Adils "The Great" Ottarsson

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Aðils / Athils / Eadgils "Athils" Ottarsson, King in Uppsala

Norwegian: Aldis "den mektige" Ottarson, Konge i Uppsala
Also Known As: "Adhel", "Athislus", "Athisl", "Aðísl at Uppsölum", "Adillus", "Aðils", "Adils", "Eadgils", "Athils", "Den mäktige", "of Värmland", "av Uppsala", "Adil", "Adils /Ottarson/", "/Athils/", "Vysheslav / Вышеслав", "King of Sweden", "Athils/Eadils"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Uppsala, Sweden
Death: Died in Uppsala, Uppland, Sweden
Cause of death: Han dog genom fall från hästen vid en blotfest omkring 575 och därefter höglades han i Uppsala.
Place of Burial: Burial Mound At Uppsala, Sweden
Immediate Family:

Son of Ottar "Vendelcrow" Egilsson, King in Uppsala Sweden and NN Mother of Adils and Eanmund
Husband of Yrsa Helgasdottir Denemarken, van and Princess Yrsa Ottarsson
Father of Eystein Adilsson Uppsala, van; Ingjald "de Boze" de Varmland; Eysteinn Adilsson, king in Uppsala and Queen Skuld Adilsdatter of Sweden
Brother of Eanmund Othereson, Prince of Sweden

Occupation: King in Uppsala, Småkung. Upsala, Konge i Uppsala (Sverige), Uppsala Konge ca.550, Konge, Kung av Uppsala och Sverige, Unknown GEDCOM info: Konge i Svitjod 460 - 505 Unknown GEDCOM info: 0, King of Svitjod 460-505, King Svitjord 460-505, King of Uppland
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Adils "The Great" Ottarsson

http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adils

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eadgils Eadgils, Adils, Aðils, Adillus, Aðísl at Uppsölum, Athisl, Athislus, Adhel was a semi-legendary king of Sweden, who is estimated to have lived during the 6th century.[1]

Beowulf and Old Norse sources present him as the son of Ohthere and as belonging to the ruling Yngling (Scylfing) clan. These sources also deal with his war against Onela, which he won with foreign assistance: in Beowulf he gained the throne of Sweden by defeating his uncle Onela with Geatish help, and in two Scandinavian sources (Skáldskaparmál and Skjöldunga saga), he is also helped to defeat Onela in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern, but with Danish help. However, Scandinavian sources mostly deal with his interaction with the legendary Danish king Hrólfr Kraki (Hroðulf), and Eadgils is mostly presented in a negative light as a rich and greedy king.

Name

The Norse forms are based an older (Proto-Norse) *Aþagīslaz (where *aþa is short for *aþala meaning "noble, foremost" (German 'adel') and *gīslaz means "arrow shaft"[2]). However, the Anglo-Saxon form is not etymologically identical. The A-S form would have been *Ædgils, but Eadgils (Proto-Norse *Auða-gīslaz, *auða- meaning "wealth") was the only corresponding name used by the Anglo-Saxons[3]. The name Aðils was so exceedingly rare even in Scandinavia that among almost 6000 Scandinavian runic inscriptions, it is only attested in three runestones (U 35, DR 221 and Br Olsen;215)[4].

Beowulf

The Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf, which was composed sometime between the 8th century and the 11th century, is beside the Norwegian skaldic poem Ynglingatal (9th century) the oldest source that mentions Eadgils.

It is implied in Beowulf that the Swedish king Ohthere died and was succeeded by his younger brother Onela, because Ohthere's two sons, Eadgils and Eanmund had to seek refuge with Heardred, Hygelac's son and successor as king of the Geats[5]. This caused Onela to attack the Geats, and Heardred was killed. Onela returned home and Beowulf succeeded Heardred as the king of Geatland. In the following lines, Onela is referred to as the Scylfings helmet and the son of Ongenþeow, whereas Eadgils and Eanmund are referred to as the sons of Ohtere:

   ...Hyne wræc-mæcgas
   ofer sæ sohtan, suna Ohteres:
   hæfdon hy forhealden helm Scylfinga,
   þone selestan sæ-cyninga,
   þara þe in Swio-rice sinc brytnade,
   mærne þeoden. Him þæt to mearce wearð;
   he þær orfeorme feorh-wunde hleat
   sweordes swengum, sunu Hygelaces;
   and him eft gewat Ongenþiowes bearn
   hames niosan, syððan Heardred læg;
   let þone brego-stol Biowulf healdan,
   Geatum wealdan: þæt wæs god cyning.[6]
   ...Wandering exiles
   sought him o'er seas, the sons of Ohtere,
   who had spurned the sway of the Scylfings'-helmet,
   the bravest and best that broke the rings,
   in Swedish land, of the sea-kings' line,
   haughty hero. Hence Heardred's end.
   For shelter he gave them, sword-death came,
   the blade's fell blow, to bairn of Hygelac;
   but the son of Ongentheow sought again
   house and home when Heardred fell,
   leaving Beowulf lord of Geats
   and gift-seat's master. – A good king he![7]

Later in the poem, it tells that during the battle, Eadgils' brother Eanmund was killed by Onela's champion Weohstan, Wiglaf's father. In the following lines, Eanmund also appears as the son of Ohtere and as a brother's child:

   ...hond rond gefeng,
   geolwe linde, gomel swyrd geteah,
   þæt wæs mid eldum Eanmundes laf,
   suna Ohteres, þam æt sæcce wearð
   wracu wine-leasum Weohstanes bana
   meces ecgum, and his magum ætbær
   brun-fagne helm, hringde byrnan,
   eald sweord eotonisc, þæt him Onela forgeaf,
   his gædelinges guð-gewædu,
   fyrd-searo fuslic: no ymbe þa fæhðe spræc,
   þeah þe he his broðor bearn abredwade.[8]
   ...The linden yellow,
   his shield, he seized; the old sword he drew: --
   as heirloom of Eanmund earth-dwellers knew it,
   who was slain by the sword-edge, son of Ohtere,
   friendless exile, erst in fray
   killed by Weohstan, who won for his kin
   brown-bright helmet, breastplate ringed,
   old sword of Eotens, Onela's gift,
   weeds of war of the warrior-thane,
   battle-gear brave: though a brother's child
   had been felled, the feud was unfelt by Onela.[7]

Eadgils, however, survived and later, Beowulf helped Eadgils with weapons and warriors. Eadgils won the war and killed his uncle Onela. In the following lines, Eadgils is mentioned by name and as the son of Ohtere, whereas Onela is referred to as the king:

   Se þæs leod-hryres lean gemunde
   uferan dogrum, Eadgilse wearð
   fea-sceaftum feond. Folce gestepte
   ofer sæ side sunu Ohteres
   wigum and wæpnum: he gewræc syððan
   cealdum cear-siðum, cyning ealdre bineat.[9]
   The fall of his lord he was fain to requite
   in after days; and to Eadgils he proved
   friend to the friendless, and forces sent
   over the sea to the son of Ohtere,
   weapons and warriors: well repaid he
   those care-paths cold[10] when the king he slew.[7]

This event also appears in the Scandinavian sources Skáldskaparmál and Skjöldunga saga, which will be treated below.

Norwegian and Icelandic sources

The allusive manner in which Eadgils and his relatives are referred to in Beowulf suggests that the scop expected his audience to have sufficient background knowledge about Eadgils, Ohthere and Eanmund to understand the references. Likewise, in the roughly contemporary Norwegian Ynglingatal, Eadgils (Aðils) is called Onela's enemy (Ála[11] dólgr), which likewise suggests that the conflict was familiar to the skald and his audience.

The tradition of Eadgils and Onela resurfaces in several Old Norse works in prose and poetry, and another matter also appears: the animosity between Eadgils and Hrólfr Kraki, who corresponds to Hroðulf in Beowulf.

