrikets höjdpunkt socialt, militärt och inte minst kulturellt.

Historisk källor, vilka i fall med romerska kejsare måste bedömas som mycket tillförlitliga, visar att kejsar Augustus regerade mellan 27 f Kr och 14 e Kr.

Vid den tiden [när Jesus föddes] utfärdade kejsar Augustus en förordning om att hela världen skulle skattskrivas" Luk. 2:1

43 f. Kr. Konsuln för år 44 Antonius och Caesars adoptivson Octavianus samt Lépidus bildar det andra trium­viratet. Cicero, republikan, förklaras fredlös och dödas under flykt från Rom.

42 f. Kr. Slaget vid Filippi i Nordgrekland. Caesarmördarna Brutus och Cassius besegras.

31 f. Kr. Öppen brytning mellan Octavianus och Antonius. I slaget vid Actium på Greklands västkust besegras Antonius.

27 f. Kr. Augustus principat. Detta år räknas som kejsardömets födelseår.

14 E.Kr. Död och begraves i Augustus mausoleum


        



Primer Emperador de Roma, goberno del 27 ac, hasta su muerte en el 14 dc, lo cual lo convierte en el emperador que gorberno durante mas tiempo, un total de 44 años. Nacio cerca del 23 de septiembre del 63 ac, con el nonmbre de Cayo Octaviano Turino, fue adoptado por el famoso dictador Romano Julio Cesar quien era su tio abuelo, y desde el 44 ac paso a llamarse Julio Cesar Octaviano. En el 27 ac, el Senado Romano le concedio usar el nombre de Augusto, y fue asi que finalmente se convirtio en Cayo Julio Cesar Augusto. Tras el asesinato de Julio Cesar en el 44, se convierte en su heredero, y junto a Marco Antonio y Lepido conforma el segundo triunvirato, el cual se romperia tras el suicidio de Marco Antonio, y el exilio de Lepido. Augusto restaura los principios de la Republica Romana, el poder se establecia en el Senado, con los años la estructura de gobierno evoluciono y la entidad republicana podria ser dirigida por una sola persona mediante el "principado", pero dicho titulo no fue considerado como un cargo similar a la dictadura Romana, y aunque la sociedad le propuso asumir dicho cargo, Augusto lo rechazo formalmente, sin embargo su poder economico, y conquistas le ganarian la lealtad de las legiones y el respeto del pueblo.


info from http://www.genealogy4u.com/genealogy/getperson.php?personID=I52731&tree=western2007

The Emperor Augustus 27 BC-AD 14

The first and perhaps greatest of the Roman emperors, Augustus ended a bloody civil war, ruled with wisdom and power, and united and kept peace in Rome for many years.

Augustus was born with the name "Octavian." Well educated in philosophy, rhetoric, and military skills as a boy, he was adopted by his uncle Julius Caesar and became his heir. When Caesar was assassinated, Octavian raised an army to claim his inheritance and avenge his uncle's murder. At the battle of Actium in 31 BC, he defeated the last of his opponents, Mark Anthony, and took control of Rome.

To legitimate his power, the Senate named him Imperium proconsulare maius infinitum in 23 BC, which gave him control over the provinces and the army. He saw taking control as the only way to sustain the empire. Even though it was a nominally a republic, he ran it as an autocracy. He acted in the name of the Senate, and the Senate reflected his will to keep people satisfied that the government was working together.

Augustus also kept the people satisfied with their leader and proud of Rome. He built temples to encourage and place importance in Roman religion. He was a patron of the arts, gladly spending money to improve the artwork of Rome, and encouraged the wealthy class to do the same. To improve the moral climate of the empire, Augustus tried to revive the traditional Roman religion. He also tried to fortify the traditional Roman family by established laws which punished adultery and required marriage and the remarriage of widows.

To more effectively govern the empire, he developed an imperial civil service. To more effectively govern the city of Rome, he divided it into 14 wards, and organized a bureaucracy to control them. The Urban cohorts were his police force for the wards, and either senators or Augustus himself served as ward leaders.

The military was probably the focal point of his leadership. He had a great military mind, and used his military strength well. He organized the military with himself at the head, and used it to control the frontier regions of the Roman empire as well as invade new countries. Among his claims made include Spain, Gaul, Egypt, and Armenia. He also signed a peace treaty with Parthia, showing he used wisdom as well as aggression.

Augustus died with honor, and was remembered well by his people. He gave Roman control to his stepson Tiberius for he had no other living male offspring. He was a great leader for the Roman empire. His wisdom and intelligence benefited the people of his empire, for he was a strong as well as fair ruler.

More info:

Gaius Octavianus was born on September 23, 63 B.C. His parents were Caius Octavianus, a praetor, and Atia, a niece of the great Julius Caesar by his sister Julia. At the age of four, his father died. In 53 B.C., at the age of twelve, he delivered his first funeral oration for his grandmother, Julia. At this same age, he began his first priesthood.

Caesar became fond of his great nephew. Octavian even celebrated a few of Caesar's triumphs with him in Rome. Octavius was never possessed strength, and when Caesar saw this weakness, he offered to give him military training at Apollonia, in Epirus. Here, he studied not only the arts of war, but philosophy. While at Apollonia at the age of eighteen, Caesar was assassinated.

Rise to Power

Caesar had willed the position of emperor to Octavian. Octavian traveled to Rome, where he had to deal with his rival, Marc Antony . Antony was Caesar's best friend and had decided that he wanted all of the power. Even though Octavian was willed the position of emperor, Antony still felt that it should have been his. The Senate, however, thought differently. They were anxious to snub the ambitious Antony, so they made Octavian a senator and asked for his aid in the wars that had begun as a result of Caesar's assassination. Also, Octavian befriended M. Tullius Cicero, a fierce foe of Antony. Tensions between Marc Antony and Octavian eventually erupted into open warfare. The decisive battle came in April of 43 B.C., when Octavian fought Antony at Mutina. Octavian won, and as a result, Octavian's troops demanded that he be given a consulship. The Senate reluctantly agreed and Gaius Octavian became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus.

Career

Even though Octavian had defeated Antony, there still was unrest within the city. In order to obtain peace and ensure that there would be no more fighting, Octavius formed the Second Triumvirate with Antony and Marcus Lepidus on November 27, 43 B.C. From this deal, Octavian assumed rule over Africa, Sicily, and Sardinia, leaving Antony control of the East. However, they did not come into power until they defeated the Liberators, the assassins of Julius Caesar, at Philippi in 42 B.C.

For political reasons, Octavian married Scribonia. She was a relative of Sextus Pompey, the son of Pompey the Great. Regardless of the importance of the marriage, Octavian eventually divorced Scribonia and married Livia Drusilla . He would live with her for the rest of his life. Meanwhile, Antony married Octavia, Octavian's sister. This move was supposed to help out the relationship between Octavian and Antony.

After the death of Caesar, Cleopatra fled from Rome and went back to Egypt. However, in 41 B.C., Antony summoned Cleopatra to Tarsus to see if she had aided in the conspiracy. According to Plutarch, she didn't just meet him, she seduced him:

"She came sailing up the river Cydnus in a ship with a golden

stern and outspread sails, while silver oars beat time to the music

of flutes, fifes, and harps. She lay under a canopy of gold cloth,

dressed as Venus in a picture, while beautiful boys like painted

cupids stood on each side and fanned her. Her maids were dressed

like sea nymphs and graces, and some were steering the rudder

while others worked the ropes. All manner of sweet perfumes

were wafted ashore." *

In 37 B.C., the Triumvirate signed the Treaty of Tarentum. According to its terms, Octavian took the West, Antony received the East, and Lepidus governed Africa. This would be the last treaty that the Second Triumvirate would sign. Soon thereafter, Antony divorced Octavia and ran off to Egypt to be with Cleopatra. This enraged Octavian. However, he could not chase Antony to Egypt because a pirate, Sextus Pompey, was threatening Rome.

Finally in 36 B.C., Marcus Agrippa, Octavian's skillful right-hand man, defeated Sextus Pompey at Naulochus. Now Octavian could deal with Antony. However, another problem arose: Lepidus, the third person in the Triumvirate, feared that he was going to lose all of his power, so he revolted. Octavian now had to suppress this revolt before confronting Antony. Octavian defeated Lepidus with no problem and took away his legions and sent him into exile in Circeii. Now, there were only two people in charge of the Roman Empire.

Octavian used his head, though, and decided that a war was not the answer. Antony returned to Rome and took the title of Imperator. He decided that the Empire's boundaries were most important, so he staged campaigns at Illyricum and Dalmatia (35-33 B.C.) and then proclaimed the boundaries to be safe. While this was happening, Agrippa began a beautification program, which gained a lot of popularity for Octavian.

In October of 32 B.C., the western provinces swore allegiance to Octavian. War seemed inevitable and everyone knew it. Octavian tried to lure Antony and his army to an area in southern Italy for a decisive battle. Fearing treachery, Antony left Italy and set up his headquarters at Actium, off the coast of Greece. Antony overlooked a spot near Actium where Octavian could land his ships, so Octavian decided to ferry his troops to Actium.

On the morning of September 2, 31 B.C., the battle of Actium began. Antony had over five hundred ships, including one of Cleopatra's squadrons. Nonetheless, a few of Octavian's smaller, faster ships defeated Antony's heavily armored, slow moving ships. Upon seeing this, Cleopatra turned her ships around and sailed off toward Egypt. When Antony saw this he left his troops in the heat of battle and chased a woman!

Before running off after Cleopatra, Antony had nineteen legions, twelve thousand horses, a huge navy, provinces with inexhaustible resources of treasure and manpower, and a capital in Alexandria that rivaled Rome in wealth and splendor. When he ran away, he lost all of this. Once he was gone, Octavian, with the TREMENDOUS help from his skillful advisor, Agrippa, defeated Antony's forces.

  • - Whether this was the exact time that Antony fell in love with Cleopatra VII is unknown, however, it is rather odd that she would be so alluring just to meet him upon his request!

Sole Rule of the Empire

After the battle of Actium in 31 B.C., Octavian had complete control of the empire. The wealth of Egypt flowed into his private treasury, and he was now undoubtedly the most powerful man in Rome. He had sixty legions at his command to control the empire. Once he obtained full authority, he held the consulship from 31-27 B.C. In 27 B.C. he gave up his powers to the Senate, saying that he would no longer be consul because his perpetual tenure of the office was causing offense and was keeping all of the other nobles out of the consulship. His adherents had been carefully briefed to say that Rome could not do without his services, and the people followed these cries and urged him to become dictator.

However, he said no. He declined because he knew that if he became dictator, the same thing could happen to him that happened to Caesar: he would have been killed. So, he gave up the dictatorship, but he remained consul and received special command, called imperium, of the most important provinces, which were Spain, Gaul, Syria, and a few others. He also remained the commander-in-chief of the Roman army. Moreover, the imperial provinces, which he did not directly govern, were governed by legates who were directly appointed by Octavian. He also received tribuneship for life and was allowed to sit between the two consuls and speak on matters of debate. These two privileges allowed him to wage war, make treaties, and regulate Rome's relations with dependent kings of states bordering the frontiers of the empire. Finally, he was given the name Augustus as an honor for so graciously "giving away his powers." Because of his previous actions and because of the positions that he had held in Rome, Augustus had complete authority. He took the name princeps, or "first citizen," and was the undisputed first citizen for forty-five consecutive years.

However, he demonstrated his political astuteness by refusing the dictatorship and the titles that came along with it. During his reign, Augustus had an extensive building program. He built things such as the Ara Pacis, Horologium, the Forum of Augustus, the Mausoleum of Augustus , the Theater of Marcelus, the Baths of Agrippa, and the Pantheon . He also made many repairs to existing buildings. There were a couple of statues that were made of him too, the most famous being the Prima Porta.* Augustus was completely dedicated to the beautification of Rome.

To further his power, he became pontifex maximus in 12 B.C. and was named pater patriae, or father or his country, in 2 B.C. The type of government that he had set up came to be known as principate, or "rule by the first citizen." While maintaining a Republican facade, he retained complete authority suntil he died in A.D. 14. His adopted son Tiberius took over his powers as emperor.

  • - The Prima Porta is a larger-than-life size statue. It portrays Augustus addressing his troops. He is in his middle years with a face that is grave and firm. The center of the breastplate has a scene depicting the return of the standards captured from Crassus and Antony by the Partheans. Above, under a figure representing the sky, is the sun in his chariot preceded by the dawn with the moon giving place to them. Below is Mother Earth with a cornucopia and two children, representing the prosperity that comes with peace. On either side are Augustus' two particular divine patrons, Apollo with his lyre and Diana on a stag. The Prima Porta is currently in the Vatican.

Räknas som det gamla Roms första kejsare. Han hette egentligen Gaius Octavianus och var son till Atia, Julius Caesars systerdotter. Strax före sin död adopterade Julius Caesar Octavianus som sin son. Efter mordet på Caesar 44 f.Kr. hämnades Octavianus adoptivfadern och tog upp kampen om hans arv, vilket hade omhändertagits av Marcus Antonius. Trots detta, bildade Antonius och Octavianus, tillsammans med Lepidus det andra triumviratet och bekämpade framgångsrikt Caesars mördare. Med kejsar Augustus fick Rom en ny start efter det kaos som rått i riket under många år. Mycket av detta åstadkom han genom att effektivisera administrationen och införa en sund penningpolitik. Utrikespolitiskt utvidgade Augustus Romarriket genom erövringar. När dessa väl var gjorda, förvaltade han erövringarna genom att åstadkomma och upprätthålla fred med rikets forna fiender, vilket ytterligare ökade Roms välstånd.

Genom samtliga dessa gärningar, lade Augustus grunden till den tvåhundraåriga freden - Pax romana - (romerska freden) vilket blev Romarrikets höjdpunkt socialt, militärt och inte minst kulturellt. Historisk källor, vilka i fall med romerska kejsare måste bedömas som mycket tillförlitliga, visar att kejsar Augustus regerade mellan 27 f Kr och 14 e Kr. Vid den tiden [när Jesus föddes] utfärdade kejsar Augustus en förordning om att hela världen skulle skattskrivas" Luk. 2:1

43 f. Kr. Konsuln för år 44 Antonius och Caesars adoptivson Octavianus samt Lépidus bildar det andra trium­viratet. Cicero, republikan, förklaras fredlös och dödas under flykt från Rom. 42 f. Kr. Slaget vid Filippi i Nordgrekland. Caesarmördarna Brutus och Cassius besegras. 31 f. Kr. Öppen brytning mellan Octavianus och Antonius. I slaget vid Actium på Greklands västkust besegras Antonius. 27 f. Kr. Augustus principat. Detta år räknas som kejsardömets födelseår. 14 E.Kr. Död och begraves i Augustus mausoleum


He was posthumously adopted by Julius Caesar in 44 BC

His Main Profile on Geni:

Augustus Roman-Emperor

-----------------------------------------------

Consort to

  1. Clodia Pulchra 43–40 BC
  2. Scribonia 40–38 BC
  3. Livia Drusilla 38 BC – AD 14

Offspring

  1. Julia the Elder;
  2. Gaius Caesar (adoptive);
  3. Lucius Caesar (adoptive);
  4. Tiberius (adoptive)

Notes from:

http://genealogy.richardremme.com/tng/getperson.php?personID=I111002&tree=tree01

Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus Augustus (63 BC to 14 AD) the first Roman emperor, the son of Gaius Octavius, senator and praetor, and Atia, Julius Caesar's niece. He became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus through adoption by Caesar in his will (44 BC), and later received the name Augustus, meaning sacred or venerable, in recognition of his services and position (27 BC).