Ynglingatal

The skaldic poem Ynglingatal is a poetic recital of the line of the Yngling clan. They are also called Skilfingar in the poem (in stanza 19), a name that appears in its Anglo-Saxon form Scylfingas in Beowulf when referring to Eadgils' clan. It is presented as composed by Þjóðólfr of Hvinir by Snorri Sturluson in the Ynglinga saga.

Although its age has been debated, most scholars hold to date from the 9th century[12]. It survives in two versions: one is found in the Norwegian historical work Historia Norvegiæ in Latin, and the other one in Snorri Sturluson's Ynglinga saga, a part of his Heimskringla. It presents Aðils (Eadgils) as the successor of Óttarr (Ohthere) and the predecessor of Eysteinn. The stanza on Aðils refers to his accidental death when he fell from his horse:

   Þat frá ek enn,
   at Aðils fjörvi
   vitta vettr
   um viða skyldi,
   ok dáðgjarn
   af drasils bógum
   Freys áttungr
   falla skyldi.
   Ok við aur
   œgir hjarna
   bragnings burs
   um blandinn varð;
   ok dáðsæll
   deyja skyldi
   Ála dólgr
   at Uppsölum.[13]
   Witch-demons, I have heard men say,
   Have taken Adils' life away.
   The son of kings of Frey's great race,
   First in the fray, the fight, the chase,
   Fell from his steed – his clotted brains
   Lie mixed with mire on Upsal's plains.
   Such death (grim Fate has willed it so)
   Has struck down Ole's [Onela's] deadly foe.[14]

Note that Eadgils' animosity with Onela also appears in Ynglingatal as Aðils is referred to as Ole's deadly foe (Ála dólgr). This animosity is treated in more detail in the Skjöldunga saga and Skáldskaparmál, which follow.

The Historia Norwegiæ, which is a terse summary in Latin of Ynglingatal, only states that Eadgils fell from his horse and died during the sacrifices. In this Latin translation, the Dísir are rendered as the Roman goddess Diana:

Cujus filius Adils vel Athisl ante ædem Dianæ, dum idolorum, sacrificia fugeret, equo lapsus exspiravit. Hic genuit Eustein, [...][15]

His son Adils gave up the ghost after falling from his horse before the temple of Diana, while he was performing the sacrifices made to idols. He became sire to Øystein, [...][16] The same information is found the Swedish Chronicle from the mid-15th century, which calls him Adhel. It is probably based on the Ynglingatal tradition and says that he fell from his horse and died while he worshipped his god.

Íslendingabók

In Íslendingabók from the early 12th century, Eadgils only appears as a name in the listing of the kings of the Yngling dynasty as Aðísl at Uppsala. The reason what that the author, Ari Þorgilsson, traced his ancestry from Eadgils, and its line of succession is the same as that of Ynglingatal.

   i Yngvi Tyrkjakonungr. ii Njörðr Svíakonungr. iii Freyr. iiii Fjölnir. sá er dó at Friðfróða. v Svegðir. vi Vanlandi. vii Visburr. viii Dómaldr. ix Dómarr. x Dyggvi. xi Dagr. xii Alrekr. xiii Agni. xiiii Yngvi. xv Jörundr. xvi Aun inn gamli. xvii Egill Vendilkráka. xviii Óttarr. xix Aðísl at Uppsölum. xx Eysteinn. xxi Yngvarr. xxii Braut-Önundr. xxiii Ingjaldr inn illráði. xxiiii Óláfr trételgja...[17]

As can be seen it agrees with the earlier Ynglingatal and Beowulf in presenting Eadgils as the successor of Óttarr (Ohthere).

Skjöldunga saga

The Skjöldunga saga was a Norse saga which is believed to have been written in the period 1180-1200. The original version is lost, but it survives in a Latin summary by Arngrímur Jónsson.

Arngrímur's summary relates that Eadgils, called Adillus, married Yrsa with whom he had the daughter Scullda. Some years later, the Danish king Helgo (Halga) attacked Sweden and captured Yrsa, not knowing that she was his own daughter, the result of Helgo raping Olava, the queen of the Saxons. Helgo raped Yrsa as well and took her back to Denmark, where she bore the son Rolfo (Hroðulf). After a few years, Yrsa's mother, queen Olava, came to visit her and told her that Helgo was her own father. In horror, Yrsa returned to Adillus, leaving her son behind. Helgo died when Rolfo was eight years old, and Rolfo succeeded him, and ruled together with his uncle Roas (Hroðgar). Not much later, Roas was killed by his half-brothers Rærecus and Frodo, whereupon Rolfo became the sole king of Denmark.

In Sweden, Yrsa and Adillus married Scullda to the king of Öland, Hiørvardus/Hiorvardus/Hevardus (Heoroweard). As her half-brother Rolfo was not consulted about this marriage, he was infuriated and he attacked Öland and made Hiørvardus and his kingdom tributary to Denmark.

After some time, there was animosity between king Adillus of Sweden and the Norwegian king Ale of Oppland. They decided to fight on the ice of Lake Vänern. Adillus won and took his helmet, chainmail and horse. Adillus won because he had requested Rolfo's aid against king Ale and Rolfo had sent him his berserkers. However, Adillus refused to pay the expected tribute for the help and so Rolfo came to Uppsala to claim his recompense. After surviving some traps, Rolfo fled with Adillus' gold, helped by his mother Yrsa. Seeing that the Swedish king and his men pursued him, Rolfo "sowed" the gold on the Fyrisvellir, so that the king's men would pick up the gold, instead of continuing the pursuit.

As can be seen, the Skjöldunga saga retells the story of Eadgils fighting his uncle Onela, but in this version Onela is no longer Eadgils' uncle, but a Norwegian king of Oppland. This change is generally considered to be a late confusion between the core province of the Swedes, Uppland, and its Norwegian namesake Oppland[18]. Whereas, Beowulf leaves the Danish court with the suspicion that Hroðulf (Rolfo Krage, Hrólfr Kraki) might claim the Danish throne for himself at the death of Hroðgar (Roas, Hróarr), it is exactly what he does in Scandinavian tradition. A notable difference is that, in Beowulf, Eadgils receives the help of the Geatish king Beowulf against Onela, whereas it is the Danish king Hroðulf who provides help in Scandinavian tradition.

Skáldskaparmál

Skáldskaparmál was written by Snorri Sturluson, c. 1220, in order to teach the ancient art of kennings to aspiring skalds. It presents Eadgils, called Aðils, in two sections.

The first section is the Kálfsvísa of which Snorri quotes small parts[19]:

   Ali Hrafni,
   es til íss riðu,
   en annarr austr
   und Aðilsi
   grár hvarfaði,
   geiri undaðr.[20]
   Áli rode Hrafn,
   They who rode onto the ice:
   But another, southward,
   Under Adils,
   A gray one, wandered,
   Wounded with the spear.[21]

This is a reference to the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern, during which Eadgils slew Onela and which also appears in the Skjöldunga saga. There is also second stanza, where Eadgils is riding his horse Slöngvir, apparently a combination famous enough to be mentioned.

   Björn reið Blakki,
   en Bíarr Kerti,
   Atli Glaumi,
   en Aðils Sløngvi,
   Högni Hölkvi,
   en Haraldr Fölkvi,
   Gunnarr Gota,
   en Grana Sigurðr.[22]	
   Björn rode Blakkr,
   And Bjárr rode Kertr;
   Atli rode Glaumr,
   And Adils on Slöngvir;
   Högni on Hölvir,
   And Haraldr on Fölkvir;
   Gunnarr rode Goti,
   And Sigurdr, Grani.[23]

Eadgils' horse Slöngvir also appears in Snorri's later work, the Ynglinga saga.

Snorri also presents the story of Aðils and Hrólfr Kraki (Hroðulf) in order to explain why gold was known by the kenning Kraki's seed. Snorri relates that Aðils was in war with a Norwegian king named Áli (Onela), and they fought in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern. Aðils was married to Yrsa, the mother of Hrólfr and so sent an embassy to Hrólfr asking him for help against Áli. He would receive three valuable gifts in recompense. Hrólfr was involved in a war against the Saxons and could not come in person but sent his twelve berserkers, including Böðvarr Bjarki. Áli died in the war, and Aðils took Áli's helmet Battle-boar and his horse Raven. The berserkers demanded three pounds of gold each in pay, and they demanded to choose the gifts that Aðils had promised Hrólfr, that is the two pieces of armour that nothing could pierce: the helmet battle-boar and the mailcoat Finn's heritage. They also wanted the famous ring Svíagris. Aðils considered the pay outrageous and refused.