    At the time of Caesar's assassination (March 44 BC), Augustus was a student at Apollonia in Illyricum, but returned at once to Italy to claim his inheritance. Marcus Antonius refused at first to surrender Caesar's property, but Augustus out-maneuvered him in the campaign of Mutina, gained the consulship, and carried out Caesar's will (43 BC).
    When Antony returned from Gaul with Lepidus, Augustus changed sides and joined them in forming a triumvirate. He obtained Africa, Sardinia and Sicily; Antony, Gaul; and Lepidus, Spain. Their power was soon made absolute by the massacre of their opponents in Italy, and by the victory at Philippi over the republicans under Brutus and Cassius (42 BC). Difficulties between Augustus and Antony, caused by Antony's wife Fulvia, were removed by her death and Antony's marriage to Octavia, sister of Augustus. The Roman world was divided again, Augustus taking the western half and Antony the eastern, while Lepidus had to be content with Africa. Augustus gradually built up his position in Italy and the west, eliminating the treat of Pompey's son, Sextus, in Sicily, and forcing Lepidus to retire from public life (36 BC). He ingratiated himself with the Roman people and misrepresented the actions of Antony in the east. At length, war was declared against Cleopatra, whom had joined in 37 BC, and by the naval victory in Actium (31 BC) Augustus became the sole ruler of the Roman world. Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide; Antony's son by Fulvia, and Caesarion (allegedly the son of Caesar and Cleopatra), were put to death. In 29 BC, after regulating affairs in Egypt, Greece, Syria, and Asia Minor, Augustus returned to Rome in triumph, and closing the temple in Janus, proclaimed universal peace. Henceforward, Augustus was in all but name the sole ruler of the Roman empire, though his rule had to be disguised in republican forms, and the search for an acceptable constitutional formula to clothe his autocracy took nearly a decade and several settlements (27, 23, 19 BC). At home and abroad his declared policy was one of national revival and restoration of traditional Roman values. He legislated to mould the fabric of Roman society and beautified the city of Rome; it was his proud boast that he had found the city built of brick and left it built of marble. Abroad, he pursued a policy of calculated imperial conquest, and vastly enlarged the territory of the Roman empire in central and northern Europe, though his policy had to be brought to a halt when disaster struck in his later years, with the revolt of Pannonia (6 AD) and the loss of three entire legions in Germany under Varus.
    His domestic life was clouded with setbacks and disasters, though he eventually achieved an acceptable succession with his stepson Tiberius, whom he adopted in 4 AD. A statesman of exceptional skill, he brought about the difficult transition from republic to empire and provided the Roman world with viable institutions and a lasting period of peace. Though not a charismatic figure, he had a gift for using the talents of others, both in public life and in the cultural sphere. Horace, Virgil, Ovid, Propertius, Tibullus, and Livy were the glories the Augustan Age, a name given in France to the reign of Louis XIV, in England to that of Queen Anne. Augustus' Autobiography is lost, but a record of his public achievements written by himself and originally inscribed on bronze pillars, in front of his Mausoleum in Rome--the Res Gestae Divi Augusti-- is extant in several copies in Greek and Latin from Asia Minor.

Augustus

Augustus (Latin: Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus;23 September 63 BC - 19 August 14 AD) was the founder of the Roman Empire and its first Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian Octavii family. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir. He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators.[note 4] The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart under the competing ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC.

After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward facade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, and the legislative assemblies. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis ("First Citizen of the State"). The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire.

The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace). The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and one year-long civil war over the imperial succession. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia; expanding possessions in Africa; expanding into Germania; and completing the conquest of Hispania.

Beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign.

Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75. He may have died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son (also stepson and former son-in-law) Tiberius.

Name


Augustus (/ɔːˈɡʌstəs/; Classical Latin: [awˈɡʊstʊs]) was known by many names throughout his life:

  • At birth, he was named Gaius Octavius after his biological father. Historians typically refer to him simply as Octavius (or Octavian) between his birth in 63 until his adoption by Julius Caesar in 44 BC (after Julius Caesar's death).
  • Upon his adoption, he took Caesar's name and became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus in accordance with Roman adoption naming standards. He quickly dropped "Octavianus" from his name, and his contemporaries typically referred to him as "Caesar" during this period; historians, however, refer to him as Octavian between 44 BC and 27 BC.
  • In 42 BC, Octavian began the Temple of Divus Iulius or Temple of the Comet Star[3] and added Divi Filius (Son of the Divine) to his name in order to strengthen his political ties to Caesar's former soldiers by following the deification of Caesar, becoming Gaius Julius Caesar Divi Filius.
  • In 38 BC, Octavian replaced his praenomen "Gaius" and nomen "Julius" with Imperator, the title by which troops hailed their leader after military success, officially becoming Imperator Caesar Divi Filius.
  • In 27 BC, following his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, the Roman Senate voted new titles for him, officially becoming Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus. It is the events of 27 BC from which he obtained his traditional name of Augustus, which historians use in reference to him from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

Early life


While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri, approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Rome, Augustus was born in the city of Rome on 23 September 63 BC. He was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his father's victory at Thurii over a rebellious band of slaves.

Due to the crowded nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his father's home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius only mentions his father's equestrian family briefly in his memoirs. His paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War. His grandfather had served in several local political offices. His father, also named Gaius Octavius, had been governor of Macedonia. His mother, Atia, was the niece of Julius Caesar.

In 59 BC, when he was four years old, his father died. His mother married a former governor of Syria, Lucius Marcius Philippus. Philippus claimed descent from Alexander the Great, and was elected consul in 56 BC. Philippus never had much of an interest in young Octavius. Because of this, Octavius was raised by his grandmother (and Julius Caesar's sister), Julia Caesaris.

In 52 or 51 BC, Julia Caesaris died. Octavius delivered the funeral oration for his grandmother. From this point, his mother and stepfather took a more active role in raising him. He donned the toga virilis four years later, and was elected to the College of Pontiffs in 47 BC. The following year he was put in charge of the Greek games that were staged in honor of the Temple of Venus Genetrix, built by Julius Caesar. According to Nicolaus of Damascus, Octavius wished to join Caesar's staff for his campaign in Africa, but gave way when his mother protested. In 46 BC, she consented for him to join Caesar in Hispania, where he planned to fight the forces of Pompey, Caesar's late enemy, but Octavius fell ill and was unable to travel.

When he had recovered, he sailed to the front, but was shipwrecked; after coming ashore with a handful of companions, he crossed hostile territory to Caesar's camp, which impressed his great-uncle considerably. Velleius Paterculus reports that after that time, Caesar allowed the young man to share his carriage. When back in Rome, Caesar deposited a new will with the Vestal Virgins, naming Octavius as the prime beneficiary.

Rise to power


Heir to Caesar

Octavius was studying and undergoing military training in Apollonia, Illyria, when Julius Caesar was killed on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC. He rejected the advice of some army officers to take refuge with the troops in Macedonia and sailed to Italy to ascertain whether he had any potential political fortunes or security. Caesar had no living legitimate children under Roman law, and so had adopted Octavius, his grand-nephew, making him his primary heir. Mark Antony later charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favours, though Suetonius describes Antony's accusation as political slander. After landing at Lupiae near Brundisium, Octavius learned the contents of Caesar's will, and only then did he decide to become Caesar's political heir as well as heir to two-thirds of his estate.

Upon his adoption, Octavius assumed his great-uncle's name Gaius Julius Caesar. Roman citizens adopted into a new family usually retained their old nomen in cognomen form (e.g., Octavianus for one who had been an Octavius, Aemilianus for one who had been an Aemilius, etc.). However, though some of his contemporaries did, there is no evidence that Octavius ever himself officially used the name Octavianus, as it would have made his modest origins too obvious. Historians usually refer to the new Caesar as Octavian during the time between his adoption and his assumption of the name Augustus in 27 BC in order to avoid confusing the dead dictator with his heir.

Octavian could not rely on his limited funds to make a successful entry into the upper echelons of the Roman political hierarchy. After a warm welcome by Caesar's soldiers at Brundisium, Octavian demanded a portion of the funds that were allotted by Caesar for the intended war against Parthia in the Middle East. This amounted to 700 million sesterces stored at Brundisium, the staging ground in Italy for military operations in the east.

A later senatorial investigation into the disappearance of the public funds took no action against Octavian, since he subsequently used that money to raise troops against the Senate's arch enemy Mark Antony. Octavian made another bold move in 44 BC when, without official permission, he appropriated the annual tribute that had been sent from Rome's Near Eastern province to Italy.

Octavian began to bolster his personal forces with Caesar's veteran legionaries and with troops designated for the Parthian war, gathering support by emphasizing his status as heir to Caesar. On his march to Rome through Italy, Octavian's presence and newly acquired funds attracted many, winning over Caesar's former veterans stationed in Campania. By June, he had gathered an army of 3,000 loyal veterans, paying each a salary of 500 denarii.

Growing tensions

Arriving in Rome on 6 May 44 BC, Octavian found consul Mark Antony, Caesar's former colleague, in an uneasy truce with the dictator's assassins. They had been granted a general amnesty on 17 March, yet Antony succeeded in driving most of them out of Rome. This was due to his "inflammatory" eulogy given at Caesar's funeral, mounting public opinion against the assassins.

Mark Antony was amassing political support, but Octavian still had opportunity to rival him as the leading member of the faction supporting Caesar. Mark Antony had lost the support of many Romans and supporters of Caesar when he initially opposed the motion to elevate Caesar to divine status. Octavian failed to persuade Antony to relinquish Caesar's money to him. During the summer, he managed to win support from Caesarian sympathizers, however, who saw the younger heir as the lesser evil and hoped to manipulate him, or to bear with him during their efforts to get rid of Antony.

Octavian began to make common cause with the Optimates, the former enemies of Caesar. In September, the leading Optimate orator Marcus Tullius Cicero began to attack Antony in a series of speeches portraying him as a threat to the Republican order. With opinion in Rome turning against him and his year of consular power nearing its end, Antony attempted to pass laws that would lend him control over Cisalpine Gaul, which had been assigned as part of his province, from Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, one of Caesar's assassins.

Octavian meanwhile built up a private army in Italy by recruiting Caesarian veterans and, on 28 November, he won over two of Antony's legions with the enticing offer of monetary gain. In the face of Octavian's large and capable force, Antony saw the danger of staying in Rome and, to the relief of the Senate, he fled to Cisalpine Gaul, which was to be handed to him on 1 January.

First conflict with Antony

Decimus Brutus refused to give up Cisalpine Gaul, so Antony besieged him at Mutina. Antony rejected the resolutions passed by the Senate to stop the violence, as the Senate had no army of its own to challenge him. This provided an opportunity for Octavian, who already was known to have armed forces. Cicero also defended Octavian against Antony's taunts about Octavian's lack of noble lineage and aping of Julius Caesar's name, stating "we have no more brilliant example of traditional piety among our youth."

At the urging of Cicero, the Senate inducted Octavian as senator on 1 January 43 BC, yet he also was given the power to vote alongside the former consuls. In addition, Octavian was granted propraetor imperium (commanding power) which legalized his command of troops, sending him to relieve the siege along with Hirtius and Pansa (the consuls for 43 BC). In April 43 BC, Antony's forces were defeated at the battles of Forum Gallorum and Mutina, forcing Antony to retreat to Transalpine Gaul. Both consuls were killed, however, leaving Octavian in sole command of their armies.

The senate heaped many more rewards on Decimus Brutus than on Octavian for defeating Antony, then attempted to give command of the consular legions to Decimus Brutus—yet Octavian decided not to cooperate. Instead, Octavian stayed in the Po Valley and refused to aid any further offensive against Antony. In July, an embassy of centurions sent by Octavian entered Rome and demanded that he receive the consulship left vacant by Hirtius and Pansa.

Octavian also demanded that the decree should be rescinded which declared Antony a public enemy. When this was refused, he marched on the city with eight legions. He encountered no military opposition in Rome, and on 19 August 43 BC was elected consul with his relative Quintus Pedius as co-consul. Meanwhile, Antony formed an alliance with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, another leading Caesarian.

Second Triumvirate Proscriptions

In a meeting near Bologna in October 43 BC, Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus formed a junta called the Second Triumvirate. This explicit arrogation of special powers lasting five years was then supported by law passed by the plebs, unlike the unofficial First Triumvirate formed by Pompey, Julius Caesar, and Marcus Licinius Crassus. The triumvirs then set in motion proscriptions in which 300 senators and 2,000 equites allegedly were branded as outlaws and deprived of their property and, for those who failed to escape, their lives.

The estimation that 300 senators were proscribed was presented by Appian, although his earlier contemporary Livy asserted that only 130 senators had been proscribed. This decree issued by the triumvirate was motivated in part by a need to raise money to pay the salaries of their troops for the upcoming conflict against Caesar's assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Rewards for their arrest gave incentive for Romans to capture those proscribed, while the assets and properties of those arrested were seized by the triumvirs.

Contemporary Roman historians provide conflicting reports as to which triumvir was more responsible for the proscriptions and killing. However, the sources agree that enacting the proscriptions was a means by all three factions to eliminate political enemies. Marcus Velleius Paterculus asserted that Octavian tried to avoid proscribing officials whereas Lepidus and Antony were to blame for initiating them. Cassius Dio defended Octavian as trying to spare as many as possible, whereas Antony and Lepidus, being older and involved in politics longer, had many more enemies to deal with.

This claim was rejected by Appian, who maintained that Octavian shared an equal interest with Lepidus and Antony in eradicating his enemies. Suetonius presented the case that Octavian, although reluctant at first to proscribe officials, nonetheless pursued his enemies with more rigor than the other triumvirs. Plutarch described the proscriptions as a ruthless and cutthroat swapping of friends and family among Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian. For example, Octavian allowed the proscription of his ally Cicero, Antony the proscription of his maternal uncle Lucius Julius Caesar (the consul of 64 BC), and Lepidus his brother Paullus.

Battle of Philippi and division of territory

On 1 January 42 BC, the Senate posthumously recognized Julius Caesar as a divinity of the Roman state, Divus Iulius. Octavian was able to further his cause by emphasizing the fact that he was Divi filius, "Son of God". Antony and Octavian then sent 28 legions by sea to face the armies of Brutus and Cassius, who had built their base of power in Greece. After two battles at Philippi in Macedonia in October 42, the Caesarian army was victorious and Brutus and Cassius committed suicide. Mark Antony later used the examples of these battles as a means to belittle Octavian, as both battles were decisively won with the use of Antony's forces. In addition to claiming responsibility for both victories, Antony also branded Octavian as a coward for handing over his direct military control to Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa instead.