When Hrólfr heard that Aðils refused to pay, he set off to Uppsala. They brought the ships to the river Fyris and rode directly to the Swedish king's hall at Uppsala with his twelve berserkers. Yrsa welcomed them and led them to their lodgings. Fires were prepared for them and they were given drinks. However, so much wood was heaped on the fires that the clothes started to burn away from their clothes. Hrólfr and his men had enough and threw the courtiers on the fire. Yrsa arrived and gave them a horn full of gold, the ring Svíagris and asked them to flee. As they rode over the Fyrisvellir, they saw Aðils and his men pursuing them. The fleeing men threw the gold on the plain so that the pursuers would stop to collect it. Aðils, however, continued the chase on his horse Slöngvir. Hrólfr then threw Svíagris and saw how Aðils stooped down to pick up the ring with his spear. Hrólfr exclaimed that he had seen the mightiest man in Sweden bend his back.

Ynglinga saga

The Ynglinga saga was written c. 1225 by Snorri Sturluson and he used Skjöldunga saga as a source when he told the story of Aðils[24]. Snorri relates that Aðils succeeded his father Óttar (Ohthere) and betook himself to pillage the Saxons, whose king was Geirþjófr and queen Alof the Great. The king and consort were not at home, and so Aðils and his men plundered their residence at ease driving cattle and captives down to the ships. One of the captives was a remarkably beautiful girl named Yrsa, and Snorri writes that everyone was soon impressed with the well-mannered, pretty and intelligent girl. Most impressed was Aðils who made her his queen.

Some years later, Helgi (Halga), who ruled in Lejre, attacked Sweden and captured Yrsa. As he did not know that Yrsa was his own daughter, he raped her, and took her back to Lejre, where she bore him the son Hrólfr kraki. When the boy was three years of age, Yrsa's mother, queen Alof of Saxony, came to visit her and told her that her husband Helgi was her own father. Horrified, Yrsa returned to Aðils, leaving her son behind, and stayed in Sweden for the rest of her life. When Hrólfr was eight years old, Helgi died during a war expedition and Hrólf was proclaimed king.

Aðils waged a war against king Áli (Onela of Oppland, and they fought in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern. Áli died in this battle. Snorri writes that there was a long account of this battle in the Skjöldunga Saga, which also contained an account of how Hrólf came to Uppsala and sowed gold on the Fyrisvellir.

Snorri also relates that Aðils loved good horses and had the best horses in his days (interestingly, the contemporary Gothic scholar Jordanes noted that the Swedes were famed for their good horses). One horse was named Slöngvi and another one Raven, which he had taken from Áli. From this horse he had bred a horse also named Raven which he sent to king Godgest of Hålogaland, but Godgest could not manage it and fell from it and died, in Omd on the island of Andøya. Aðils himself died in a similar way at the Dísablót. Aðils was riding around the Disa shrine when Raven stumbled and fell, and the king was thrown forward and hit his skull on a stone. The Swedes called him a great king and buried him at Uppsala. He was succeeded by Eysteinn.

Hrólfr Kraki's saga

Hrólfr Kraki's saga is believed to have been written in the period c. 1230 - c. 1450[25]. Helgi and Yrsa lived happily together as husband and wife, not knowing that Yrsa was Helgi's daughter. Yrsa's mother queen Oluf travelled to Denmark to tell her daughter the truth. Yrsa was shocked and although Helgi wanted their relationship to remain as it was, Yrsa insisted on leaving him to live alone. She was later taken by the Swedish king Aðils as his queen, which made Helgi even more unhappy. Helgi went to Uppsala to fetch her, but was killed by Aðils in battle. In Lejre, he was succeeded by his son Hrólfr Kraki.

After some time, Böðvarr Bjarki encouraged Hrólfr to go Uppsala to claim the gold that Aðils had taken from Helgi after the battle. Hrólfr departed with 120 men and his twelve beserkers and during a rest they were tested by a farmer called Hrani (Odin in disguise) who advised Hrólfr to send back all his troops but his twelve beserkers, as numbers would not help him against Aðils.

They were at first well received, but in his hall, Aðils did his best to stop Hrólfr with pit traps and hidden warriors who attacked the Danes. Finally Aðils entertained them but put them to a test where they had to endure immense heat by a fire. Hrólfr and his beserkers finally had enough and threw the courtiers, who were feeding the fire, into the fire and lept at Aðils. The Swedish king disappeared through a hollow tree trunk that stood in his hall.

Yrsa admonished Aðils for wanting to kill her son, and went to meet the Danes. She gave them a man named Vöggr to entertain them. This Vöggr remarked that Hrólfr had the thin face of a pole ladder, a Kraki. Happy with his new cognomen Hrólfr gave Vöggr a golden ring, and Vöggr swore to avenge Hrólfr if anyone should kill him. Hrólfr and his company were then attacked by a troll in the shape of a boar in the service of Aðils, but Hrólfr's dog Gram killed it.

They then found out that Aðils had set the hall on fire, and so they broke out of the hall, only to find themselves surrounded by heavily armed warriors in the street. After a fight, king Aðils retreated to summon reinforcements.

Yrsa then provided her son with a silver drinking horn filled with gold and jewels and a famous ring, Svíagris. Then she gave Hrólf and his men twelve of the Swedish king's best horses, and all the armour and provisions they needed.

Hrólfr took a fond farewell of his mother and departed over the Fyrisvellir. When they saw Aðils and his warriors in pursuit, they spread the gold behind themselves. Aðils saw his precious Svíagris on the ground and stooped to pick it up with his spear, whereupon Hrólf cut his back with his sword and screamed in triumph that he had bent the back of the most powerful man in Sweden.

[edit] Danish sources

[edit] Chronicon Lethrense and Annales Lundenses

The Chronicon Lethrense (and the included Annales Lundenses) tell that when the Danish kings Helghe (Halga) and Ro (Hroðgar) were dead, the Swedish king Hakon/Athisl[26] forced the Daner to accept a dog as king. The dog king was succeeded by Rolf Krage (Hrólfr Kraki).

Gesta Danorum

The Gesta Danorum (book 2), by Saxo Grammaticus, tells that Helgo (Halga) repelled a Swedish invasion, killed the Swedish king Hothbrodd, and made the Swedes pay tribute. However, he committed suicide due to shame for his incestuous relationship with Urse (Yrsa), and his son Roluo (Hrólfr Kraki) succeeded him.

The new king of Sweden, Athislus, thought that the tribute to the Daner might be smaller if he married the Danish king's mother and so took Urse for a queen. However, after some time, Urse was so upset with the Swedish king's greediness that she thought out a ruse to run away from the king and at the same time liberate him of his wealth. She encited Athislus to rebell against Roluo, and arranged so that Roluo would be invited and promised a wealth in gifts.

At the banquet Roluo was at first not recognised by his mother, but when their fondness was commented on by Athisl, the Swedish king and Roluo made a wager where Roluo would prove his endurance. Roluo was placed in front of a fire that exposed him to such heat that finally a maiden could suffer the sight no more and extinguished the fire. Roluo was greatly recompensed by Athisl for his endurance.

When the banquet had lasted for three days, Urse and Roluo escaped from Uppsala, early in the morning in carriages where they had put all the Swedish king's treasure. In order to lessen their burden, and to occupy any pursuing warriors they spread gold in their path (later in the work, this is referred to as "sowing the Fyrisvellir"), although there was a rumour that she only spread gilded copper. When Athislus, who was pursuing the escapers saw that a precious ring was lying on the ground, he bent down to pick it up. Roluo was pleased to see the king of Sweden bent down, and escaped in the ships with his mother.