After Philippi, a new territorial arrangement was made among the members of the Second Triumvirate. Gaul and the provinces of Hispania and Italia were placed in the hands of Octavian. Antony traveled east to Egypt where he allied himself with Queen Cleopatra VII, the former lover of Julius Caesar and mother of Caesar's infant son Caesarion. Lepidus was left with the province of Africa, stymied by Antony, who conceded Hispania to Octavian instead.

Octavian was left to decide where in Italy to settle the tens of thousands of veterans of the Macedonian campaign, whom the triumvirs had promised to discharge. The tens of thousands who had fought on the republican side with Brutus and Cassius could easily ally with a political opponent of Octavian if not appeased, and they also required land. There was no more government-controlled land to allot as settlements for their soldiers, so Octavian had to choose one of two options: alienating many Roman citizens by confiscating their land, or alienating many Roman soldiers who could mount a considerable opposition against him in the Roman heartland. Octavian chose the former. There were as many as eighteen Roman towns affected by the new settlements, with entire populations driven out or at least given partial evictions.

Rebellion and marriage alliances

There was widespread dissatisfaction with Octavian over these settlements of his soldiers, and this encouraged many to rally at the side of Lucius Antonius, who was brother of Mark Antony and supported by a majority in the Senate. Meanwhile, Octavian asked for a divorce from Clodia Pulchra, the daughter of Fulvia (Mark Antony's wife) and her first husband Publius Clodius Pulcher. He returned Clodia to her mother, claiming that their marriage had never been consummated. Fulvia decided to take action. Together with Lucius Antonius, she raised an army in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian. Lucius and Fulvia took a political and martial gamble in opposing Octavian, however, since the Roman army still depended on the triumvirs for their salaries. Lucius and his allies ended up in a defensive siege at Perusia (modern Perugia), where Octavian forced them into surrender in early 40 BC.

Lucius and his army were spared, due to his kinship with Antony, the strongman of the East, while Fulvia was exiled to Sicyon. Octavian showed no mercy, however, for the mass of allies loyal to Lucius; on 15 March, the anniversary of Julius Caesar's assassination, he had 300 Roman senators and equestrians executed for allying with Lucius. Perusia also was pillaged and burned as a warning for others. This bloody event sullied Octavian's reputation and was criticized by many, such as Augustan poet Sextus Propertius.

Sextus Pompeius was the son of First Triumvir Pompey and still a renegade general following Julius Caesar's victory over his father. He was established in Sicily and Sardinia as part of an agreement reached with the Second Triumvirate in 39 BC. Both Antony and Octavian were vying for an alliance with Pompeius, who was a member of the republican party, ironically, not the Caesarian faction. Octavian succeeded in a temporary alliance in 40 BC when he married Scribonia, a daughter of Lucius Scribonius Libo who was a follower of Sextus Pompeius as well as his father-in-law. Scribonia gave birth to Octavian's only natural child, Julia, who was born the same day that he divorced her to marry Livia Drusilla, little more than a year after their marriage.

While in Egypt, Antony had been engaged in an affair with Cleopatra and had fathered three children with her. Aware of his deteriorating relationship with Octavian, Antony left Cleopatra; he sailed to Italy in 40 BC with a large force to oppose Octavian, laying siege to Brundisium. This new conflict proved untenable for both Octavian and Antony, however. Their centurions, who had become important figures politically, refused to fight due to their Caesarian cause, while the legions under their command followed suit. Meanwhile, in Sicyon, Antony's wife Fulvia died of a sudden illness while Antony was en route to meet her. Fulvia's death and the mutiny of their centurions allowed the two remaining triumvirs to effect a reconciliation.

In the autumn of 40, Octavian and Antony approved the Treaty of Brundisium, by which Lepidus would remain in Africa, Antony in the East, Octavian in the West. The Italian peninsula was left open to all for the recruitment of soldiers, but in reality, this provision was useless for Antony in the East. To further cement relations of alliance with Mark Antony, Octavian gave his sister, Octavia Minor, in marriage to Antony in late 40 BC. During their marriage, Octavia gave birth to two daughters (known as Antonia Major and Antonia Minor).

War with Pompeius

Sextus Pompeius threatened Octavian in Italy by denying shipments of grain through the Mediterranean to the peninsula. Pompeius' own son was put in charge as naval commander in the effort to cause widespread famine in Italy. Pompeius' control over the sea prompted him to take on the name Neptuni filius, "son of Neptune". A temporary peace agreement was reached in 39 BC with the treaty of Misenum; the blockade on Italy was lifted once Octavian granted Pompeius Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, and the Peloponnese, and ensured him a future position as consul for 35 BC.

The territorial agreement between the triumvirate and Sextus Pompeius began to crumble once Octavian divorced Scribonia and married Livia on 17 January 38 BC. One of Pompeius' naval commanders betrayed him and handed over Corsica and Sardinia to Octavian. Octavian lacked the resources to confront Pompeius alone, however, so an agreement was reached with the Second Triumvirate's extension for another five-year period beginning in 37 BC.

In supporting Octavian, Antony expected to gain support for his own campaign against Parthia, desiring to avenge Rome's defeat at Carrhae in 53 BC. In an agreement reached at Tarentum, Antony provided 120 ships for Octavian to use against Pompeius, while Octavian was to send 20,000 legionaries to Antony for use against Parthia. Octavian sent only a tenth of those promised, however, which Antony viewed as an intentional provocation.

Octavian and Lepidus launched a joint operation against Sextus in Sicily in 36 BC. Despite setbacks for Octavian, the naval fleet of Sextus Pompeius was almost entirely destroyed on 3 September by general Agrippa at the naval Battle of Naulochus. Sextus fled to the east with his remaining forces, where he was captured and executed in Miletus by one of Antony's generals the following year. As Lepidus and Octavian accepted the surrender of Pompeius' troops, Lepidus attempted to claim Sicily for himself, ordering Octavian to leave. Lepidus' troops deserted him, however, and defected to Octavian since they were weary of fighting and were enticed by Octavian's promises of money.

Lepidus surrendered to Octavian and was permitted to retain the office of pontifex maximus (head of the college of priests), but was ejected from the Triumvirate, his public career at an end, and effectively was exiled to a villa at Cape Circei in Italy. The Roman dominions were now divided between Octavian in the West and Antony in the East. Octavian ensured Rome's citizens of their rights to property in order to maintain peace and stability in his portion of the Empire. This time, he settled his discharged soldiers outside of Italy, while also returning 30,000 slaves to their former Roman owners—slaves who had fled to join Pompeius' army and navy. Octavian had the Senate grant him, his wife, and his sister tribunal immunity, or sacrosanctitas, in order to ensure his own safety and that of Livia and Octavia once he returned to Rome.

War with Antony

Meanwhile, Antony's campaign turned disastrous against Parthia, tarnishing his image as a leader, and the mere 2,000 legionaries sent by Octavian to Antony were hardly enough to replenish his forces. On the other hand, Cleopatra could restore his army to full strength; he already was engaged in a romantic affair with her, so he decided to send Octavia back to Rome. Octavian used this to spread propaganda implying that Antony was becoming less than Roman because he rejected a legitimate Roman spouse for an "Oriental paramour". In 36 BC, Octavian used a political ploy to make himself look less autocratic and Antony more the villain by proclaiming that the civil wars were coming to an end, and that he would step down as triumvir—if only Antony would do the same. Antony refused.