Roluo later defeated Athislus and gave Sweden to young man named Hiartuar (Heoroweard), who also married Roluo's sister Skulde. When Athislus learnt that Hiartuar and Skulde had killed Roluo, he celebrated the occasion, but he drank so much that he killed himself.

Archaeology

According to Snorri Sturluson, Eadgils was buried in one of the royal mounds of Gamla Uppsala, and he is believed to be buried in Adils' Mound (also known as the Western mound or Thor's mound) one of the largest mounds at Uppsala. An excavation in this mound showed that a man was buried there c. 575 on a bear skin with two dogs and rich grave offerings. There were luxurious weapons and other objects, both domestic and imported, show that the buried man was very powerful. These remains include a Frankish sword adorned with gold and garnets and a board game with Roman pawns of ivory. He was dressed in a costly suit made of Frankish cloth with golden threads, and he wore a belt with a costly buckle. There were four cameos from the Middle East which were probably part of a casket. The finds show the distant contacts of the House of Yngling in the 6th century.

Snorri's account that Adils had the best horses of his days, and Jordanes' account that the Swedes of the 6th century were famed for their horses find support in archaeology. This time was the beginning of the Vendel Age, a time characterised by the appearance of stirrups and a powerful mounted warrior elite in Sweden, which rich graves in for instance Valsgärde and Vendel.


http://www.uscousins.com/reports/ps05/ps05_162.html
32. OF KING ADILS' MARRIAGE.

Adils was the name of King Ottar's son and successor. He was a long time king, became very rich, and went also for several summers on viking expeditions. On one of these he came to Saxland with his troops. There a king was reigning called Geirthjof, and his wife was called Alof the Great; but nothing is told of their children. The king was not at home, and Adils and his men ran up to the king's house and plundered it, while others drove a herd of cattle down to the strand. The herd was attended by slave-people, churls, and girls, and they took all of them together. Among them was a remarkably beautiful girl called Yrsa. Adils returned home with this plunder. Yrsa was not one of the slave girls, and it was soon observed that she was intelligent, spoke well, and in all respects was well behaved. All people thought well of her, and particularly the king; and at last it came to this that the king celebrated his wedding with her, and Yrsa became queen of Sweden, and was considered an excellent woman.

33. OF KING ADILS' DEATH.

King Halfdan's son Helge ruled at that time over Leidre. He came to Sweden with so great an army, that King Adils saw no other way than to fly at once. King Helge landed with his army, plundered, and made a great booty. He took Queen Yrsa prisoner, carried her with him to Leidre, took her to wife, and had a son by her called Rolf Krake. When Rolf was three years old, Queen Alof came to Denmark, and told Queen Yrsa that her husband, King Helge, was her own father, and that she, Alof, was her mother. Thereupon Yrsa went back to Sweden to King Adils, and was queen there as long as she lived. King Helge fell in a war expedition; and Rolf Krake, who was then eight years old, was taken to be king in Leidre. King Adils had many disputes with a king called Ole of the Uplands; and these kings had a battle on the ice of the Venner lake, in which King Ole fell, and King Adils won the battle. There is a long account of this battle in the "Skjoldunga Saga", and also about Rolf Krake's coming to Adils, and sowing gold upon the Fyrisvold. King Adils was a great lover of good horses, and had the best horses of these times. One of his horses was called Slongve, and another Raven. This horse he had taken from Ole on his death, and bred from him a horse, also called Raven, which the king sent in a present to King Godgest in Halogaland. When Godgest mounted the horse he was not able to manage him, and fell off and was killed. This accident happened at Omd in Halogaland. King Adils was at a Disa sacrifice; and as he rode around the Disa hall his horse' Raven stumbled and fell, and the king was thrown forward upon his head, and his skull was split, and his brains dashed out against a stone. Adils died at Upsal, and was buried there in a mound. The Swedes called him a great king. Thjodolf speaks thus of him: --

"Witch-demons, I have heard men say, Have taken Adils' life away. The son of kings of Frey's great race, First in the fray, the fight, the chase, Fell from his steed -- his clotted brains Lie mixed with mire on Upsal's plains. Such death (grim Fate has willed it so) Has struck down Ole's deadly foe."

  • ************************

Events in the life of A›ils O'ttarson

event 1 . ·succeeded his father to kingdom event 1 . ·long time king, became very rich, and went also for several summers on viking expeditions † death 1 . in Uppsala, Sweden. ·King Adils was a great lover of good horses, and had the best horses of these times. One of his horses was called Slongve, and another Raven. This horse he had taken from Ole on his death, and bred from him a horse, also called Raven, which the king sent in a present to King Godgest in Halogaland. When Godgest mounted the horse he was not able to manage him, and fell off and was killed. This accident happened at Omd in Halogaland. King Adils was at a Disa sacrifice; and as he rode around the Disa hall his horse' Raven stumbled and fell, and the king was thrown forward upon his head, and his skull was split, and his brains dashed out against a stone. Adils died at Upsal, and was buried there in a mound. The Swedes called him a great king. Thjodolf speaks thus of him: -- "Witch-demons, I have heard men say, Have taken Adils' life away. The son of kings of Frey's great race, First in the fray, the fight, the chase, Fell from his steed -- his clotted brains Lie mixed with mire on Upsal's plains. Such death (grim Fate has willed it so) Has struck down Ole's deadly foe." event 1 . ·attacked by King Halfdan's son Helge, who ruled at that time over Leidre, who came to Sweden with so great an army, that King Adils saw no other way than to flee at once event 1 . ·went, one expedition, to Saxland with his troops. There a king was reigning called Geirthjof, and his wife was called Alof the Great; but nothing is told of their children. The king was not at home, and Adils and his men ran up to the king's house and plundered it, while others drove a herd of cattle down to the strand. The herd was attended by slave-people, churls, and girls, and they took all of them together. Among them was a remarkably beautiful girl called Yrsa, whom he took back with him to Sweden, but not as a slave, for it was soon observed that she was intelligent, spoke well, and in all respects well behaved event 1 , 2 . in Värmland, Sweden. ·had many disputes with a king called Ole of the Uplands (his Uncle, Ali, of Uppland in Sweden); and these kings had a battle on the ice of the Venner lake, in which King Ole fell, and King Adils won the battle (There is a long account of this battle in the "Skjoldunga Saga")


  Adils kom i Strid med Kong Helge i Danmark. Denne blev slagen af Adils, som giftede sig med Helges Hustro Yrsa. Ved Hjælp af Helges Kjæmper overvandt han ogsaa den norske

Kong Ale. Ved et Gjæstebud overfaldt Adils Rolf Krake og hans 12 Kjæmper, men ved den Lek erholdt Adils, da han skulde tage Ringen Sviagris op mellem de af Rolf røvede Kostbarheder, et Hug af Rolf med de Smædeord, at han nu havde bøiet Ryg paa den mægtigste Mand i Svealand. Adils omkom ved et Fald af Hesten under en Offerfest, da han reed omkring i Disarsalen i Upsala.


Adils er namnet på ein konge av Ynglingeætta, son av Ottar Vendilkråke. Han er nemnd i Ynglingesoga, i Skjoldungasaga og i Béowulf. På gamalengelsk er han kalla Eadgils. Nokre historikarar meiner og at namnet hans ber i seg ein minning om hunarkongen Attila.

Snorre Sturlason fortel om kong Adils at han var "ovende rik" og sat lenge som konge. Adils herja i Saksland, og tok med seg heimatt ei jente som heitte Yrsa, og ho var so ven at kongen tok ho til kone. Yrsa vart sidan teken av skjoldungekongen Helge Halvdansson, som ekta henne oppatt i Lejre. Desse to er foreldra til Rolv Krake. Yrsa reiste attende til Sverige då dronning Ålov av Saksland fortalde ho at Helge i røynda var far hennar. Sidan budde ho i lag med Adils.

Adils var i trette med ein konge frå Noreg, som er kalla Åle den upplendske i denne soga. Desse to heldt slag på Vänern om vinteren, og Åle fall. Dette er og omtala i Skjoldungasaga, skriv Snorre.

Adils var "kjær etter gode hestar", skriv Snorre vidare, og miste livet i det ein hest snåva i eit jordhol. Adils fall framstupes og knuste hovudet slik at heilen vart liggjande på ein stein. Dette skjedde under eit blot for dísene. Han er hauglagt i Uppsala, og det er rekna at han ligg i ein av dei tre haugane som framleis er å finne der.

Ynglingatal seier:

Det spurde eg at Adils skulde live for vonde vette lata og på storverk huga av heste-bogen frenden hans Frøy falla skulde, og den høg-ætta hovdingen fekk heilen blanda med blaute gyrma. og døy skulde dådsæle kongen, uvenen hans Åle i Uppsalir.

Béowulf [endre]

I kvadet Béowulf er det skildra korleis Adils(Eadgils), laut vinne Sverike frå Åle, som her er farbror til Adils. Åle heiter Onela i det engelske kvædet. Då Onela/Åle hadde teke over riket, laut Eadgils og bror hans, Eanmund (ikkje nemnd hjå Snorre), røme til Gautland, og søkte livd hjå kong Hardråd (Heardrede). Då gjekk Onela mot gautane og det kom til krig. Heardred og Eanmund fall, og Béowulf vart konge. Eadgils fekk sidan hjelp av Béowulf til å hemne seg og felle Onela/Åle, og sidan vart Eadgils konge over sveane, og Béowulf stødde han.

Med Eadgils han gjorde venskap i våden, med vigmenn hjelpte sonen åt ohthere, sjøleides kom med vigmenn og våpn. Visst tok han hemn på frostall ferd, fellte kongen. Både Snorre og Béowulfskalden er samde om at hemntoget gjekk føre seg om vinteren.

Skjoldungasaga [endre]

I skjoldungasaga er Adils skildra som "mektug og gjerrig". Framstillinga her er i tråd med Snorre si. I Soga om Rolv Krake er det nemnd at han hadde tolv berserkar i si teneste. Desse hjelper Adils med å svike kong Helge Halvdansson, far og mann til Yrsa. Adils syter for at Helge vert drepen, og Yrsa er hjå Adils i tida etter. Snorre har ikkje med tåtten om drapet på Helge. Soga fortel vidare korleis Adils vart byrg av dette verket, men Yrsa rådde han til å fara varleg med sigeren sin. Ho sytte og for at berserkane hans Adils vart fjerna. Adils ville bøte drapet på Helge med rike gåver, og Yrsa roa seg. "Likevel er ho jamnt misnøgd, og freistar om ho kan få valda berserkane mein og svivørding". Ho ter seg annleis etter drapet på Helge, far hennar.

Det var ærerikt å vera i hirda hjå kong Adils, sjølv om han gjekk for å vera ein "vondkynt mann". Han tok imot ein bonde som heitte Svipdag, som reid framfor kongen og vinn åtgaum der, sjølv om dei andre berserkane ikkje lika han. Svipdag vann over dei. Etter noko trette gjekk Yrsa inn for å stø Svipdag, og dei andre berserkane vart landlyste, slik ho ville ha det. Berserkane samla ein her og gjekk mot Adils, og Adils sender Svipdag mot dei med ein annan her. Soga fortel korleis Svipdag vann over berserkane, og kongen takka han for det. Det blir fleire slag, og Svipdag vert såra, men får hjelp av brørne sine. Svipdag reiser sidan bort og er hjå kong Rolv Krake i Danmark.

I Skjoldungasaga er Åle og konge i Noreg. Både i Skjoldungasaga og i Den yngre Edda er det gjete at Adils bad Rolv Krake om hjelp mot Åle.

Dei danske kjeldene legg mykje vekt på at Adils vart gjerug og vanskeleg med åra, og at Yrsa eggja sonen sin opp mot han. Rolv Krake, sonen til Yrsa, reid tå til Adils med ein her, og etter nokre fraser kjem det til kamp. Rolv vann over kjempene til Adils, og Adils freista så å brenne Rolv inne. Dette enda med at Rolv og mennene hans sprang gjennom elden og ut. Etter denne soga rømde Adils og løynde seg ved synkverving.

Tretta mellom Rolv og Adils enda med at Rolv sytte for å hogge seteballene av Adils, fortel den danske soga (som ikkje gjev Adils store æra). Adils uvita av blodtapet.

Samla attgjeving [endre]

Adils er nemnd i fleire kjelder, og difor veit vi meir om han enn om kongane etter han. I følge kjeldene har han først vore nøydd til å røme frå farsarven sin på grunn av Åle, som han sidan vinn på, etter ei kjelde med hjelp av Béowulf, etter ei anna av Rolv Krake (moglegvis har Rolv bytt plass med Béowulf i islandske kjelder). Sidan vert Adils gift med Yrsa, som er kone og dotter av Helge Halvdansson, far av Rolv Krake. Helge vert drepen av Adils, og Yrsa nytter resten av livet med Adils til å eggje sonen sin, Rolv, opp mot Adils. Det heile endar med svivørding for Adils, som og er sagt å bli meir og meir gjerug og pengekjær med åra. Om Yrsa er mor til Øystein Adilsson, er det ikkje nemnd i noka kjelde.

Adils var en mytisk kung i Svitjod, och son till Ottar Vendelkråka. Han benämns även Adils den mäktige. Enligt Snorre blev Adils höglagd vid Gamla Uppsala.

Adils som person kan med visst fog anses vara historiskt belagd, eftersom han figurerar i olika skriftliga, såvitt vi vet från varandra oberoende källor, Ynglingatal, Saxo Grammaticus danska historia och Beowulfkvädet. Kvalitén på källorna är dock låg (se Ynglingatal) och liksom för övriga svearegenter före år 1000 är faktaunderlaget angående Adils tämligen skralt. Han brukar följaktligen betraktas som "sagokung".

Enligt Ynglingasagan ägde Adils en dyrbar ring, Sviagris.


In the Ynglinga saga, Snorri Sturluson describes her personality as follows (Samuel Laing's translation): “ Yrsa was not one of the slave girls, and it was soon observed that she was intelligent, spoke well, and in all respects was well behaved. All people thought well of her, and particularly the king; and at last it came to this that the king celebrated his wedding with her, and Yrsa became queen of Sweden, and was considered an excellent woman.


Noteringar Sveakonung i G:a Uppsala på 500-talet. Son till Ottar Vendelkråka. Grundade det nuvarande Sverige genom sin seger över Åke Opländske på Vänerns is ca år 550. Svea och Göta riken slogs ihop. Det gemensamma riket blev dock kortvarigt. Gift med en kungadotter från Saxland,Yrsa/Åsa av Venden (som genom blodskamsäktenskap var mor till danakonungen Rolf Krake), dotter till Helge Halvdanson och Ålof den rika. Adils var känd för sina fina hästar. Vid bloten i G:a Uppsala red han i en kultisk kringritt runt Disarsalen och hästen snubblade. Adils föll av och spräckte huvudet mot en sten. Höglagd i G:a Uppsala, troligen i den sk Torshögen, den största högen. Utgrävningarna visade ett lik från ca 575 på en björnfäll, med två hundar och rikt gravgods.


Adils Ottarsson Birth: About 572 in , , , Sweden 1 2 Death: Sex: M Father: Ottar Egilsson b. About 551 in , , , Sweden Mother: Ottar Egilsson b. About 555 in (, , , Sweden)

   
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 Yrsa Helgi Helgasdatter Princess Of Denmark (Wife) b. About 572 in , , , Denmark  

3 1 2 Marriage: Abt 593 6 Nov 2004 14:29 Children: Eystein Adilsson b. About 594 in , , , Sweden

 

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REFN: HWS8583 Ancestral File Number: G6T0-2SCHAN20 Mar 2001


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 Title: "FamilySearch® Ancestral Fileâ„¢ v4.19"

Author: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Publication: 3 Feb 2001

Title: "Genealogical Research of Kirk Larson" Author: Larson, Kirk Publication: Personal Research Works including Bethune & Hohenlohe Desce ndants, 1981-2001, Kirk Larson, Private Library lbert F. Schmuhl, "Title: "Royal Lines & Adamic Genealogy: Genealogical Research of A lbert F. Schmuhl, "Author: Schmuhl, Albert F. Publication: e-mail documentation, March 1997, Albert F. Schmuhl, Americ a Online Posting: Genealogy Forum



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eadgils


Eadgils, Adils, Aðils, Adillus, Aðísl at Uppsölum, Athisl, Athislus, Adhel was a semi-legendary king of Sweden, who is estimated to have lived during the 6th century.