Roman troops captured the Kingdom of Armenia in 34 BC, and Antony made his son Alexander Helios the ruler of Armenia. He also awarded the title "Queen of Kings" to Cleopatra, acts that Octavian used to convince the Roman Senate that Antony had ambitions to diminish the preeminence of Rome. Octavian became consul once again on 1 January 33 BC, and he opened the following session in the Senate with a vehement attack on Antony's grants of titles and territories to his relatives and to his queen.

The breach between Antony and Octavian prompted a large portion of the Senators, as well as both of that year's consuls, to leave Rome and defect to Antony. However, Octavian received two key deserters from Antony in the autumn of 32 BC: Munatius Plancus and Marcus Titius. These defectors gave Octavian the information that he needed to confirm with the Senate all the accusations that he made against Antony.

Octavian forcibly entered the temple of the Vestal Virgins and seized Antony's secret will, which he promptly publicized. The will would have given away Roman-conquered territories as kingdoms for his sons to rule, and designated Alexandria as the site for a tomb for him and his queen. In late 32 BC, the Senate officially revoked Antony's powers as consul and declared war on Cleopatra's regime in Egypt.

In early 31 BC, Antony and Cleopatra were temporarily stationed in Greece when Octavian gained a preliminary victory: the navy successfully ferried troops across the Adriatic Sea under the command of Agrippa. Agrippa cut off Antony and Cleopatra's main force from their supply routes at sea, while Octavian landed on the mainland opposite the island of Corcyra (modern Corfu) and marched south. Trapped on land and sea, deserters of Antony's army fled to Octavian's side daily while Octavian's forces were comfortable enough to make preparations.

Antony's fleet sailed through the bay of Actium on the western coast of Greece in a desperate attempt to break free of the naval blockade. It was there that Antony's fleet faced the much larger fleet of smaller, more maneuverable ships under commanders Agrippa and Gaius Sosius in the battle of Actium on 2 September 31 BC. Antony and his remaining forces were spared only due to a last-ditch effort by Cleopatra's fleet that had been waiting nearby.

Octavian pursued them and defeated their forces in Alexandria on 1 August 30 BC—after which Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. Antony fell on his own sword and was taken by his soldiers back to Alexandria where he died in Cleopatra's arms. Cleopatra died soon after, reputedly by the venomous bite of an asp or by poison. Octavian had exploited his position as Caesar's heir to further his own political career, and he was well aware of the dangers in allowing another person to do so the same. He, therefore, followed the advice of Arius Didymus that "two Caesars are one too many", ordering Caesarion to be killed (Julius Caesar's son by Cleopatra), while sparing Cleopatra's children by Antony, with the exception of Antony's older son.

Octavian had previously shown little mercy to surrendered enemies and acted in ways that had proven unpopular with the Roman people, yet he was given credit for pardoning many of his opponents after the Battle of Actium.

Change to Augustus


After Actium and the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra, Octavian was in a position to rule the entire Republic under an unofficial principate — but he had to achieve this through incremental power gains. He did so by courting the Senate and the people while upholding the republican traditions of Rome, appearing that he was not aspiring to dictatorship or monarchy. Marching into Rome, Octavian and Marcus Agrippa were elected as dual consuls by the Senate.

Years of civil war had left Rome in a state of near lawlessness, but the Republic was not prepared to accept the control of Octavian as a despot. At the same time, Octavian could not simply give up his authority without risking further civil wars among the Roman generals and, even if he desired no position of authority whatsoever, his position demanded that he look to the well-being of the city of Rome and the Roman provinces. Octavian's aims from this point forward were to return Rome to a state of stability, traditional legality, and civility by lifting the overt political pressure imposed on the courts of law and ensuring free elections—in name at least.

First settlement

In 27 BC, Octavian made a show of returning full power to the Roman Senate and relinquishing his control of the Roman provinces and their armies. Under his consulship, however, the Senate had little power in initiating legislation by introducing bills for senatorial debate. Octavian was no longer in direct control of the provinces and their armies, but he retained the loyalty of active duty soldiers and veterans alike. The careers of many clients and adherents depended on his patronage, as his financial power was unrivaled in the Roman Republic. Historian Werner Eck states:

The sum of his power derived first of all from various powers of office delegated to him by the Senate and people, secondly from his immense private fortune, and thirdly from numerous patron-client relationships he established with individuals and groups throughout the Empire. All of them taken together formed the basis of his auctoritas, which he himself emphasized as the foundation of his political actions.

To a large extent, the public were aware of the vast financial resources that Augustus commanded. He failed to encourage enough senators to finance the building and maintenance of networks of roads in Italy in 20 BC, but he undertook direct responsibility for them. This was publicized on the Roman currency issued in 16 BC, after he donated vast amounts of money to the aerarium Saturni, the public treasury.

According to H. H. Scullard, however, Augustus's power was based on the exercise of "a predominant military power and ... the ultimate sanction of his authority was force, however much the fact was disguised."

The Senate proposed to Octavian, the victor of Rome's civil wars, that he once again assume command of the provinces. The Senate's proposal was a ratification of Octavian's extra-constitutional power. Through the Senate, Octavian was able to continue the appearance of a still-functional constitution. Feigning reluctance, he accepted a ten-year responsibility of overseeing provinces that were considered chaotic.

The provinces ceded to him for that ten-year period comprised much of the conquered Roman world, including all of Hispania and Gaul, Syria, Cilicia, Cyprus, and Egypt. Moreover, command of these provinces provided Octavian with control over the majority of Rome's legions.

While Octavian acted as consul in Rome, he dispatched senators to the provinces under his command as his representatives to manage provincial affairs and ensure that his orders were carried out. The provinces not under Octavian's control were overseen by governors chosen by the Roman Senate. Octavian became the most powerful political figure in the city of Rome and in most of its provinces, but he did not have sole monopoly on political and martial power.

The Senate still controlled North Africa, an important regional producer of grain, as well as Illyria and Macedonia, two martially strategic regions with several legions. However, the Senate had control of only five or six legions distributed among three senatorial proconsuls, compared to the twenty legions under the control of Augustus, and their control of these regions did not amount to any political or military challenge to Octavian.

The Senate's control over some of the Roman provinces helped maintain a republican façade for the autocratic Principate. Also, Octavian's control of entire provinces followed Republican-era precedents for the objective of securing peace and creating stability, in which such prominent Romans as Pompey had been granted similar military powers in times of crisis and instability.

On 16 January 27 BC the Senate gave Octavian the new titles of Augustus and Princeps. Augustus is from the Latin word Augere (meaning to increase) and can be translated as "the illustrious one". It was a title of religious authority rather than political authority. According to Roman religious beliefs, the title symbolized a stamp of authority over humanity—and in fact nature—that went beyond any constitutional definition of his status. After the harsh methods employed in consolidating his control, the change in name served to demarcate his benign reign as Augustus from his reign of terror as Octavian.

His new title of Augustus was also more favorable than Romulus, the previous one which he styled for himself in reference to the story of Romulus and Remus (founders of Rome), which symbolized a second founding of Rome. The title of Romulus was associated too strongly with notions of monarchy and kingship, an image that Octavian tried to avoid. Princeps comes from the Latin phrase primum caput, "the first head", originally meaning the oldest or most distinguished senator whose name would appear first on the senatorial roster. In the case of Augustus, however, it became an almost regnal title for a leader who was first in charge. Princeps had also been a title under the Republic for those who had served the state well; for example, Pompey had held the title.

Augustus also styled himself as Imperator Caesar divi filius, "Commander Caesar son of the deified one". With this title, he boasted his familial link to deified Julius Caesar, and the use of Imperator signified a permanent link to the Roman tradition of victory. The word Caesar was merely a cognomen for one branch of the Julian family, yet Augustus transformed Caesar into a new family line that began with him.

Augustus was granted the right to hang the corona civica above his door, the "civic crown" made from oak, and to have laurels drape his doorposts. This crown was usually held above the head of a Roman general during a triumph, with the individual holding the crown charged to continually repeat to the general "memento mori", or "Remember that you are mortal". Additionally, laurel wreaths were important in several state ceremonies, and crowns of laurel were rewarded to champions of athletic, racing, and dramatic contests. Thus, both the laurel and the oak were integral symbols of Roman religion and statecraft; placing them on Augustus' doorposts was tantamount to declaring his home the capital.

However, Augustus renounced flaunting insignia of power such as holding a scepter, wearing a diadem, or wearing the golden crown and purple toga of his predecessor Julius Caesar. If he refused to symbolize his power by donning and bearing these items on his person, the Senate nonetheless awarded him with a golden shield displayed in the meeting hall of the Curia, bearing the inscription virtus, pietas, clementia, iustitia—"valor, piety, clemency, and justice."

Second settlement

By 23 BC, some of the un-Republican implications were becoming apparent concerning the settlement of 27 BC. Augustus' policy of holding of an annual consulate drew attention to his dominance over the Roman political system, at the same time cutting in half the opportunities for others to achieve what was still purported to be the head of the Roman state. Further, he was causing political problems by desiring to have his nephew Marcus Claudius Marcellus follow in his footsteps and eventually assume the Principate in his turn, alienating his three biggest supporters – Agrippa, Maecenas, and Livia. Feeling pressure from his own core group of adherents, Augustus turned to the Senate for help.

He appointed noted Republican Calpurnius Piso for co-consul in 23 BC, after his choice Aulus Terentius Varro Murena was executed as part of the Marcus Primus Affair, in an attempt to bolster his support there, especially with the Republicans. (Murena had fought against Julius Caesar and supported Cassius and Brutus.

In the late spring Augustus suffered a severe illness, and on his supposed deathbed made arrangements that would ensure the continuation of the Principate in some form, while at the same time put into doubt the senators' suspicions of his anti-republicanism. Augustus prepared to hand down his signet ring to his favored general Agrippa. However, Augustus handed over to his co-consul Piso all of his official documents, an account of public finances, and authority over listed troops in the provinces while Augustus' supposedly favored nephew Marcellus came away empty-handed. This was a surprise to many who believed Augustus would have named an heir to his position as an unofficial emperor.

Augustus bestowed only properties and possessions to his designated heirs, as an obvious system of institutionalized imperial inheritance would have provoked resistance and hostility among the republican-minded Romans fearful of monarchy. With regards to the Principate, it was obvious to Augustus that Marcellus was not ready to take on his position; nonetheless, by giving his signet ring to Agrippa, it was Augustus' intent to signal to the legions that Agrippa was to be his successor, and that no matter what the constitutional rules were, they would continue to obey Agrippa.

Soon after his bout of illness subsided, Augustus gave up his annual consulship. The only other times Augustus would serve as consul would be in the years 5 and 2 BC, both times to introduce his grandsons into public life. This was a clever ploy by Augustus; his ceasing to perennially be one of two annual consuls allowed aspiring senators a better chance to fill that position, while at the same time Augustus could exercise wider patronage within the senatorial class. Although Augustus had resigned as consul, he desired to retain his consular imperium not just in his provinces but throughout the empire. This desire, along with the Marcus Primus Affair, led to a second compromise between him and the Senate known as the Second Settlement.

Primary reasons for the Second settlement

The primary reasons for the Second Settlement were as follows. First, after Augustus relinquished the annual consulship, he was no longer in an official position to rule the state, yet his dominant position remained unchanged over his Roman, 'imperial' provinces where he was still a proconsul. When he annually held the office of consul, he had the power to intervene with the affairs of the other provincial proconsuls appointed by the Senate throughout the empire, when he deemed necessary. When he relinquished his annual consulship, he legally lost this power because his proconsular powers applied only to his imperial provinces. Augustus wanted to keep this power.

A second problem later arose showing the need for the Second Settlement in what became known as the "Marcus Primus Affair". In late 24 or early 23 BC, charges were brought against Marcus Primus, the former proconsul (governor) of Macedonia, for waging a war without prior approval of the Senate on the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace, whose king was a Roman ally. He was defended by Lucius Lucinius Varro Murena, who told the trial that his client had received specific instructions from Augustus, ordering him to attack the client state. Later, Primus testified that the orders came from the recently deceased Marcellus. Such orders, had they been given, would have been considered a breach of the Senate's prerogative under the Constitutional settlement of 27 BC and its aftermath — i.e., before Augustus was granted imperium proconsulare maius — as Macedonia was a Senatorial province under the Senate's jurisdiction, not an imperial province under the authority of Augustus. Such an action would have ripped away the veneer of Republican restoration as promoted by Augustus, and exposed his fraud of merely being the first citizen, a first among equals. Even worse, the involvement of Marcellus provided some measure of proof that Augustus's policy was to have the youth take his place as Princeps, instituting a form of monarchy – accusations that had already played out.

The situation was so serious that Augustus himself appeared at the trial, even though he had not been called as a witness. Under oath, Augustus declared that he gave no such order. Murena disbelieved Augustus's testimony and resented his attempt to subvert the trial by using his auctoritas. He rudely demanded to know why Augustus had turned up to a trial to which he had not been called; Augustus replied that he came in the public interest. Although Primus was found guilty, some jurors voted to acquit, meaning that not everybody believed Augustus's testimony, an insult to the 'August One'.

The Second Constitutional Settlement was completed in part to allay confusion and formalize Augustus' legal authority to intervene in Senatorial provinces. The Senate granted Augustus a form of general imperium proconsulare, or proconsular imperium (power) that applied throughout the empire, not solely to his provinces. Moreover, the Senate augmented Augustus' proconsular imperium into imperium proconsulare maius, or proconsular imperium applicable throughout the empire that was more (maius) or greater than that held by the other proconsuls. This in effect gave Augustus constitutional power superior to all other proconsuls in the empire. Augustus stayed in Rome during the renewal process and provided veterans with lavish donations to gain their support, thereby ensuring that his status of proconsular imperium maius was renewed in 13 BC.

Additional powers

During the second settlement, Augustus was also granted the power of a tribune (tribunicia potestas) for life, though not the official title of tribune. For some years, Augustus had been awarded tribunicia sacrosanctitas, or the immunity from physical attack given to a Tribune of the Plebeians. Now he decided to assume the full powers of the magistracy in perpetuity. Legally, it was closed to patricians, a status that Augustus had acquired some years earlier when adopted by Julius Caesar. This power allowed him to convene the Senate and people at will and lay business before them, to veto the actions of either the Assembly or the Senate, to preside over elections, and to speak first at any meeting. Also included in Augustus' tribunician authority were powers usually reserved for the Roman censor; these included the right to supervise public morals and scrutinize laws to ensure that they were in the public interest, as well as the ability to hold a census and determine the membership of the Senate.

With the powers of a censor, Augustus appealed to virtues of Roman patriotism by banning all attire but the classic toga while entering the Forum. There was no precedent within the Roman system for combining the powers of the tribune and the censor into a single position, nor was Augustus ever elected to the office of censor. Julius Caesar had been granted similar powers, wherein he was charged with supervising the morals of the state. However, this position did not extend to the censor's ability to hold a census and determine the Senate's roster. The office of the tribunus plebis began to lose its prestige due to Augustus' amassing of tribunal powers, so he revived its importance by making it a mandatory appointment for any plebeian desiring the praetorship.