Beowulf and Old Norse sources present him as the son of Ohthere and as belonging to the ruling Yngling (Scylfing) clan. These sources also deal with his war against Onela, which he won with foreign assistance: in Beowulf he gained the throne of Sweden by defeating his uncle Onela with Geatish help, and in two Scandinavian sources (Skáldskaparmál and Skjöldunga saga), he is also helped to defeat Onela in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern, but with Danish help. However, Scandinavian sources mostly deal with his interaction with the legendary Danish king Hrólfr Kraki (Hroðulf), and Eadgils is mostly presented in a negative light as a rich and greedy king.

The Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf, which was composed sometime between the 8th century and the 11th century, is beside the Norwegian skaldic poem Ynglingatal (9th century) the oldest source that mentions Eadgils.

It is implied in Beowulf that the Swedish king Ohthere died and was succeeded by his younger brother Onela, because Ohthere's two sons, Eadgils and Eanmund had to seek refuge with Heardred, Hygelac's son and successor as king of the Geats[5]. This caused Onela to attack the Geats, and Heardred was killed. Onela returned home and Beowulf succeeded Heardred as the king of Geatland. In the following lines, Onela is referred to as the Scylfings helmet and the son of Ongenþeow, whereas Eadgils and Eanmund are referred to as the sons of Ohtere:

Later in the poem, it tells that during the battle, Eadgils' brother Eanmund was killed by Onela's champion Weohstan, Wiglaf's father. In the following lines, Eanmund also appears as the son of Ohtere and as a brother's child:

Arngrímur's summary relates that Eadgils, called Adillus, married Yrsa with whom he had the daughter Scullda. Some years later, the Danish king Helgo (Halga) attacked Sweden and captured Yrsa, not knowing that she was his own daughter, the result of Helgo raping Olava, the queen of the Saxons. Helgo raped Yrsa as well and took her back to Denmark, where she bore the son Rolfo (Hroðulf). After a few years, Yrsa's mother, queen Olava, came to visit her and told her that Helgo was her own father. In horror, Yrsa returned to Adillus, leaving her son behind. Helgo died when Rolfo was eight years old, and Rolfo succeeded him, and ruled together with his uncle Roas (Hroðgar). Not much later, Roas was killed by his half-brothers Rærecus and Frodo, whereupon Rolfo became the sole king of Denmark.

In Sweden, Yrsa and Adillus married Scullda to the king of Öland, Hiørvardus/Hiorvardus/Hevardus (Heoroweard). As her half-brother Rolfo was not consulted about this marriage, he was infuriated and he attacked Öland and made Hiørvardus and his kingdom tributary to Denmark.

After some time, there was animosity between king Adillus of Sweden and the Norwegian king Ale of Oppland. They decided to fight on the ice of Lake Vänern. Adillus won and took his helmet, chainmail and horse. Adillus won because he had requested Rolfo's aid against king Ale and Rolfo had sent him his berserkers. However, Adillus refused to pay the expected tribute for the help and so Rolfo came to Uppsala to claim his recompense. After surviving some traps, Rolfo fled with Adillus' gold, helped by his mother Yrsa. Seeing that the Swedish king and his men pursued him, Rolfo "sowed" the gold on the Fyrisvellir, so that the king's men would pick up the gold, instead of continuing the pursuit.

As can be seen, the Skjöldunga saga retells the story of Eadgils fighting his uncle Onela, but in this version Onela is no longer Eadgils' uncle, but a Norwegian king of Oppland. This change is generally considered to be a late confusion between the core province of the Swedes, Uppland, and its Norwegian namesake Oppland. Whereas, Beowulf leaves the Danish court with the suspicion that Hroðulf (Rolfo Krage, Hrólfr Kraki) might claim the Danish throne for himself at the death of Hroðgar (Roas, Hróarr), it is exactly what he does in Scandinavian tradition. A notable difference is that, in Beowulf, Eadgils receives the help of the Geatish king Beowulf against Onela, whereas it is the Danish king Hroðulf who provides help in Scandinavian tradition.


   He ruled for a long time and had great riches., going on viking raids several summers. On a raid in Saxony he captured Yrsa and married her. He killed King Ali of Oppland in a battle. He took great delight in fine horses and gave a prize horse toKing Godgest in Halogaland who rode him but could not rein him and was thrown and killed. He himself later was killed by a fall from a horse at a sacrifice for the godess Disarat Uppsala. His head hit a rock and broke his skull and his brainsspilled out.
   Ruled Svithiod after his father King Ottar. Mentioned in Beowulf as Eadgils of the royal Swedish line of the Scylfingas (Skilfings). Audils ruled for a long time and often went on viking expeditions to Saxonland, Denmakr and Norway. In Saxonland, Audils captured the household of King Geirthiof, among whom was a remarkably beautiful girl, called Yrsa. The king married her, but she was afterward taken to Denmark by King Helge of Leire after a successful plundering expedition in Svithiod. As King Audils once rode around the hall at a sacrifice his horse stumbled and fell, and the king was killed. [History of Sweden, p. 38]
   !He and his father Ottar are mentioned in Beowulf as Ohthere and his son Eadgils of the royal Swedish line of the Scylfingas (Skilfings). This fact gives to Swedish history its first reliable date -- abt the 6th century. Audils captured the household of King Geirthiof and married Yrsa, a beautiful young
   girl who was part of the household. King Audils once rode around the hall at a sacrifice where his horse stumbled and fell, killing the king. [WBH - Sweden]
   !Ruled for a long time and often went on viking expeditions to Saxonland, Denmark and Norway. [WBH - Sweden]
   !Had great quarrels with his uncle, King Ali the Upplander. They had a battle on the ice of Lake Vaner, where King Ali fell and Athils had the victory. There is a long account of his battle in Skjoldunga Saga. Athils was a true Swede in his love of fine horses, but the poets and sagamen have not dealt kindly with him: it is a grotesque and baffled mischief-maker who squinnies at us from their pages. Even with horses his touch was not held to be infallible: according to the Kalfsvisa he fell off one, a grey, at Lake Vaner, when they rode to the ice, and according to Snorri fell off another at a sacrifice and knocked his brains out on a stone. This happened at Uppsala and he was buried in a mound there. Saxo Grammaticus would have us believe that he died of strong drink, while celebrating with immoderate joviality the death of his enemy Hrolf/Hrothulf. [A History of the Vikings, p. 38-9]
  1. Reference Number: G6T0-2S

---

  1. Note:
   The twentieth king of the Yngling dynasty in Sweden was said to be Adil. This legendary monarch was married to Yrsa, the daughter of King Helge of Denmark. Yrsa, although Helge's daughter, had also been his lover and had born him a son name Rolf, who later became king of Denmark. 
  1. Note: There was, predictably, a great deal of jealousy and fighting between Adil of Sweden and Helge of Denmark. In the end, Helge was treacherously murdered by Adil.
   Adil did not live long after this. While at a great sacrifice in Uppsala, he died by falling from a horse, a death which was considered shameful. Yrsa's son Rolf, on the other hand, died in battle, which was considered glorious. Rolf's praises were then sung over all of Scandinavia.
  1. Note: (legends of early Swedish kings) [Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders, and Kiev]
  2. Note: Title: Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders, and Kiev, by Rupert Alen & Anna Dahlquist, 1997, King's River Publ.
  3. Note: Page: 3-4
   He ruled for a long time and had great riches., going on viking raids several summers. On a raid in Saxony he captured Yrsa and married her. He killed King Ali of Oppland in a battle. He took great delight in fine horses and gave a prize horse toKing Godgest in Halogaland who rode him but could not rein him and was thrown and killed. He himself later was killed by a fall from a horse at a sacrifice for the godess Disarat Uppsala. His head hit a rock and broke his skull and his brainsspilled out.
   Ruled Svithiod after his father King Ottar. Mentioned in Beowulf as Eadgils of the royal Swedish line of the Scylfingas (Skilfings). Audils ruled for a long time and often went on viking expeditions to Saxonland, Denmakr and Norway. In Saxonland, Audils captured the household of King Geirthiof, among whom was a remarkably beautiful girl, called Yrsa. The king married her, but she was afterward taken to Denmark by King Helge of Leire after a successful plundering expedition in Svithiod. As King Audils once rode around the hall at a sacrifice his horse stumbled and fell, and the king was killed. [History of Sweden, p. 38]
   !He and his father Ottar are mentioned in Beowulf as Ohthere and his son Eadgils of the royal Swedish line of the Scylfingas (Skilfings). This fact gives to Swedish history its first reliable date -- abt the 6th century. Audils captured the household of King Geirthiof and married Yrsa, a beautiful young
   girl who was part of the household. King Audils once rode around the hall at a sacrifice where his horse stumbled and fell, killing the king. [WBH - Sweden]
   !Ruled for a long time and often went on viking expeditions to Saxonland, Denmark and Norway. [WBH - Sweden]
   !Had great quarrels with his uncle, King Ali the Upplander. They had a battle on the ice of Lake Vaner, where King Ali fell and Athils had the victory. There is a long account of his battle in Skjoldunga Saga. Athils was a true Swede in his love of fine horses, but the poets and sagamen have not dealt kindly with him: it is a grotesque and baffled mischief-maker who squinnies at us from their pages. Even with horses his touch was not held to be infallible: according to the Kalfsvisa he fell off one, a grey, at Lake Vaner, when they rode to the ice, and according to Snorri fell off another at a sacrifice and knocked his brains out on a stone. This happened at Uppsala and he was buried in a mound there. Saxo Grammaticus would have us believe that he died of strong drink, while celebrating with immoderate joviality the death of his enemy Hrolf/Hrothulf. [A History of the Vikings, p. 38-9]
  1. Reference Number: G6T0-2S

---

  1. Note:
   The twentieth king of the Yngling dynasty in Sweden was said to be Adil. This legendary monarch was married to Yrsa, the daughter of King Helge of Denmark. Yrsa, although Helge's daughter, had also been his lover and had born him a son name Rolf, who later became king of Denmark. 
  1. Note: There was, predictably, a great deal of jealousy and fighting between Adil of Sweden and Helge of Denmark. In the end, Helge was treacherously murdered by Adil.
   Adil did not live long after this. While at a great sacrifice in Uppsala, he died by falling from a horse, a death which was considered shameful. Yrsa's son Rolf, on the other hand, died in battle, which was considered glorious. Rolf's praises were then sung over all of Scandinavia.
  1. Note: (legends of early Swedish kings) [Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders, and Kiev]
  2. Note: Title: Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, Flanders, and Kiev, by Rupert Alen & Anna Dahlquist, 1997, King's River Publ.
  3. Note: Page: 3-4

Adils regnes som grunnleggeren av det nåværene Sverige

Han var rik . Han for på hærfærd i Holstein, der tok han en kvinne fra kongsgården og giftet seg med hu, Yrsa.

Kong Helge på Skjælland røvet henne på en hærferd i Sverige tre år seinere. De fikk sønnen Rolf Krake, som siden ble konge på Sjælland. Senere fikk hun vite at Kong Helge var hennes egentlige far, og dro tilbake til Adils


Eadgils, Adils, Aðils, Adillus, Aðísl at Uppsölum, Athisl, Athislus or Adhel was a semi-legendary king of Sweden, who is estimated to have lived during the 6th century.[1]

Beowulf and Old Norse sources present him as the son of Ohthere and as belonging to the ruling Yngling (Scylfing) clan. These sources also deal with his war against Onela, which he won with foreign assistance: in Beowulf he gained the throne of Sweden by defeating his uncle Onela with Geatish help, and in two Scandinavian sources (Skáldskaparmál and Skjöldunga saga), he is also helped to defeat Onela in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern, but with Danish help. However, Scandinavian sources mostly deal with his interaction with the legendary Danish king Hrólfr Kraki (Hroðulf), and Eadgils is mostly presented in a negative light as a rich and greedy king.

Contents [hide]

1 Name

2 Beowulf

3 Norwegian and Icelandic sources

3.1 Ynglingatal

3.2 Íslendingabók

3.3 Skjöldunga saga

3.4 Skáldskaparmál

3.5 Ynglinga saga

3.6 Hrólfr Kraki's saga

4 Danish sources

4.1 Chronicon Lethrense and Annales Lundenses

4.2 Gesta Danorum

5 Archaeology

6 Notes

7 Bibliography and external links


[edit] Name

The Norse forms are based an older (Proto-Norse) *Aþagīslaz (where *aþa is short for *aþala meaning "noble, foremost" (German 'adel') and *gīslaz means "arrow shaft"[2]). However, the Anglo-Saxon form is not etymologically identical. The A-S form would have been *Ædgils, but Eadgils (Proto-Norse *Auða-gīslaz, *auða- meaning "wealth") was the only corresponding name used by the Anglo-Saxons[3]. The name Aðils was so exceedingly rare even in Scandinavia that among almost 6000 Scandinavian runic inscriptions, it is only attested in three runestones (U 35, DR 221 and Br Olsen;215)[4].

[edit] Beowulf

The Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf, which was composed sometime between the 8th century and the 11th century, is beside the Norwegian skaldic poem Ynglingatal (9th century) the oldest source that mentions Eadgils.

It is implied in Beowulf that the Swedish king Ohthere died and was succeeded by his younger brother Onela, because Ohthere's two sons, Eadgils and Eanmund had to seek refuge with Heardred, Hygelac's son and successor as king of the Geats[5]. This caused Onela to attack the Geats, and Heardred was killed. Onela returned home and Beowulf succeeded Heardred as the king of Geatland. In the following lines, Onela is referred to as the Scylfings helmet and the son of Ongenþeow, whereas Eadgils and Eanmund are referred to as the sons of Ohtere:

...Hyne wræc-mæcgas

ofer sæ sohtan, suna Ohteres:

hæfdon hy forhealden helm Scylfinga,

þone selestan sæ-cyninga,

þara þe in Swio-rice sinc brytnade,

mærne þeoden. Him þæt to mearce wearð;

he þær orfeorme feorh-wunde hleat

sweordes swengum, sunu Hygelaces;

and him eft gewat Ongenþiowes bearn

hames niosan, syððan Heardred læg;

let þone brego-stol Biowulf healdan,

Geatum wealdan: þæt wæs god cyning.[6] ...Wandering exiles

sought him o'er seas, the sons of Ohtere,

who had spurned the sway of the Scylfings'-helmet,

the bravest and best that broke the rings,

in Swedish land, of the sea-kings' line,

haughty hero. Hence Heardred's end.