Augustus was granted sole imperium within the city of Rome itself, in addition to being granted proconsular imperium maius and tribunician authority for life. Traditionally, proconsuls (Roman province governors) lost their proconsular "imperium" when they crossed the Pomerium – the sacred boundary of Rome – and entered the city. In these situations, Augustus would have power as part of his tribunician authority but his constitutional imperium within the Pomerium would be less than that of a serving consul. That would mean that, when he was in the city, he might not be the constitutional magistrate with the most authority. Thanks to his prestige or auctoritas, his wishes would usually be obeyed, but there might be some difficulty. To fill this power vacuum, the Senate voted that Augustus's imperium proconsulare maius (superior proconsular power) should not lapse when he was inside the city walls. All armed forces in the city had formerly been under the control of the urban praetors and consuls, but this situation now placed them under the sole authority of Augustus.

In addition, the credit was given to Augustus for each subsequent Roman military victory after this time, because the majority of Rome's armies were stationed in imperial provinces commanded by Augustus through the legatus who were deputies of the princeps in the provinces. Moreover, if a battle was fought in a Senatorial province, Augustus' proconsular imperium maius allowed him to take command of (or credit for) any major military victory. This meant that Augustus was the only individual able to receive a triumph, a tradition that began with Romulus, Rome's first King and first triumphant general. Lucius Cornelius Balbus was the last man outside Augustus' family to receive this award in 19 BC. (Balbus was the nephew of Julius Caesar's great agent, who was governor of Africa and conqueror of the Garamantes.) Tiberius, Augustus' eldest son by marriage to Livia, was the only other general to receive a triumph — for victories in Germania in 7 BC.

Conspiracy

Many of the political subtleties of the Second Settlement seem to have evaded the comprehension of the Plebeian class, who were Augustus' greatest supporters and clientele. This caused them to insist upon Augustus' participation in imperial affairs from time to time. Augustus failed to stand for election as consul in 22 BC, and fears arose once again that he was being forced from power by the aristocratic Senate. In 22, 21, and 19 BC, the people rioted in response, and only allowed a single consul to be elected for each of those years, ostensibly to leave the other position open for Augustus. Likewise, there was a food shortage in Rome in 22 BC which sparked panic, while many urban plebs called for Augustus to take on dictatorial powers to personally oversee the crisis. After a theatrical display of refusal before the Senate, Augustus finally accepted authority over Rome's grain supply "by virtue of his proconsular imperium", and ended the crisis almost immediately. It was not until AD 8 that a food crisis of this sort prompted Augustus to establish a praefectus annonae, a permanent prefect who was in charge of procuring food supplies for Rome.

Nevertheless, there were some who were concerned by the expansion of powers granted to Augustus by the Second Settlement, and this came to a head with the apparent conspiracy of Fannius Caepio. Some time prior to 1 September 22 BC, a certain Castricius provided Augustus with information about a conspiracy led by Fannius Caepio. Murena was named among the conspirators, the outspoken Consul who defended Primus in the Marcus Primus Affair. The conspirators were tried in absentia with Tiberius acting as prosecutor; the jury found them guilty, but it was not a unanimous verdict. All the accused were sentenced to death for treason and executed as soon as they were captured—without ever giving testimony in their defence. Augustus ensured that the facade of Republican government continued with an effective cover-up of the events.

In 19 BC, the Senate granted Augustus a form of 'general consular imperium', which was probably 'imperium consulare maius', like the proconsular powers that he received in 23 BC. Like his tribune authority, the consular powers were another instance of gaining power from offices that he did not actually hold. In addition, Augustus was allowed to wear the consul's insignia in public and before the Senate, as well as to sit in the symbolic chair between the two consuls and hold the fasces, an emblem of consular authority. This seems to have assuaged the populace; regardless of whether or not Augustus was a consul, the importance was that he both appeared as one before the people and could exercise consular power if necessary. On 6 March 12 BC, after the death of Lepidus, he additionally took up the position of pontifex maximus, the high priest of the college of the Pontiffs, the most important position in Roman religion. On 5 February 2 BC, Augustus was also given the title pater patriae, or "father of the country".

Stability and staying power

A final reason for the Second Settlement was to give the Principate constitutional stability and staying power in case something happened to Princeps Augustus. His illness of early 23 BC and the Caepio conspiracy showed that the regime's existence hung by the thin thread of the life of one man, Augustus himself, who suffered from several severe and dangerous illnesses throughout his life. If he were to die from natural causes or fall victim to assassination, Rome could be subjected to another round of civil war. The memories of Pharsalus, the Ides of March, the proscriptions, Philippi, and Actium, barely twenty-five years distant, were still vivid in the minds of many citizens. Proconsular imperium was conferred upon Agrippa for five years, similar to Augustus' power, in order to accomplish this constitutional stability. The exact nature of the grant is uncertain but it probably covered Augustus' imperial provinces, east and west, perhaps lacking authority over the provinces of the Senate. That came later, as did the jealously guarded tribunicia potestas.

Augustus' powers were now complete. In fact, he dated his 'reign' from the completion of the Second Settlement, July 1, 23 BC. Almost as importantly, the Principate now had constitutional stability. Later Roman Emperors were generally limited to the powers and titles originally granted to Augustus, though often newly appointed Emperors would decline one or more of the honorifics given to Augustus in order to display humility. Just as often, as their reign progressed, Emperors would appropriate all of the titles, regardless of whether they had been granted them by the Senate. Later Emperors took to wearing the civic crown, consular insignia, and the purple robes of a Triumphant general (toga picta), which became the imperial insignia well into the Byzantine era.

War and expansion


Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus chose Imperator ("victorious commander") to be his first name, since he wanted to make an emphatically clear connection between himself and the notion of victory. By the year 13, Augustus boasted 21 occasions where his troops proclaimed "imperator" as his title after a successful battle. Almost the entire fourth chapter in his publicly released memoirs of achievements known as the Res Gestae was devoted to his military victories and honors.

Augustus also promoted the ideal of a superior Roman civilization with a task of ruling the world (to the extent to which the Romans knew it), a sentiment embodied in words that the contemporary poet Virgil attributes to a legendary ancestor of Augustus: tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento—"Roman, remember by your strength to rule the Earth's peoples!" The impulse for expansionism apparently was prominent among all classes at Rome, and it is accorded divine sanction by Virgil's Jupiter in Book 1 of the Aeneid, where Jupiter promises Rome imperium sine fine, "sovereignty without end".

By the end of his reign, the armies of Augustus had conquered northern Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal) and the Alpine regions of Raetia and Noricum (modern Switzerland, Bavaria, Austria, Slovenia), Illyricum and Pannonia (modern Albania, Croatia, Hungary, Serbia, etc.), and had extended the borders of the Africa Province to the east and south.

Judea was added to the province of Syria when Augustus deposed Herod Archelaus, successor to client king Herod the Great (73–4 BC). Syria (like Egypt after Antony) was governed by a high prefect of the equestrian class rather than by a proconsul or legate of Augustus.

Again, no military effort was needed in 25 BC when Galatia (modern Turkey) was converted to a Roman province shortly after Amyntas of Galatia was killed by an avenging widow of a slain prince from Homonada. The rebellious tribes of Asturias and Cantabria in modern-day Spain were finally quelled in 19 BC, and the territory fell under the provinces of Hispania and Lusit

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Augustus, 1st Roman Emperor's Timeline

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September 23, -63
Rome, Italia, Roman Republic
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- 14
Age 18
Family Group
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Age 19
Roman Republic
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November 16, -42
Age 21
Fondi
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October 30, -39
Age 24
Rome, Roma, Italy
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Age 29
Roman Republic