For shelter he gave them, sword-death came,

the blade's fell blow, to bairn of Hygelac;

but the son of Ongentheow sought again

house and home when Heardred fell,

leaving Beowulf lord of Geats

and gift-seat's master. – A good king he![7]

Later in the poem, it tells that during the battle, Eadgils' brother Eanmund was killed by Onela's champion Weohstan, Wiglaf's father. In the following lines, Eanmund also appears as the son of Ohtere and as a brother's child:

...hond rond gefeng,

geolwe linde, gomel swyrd geteah,

þæt wæs mid eldum Eanmundes laf,

suna Ohteres, þam æt sæcce wearð

wracu wine-leasum Weohstanes bana

meces ecgum, and his magum ætbær

brun-fagne helm, hringde byrnan,

eald sweord eotonisc, þæt him Onela forgeaf,

his gædelinges guð-gewædu,

fyrd-searo fuslic: no ymbe þa fæhðe spræc,

þeah þe he his broðor bearn abredwade.[8] ...The linden yellow,

his shield, he seized; the old sword he drew: --

as heirloom of Eanmund earth-dwellers knew it,

who was slain by the sword-edge, son of Ohtere,

friendless exile, erst in fray

killed by Weohstan, who won for his kin

brown-bright helmet, breastplate ringed,

old sword of Eotens, Onela's gift,

weeds of war of the warrior-thane,

battle-gear brave: though a brother's child

had been felled, the feud was unfelt by Onela.[7]

Eadgils, however, survived and later, Beowulf helped Eadgils with weapons and warriors. Eadgils won the war and killed his uncle Onela. In the following lines, Eadgils is mentioned by name and as the son of Ohtere, whereas Onela is referred to as the king:

Se þæs leod-hryres lean gemunde

uferan dogrum, Eadgilse wearð

fea-sceaftum feond. Folce gestepte

ofer sæ side sunu Ohteres

wigum and wæpnum: he gewræc syððan

cealdum cear-siðum, cyning ealdre bineat.[9] The fall of his lord he was fain to requite

in after days; and to Eadgils he proved

friend to the friendless, and forces sent

over the sea to the son of Ohtere,

weapons and warriors: well repaid he

those care-paths cold[10] when the king he slew.[7]

This event also appears in the Scandinavian sources Skáldskaparmál and Skjöldunga saga, which will be treated below.

[edit] Norwegian and Icelandic sources

The allusive manner in which Eadgils and his relatives are referred to in Beowulf suggests that the scop expected his audience to have sufficient background knowledge about Eadgils, Ohthere and Eanmund to understand the references. Likewise, in the roughly contemporary Norwegian Ynglingatal, Eadgils (Aðils) is called Onela's enemy (Ála[11] dólgr), which likewise suggests that the conflict was familiar to the skald and his audience.

The tradition of Eadgils and Onela resurfaces in several Old Norse works in prose and poetry, and another matter also appears: the animosity between Eadgils and Hrólfr Kraki, who corresponds to Hroðulf in Beowulf.

[edit] Ynglingatal

The skaldic poem Ynglingatal is a poetic recital of the line of the Yngling clan. They are also called Skilfingar in the poem (in stanza 19), a name that appears in its Anglo-Saxon form Scylfingas in Beowulf when referring to Eadgils' clan. It is presented as composed by Þjóðólfr of Hvinir by Snorri Sturluson in the Ynglinga saga.

Although its age has been debated, most scholars hold to date from the 9th century[12]. It survives in two versions: one is found in the Norwegian historical work Historia Norvegiæ in Latin, and the other one in Snorri Sturluson's Ynglinga saga, a part of his Heimskringla. It presents Aðils (Eadgils) as the successor of Óttarr (Ohthere) and the predecessor of Eysteinn. The stanza on Aðils refers to his accidental death when he fell from his horse:

Þat frá ek enn,

at Aðils fjörvi

vitta vettr

um viða skyldi,

ok dáðgjarn

af drasils bógum

Freys áttungr

falla skyldi.

Ok við aur

œgir hjarna

bragnings burs

um blandinn varð;

ok dáðsæll

deyja skyldi

Ála dólgr

at Uppsölum.[13] Witch-demons, I have heard men say,

Have taken Adils' life away.

The son of kings of Frey's great race,

First in the fray, the fight, the chase,

Fell from his steed – his clotted brains

Lie mixed with mire on Upsal's plains.

Such death (grim Fate has willed it so)

Has struck down Ole's [Onela's] deadly foe.[14]

Note that Eadgils' animosity with Onela also appears in Ynglingatal as Aðils is referred to as Ole's deadly foe (Ála dólgr). This animosity is treated in more detail in the Skjöldunga saga and Skáldskaparmál, which follow.

The Historia Norwegiæ, which is a terse summary in Latin of Ynglingatal, only states that Eadgils fell from his horse and died during the sacrifices. In this Latin translation, the Dísir are rendered as the Roman goddess Diana:

Cujus filius Adils vel Athisl ante ædem Dianæ, dum idolorum, sacrificia fugeret, equo lapsus exspiravit. Hic genuit Eustein, [...][15]

His son Adils gave up the ghost after falling from his horse before the temple of Diana, while he was performing the sacrifices made to idols. He became sire to Øystein, [...][16]
 

The same information is found the Swedish Chronicle from the mid-15th century, which calls him Adhel. It is probably based on the Ynglingatal tradition and says that he fell from his horse and died while he worshipped his god.

[edit] Íslendingabók

In Íslendingabók from the early 12th century, Eadgils only appears as a name in the listing of the kings of the Yngling dynasty as Aðísl at Uppsala. The reason what that the author, Ari Þorgilsson, traced his ancestry from Eadgils, and its line of succession is the same as that of Ynglingatal.

i Yngvi Tyrkjakonungr. ii Njörðr Svíakonungr. iii Freyr. iiii Fjölnir. sá er dó at Friðfróða. v Svegðir. vi Vanlandi. vii Visburr. viii Dómaldr. ix Dómarr. x Dyggvi. xi Dagr. xii Alrekr. xiii Agni. xiiii Yngvi. xv Jörundr. xvi Aun inn gamli. xvii Egill Vendilkráka. xviii Óttarr. xix Aðísl at Uppsölum. xx Eysteinn. xxi Yngvarr. xxii Braut-Önundr. xxiii Ingjaldr inn illráði. xxiiii Óláfr trételgja...[17]

As can be seen it agrees with the earlier Ynglingatal and Beowulf in presenting Eadgils as the successor of Óttarr (Ohthere).

[edit] Skjöldunga saga

The Skjöldunga saga was a Norse saga which is believed to have been written in the period 1180-1200. The original version is lost, but it survives in a Latin summary by Arngrímur Jónsson.


Yrsa learns of her true father's identityArngrímur's summary relates that Eadgils, called Adillus, married Yrsa with whom he had the daughter Scullda. Some years later, the Danish king Helgo (Halga) attacked Sweden and captured Yrsa, not knowing that she was his own daughter, the result of Helgo raping Olava, the queen of the Saxons. Helgo raped Yrsa as well and took her back to Denmark, where she bore the son Rolfo (Hroðulf). After a few years, Yrsa's mother, queen Olava, came to visit her and told her that Helgo was her own father. In horror, Yrsa returned to Adillus, leaving her son behind. Helgo died when Rolfo was eight years old, and Rolfo succeeded him, and ruled together with his uncle Roas (Hroðgar). Not much later, Roas was killed by his half-brothers Rærecus and Frodo, whereupon Rolfo became the sole king of Denmark.

In Sweden, Yrsa and Adillus married Scullda to the king of Öland, Hiørvardus/Hiorvardus/Hevardus (Heoroweard). As her half-brother Rolfo was not consulted about this marriage, he was infuriated and he attacked Öland and made Hiørvardus and his kingdom tributary to Denmark.

After some time, there was animosity between king Adillus of Sweden and the Norwegian king Ale of Oppland. They decided to fight on the ice of Lake Vänern. Adillus won and took his helmet, chainmail and horse. Adillus won because he had requested Rolfo's aid against king Ale and Rolfo had sent him his berserkers. However, Adillus refused to pay the expected tribute for the help and so Rolfo came to Uppsala to claim his recompense. After surviving some traps, Rolfo fled with Adillus' gold, helped by his mother Yrsa. Seeing that the Swedish king and his men pursued him, Rolfo "sowed" the gold on the Fyrisvellir, so that the king's men would pick up the gold, instead of continuing the pursuit.

As can be seen, the Skjöldunga saga retells the story of Eadgils fighting his uncle Onela, but in this version Onela is no longer Eadgils' uncle, but a Norwegian king of Oppland. This change is generally considered to be a late confusion between the core province of the Swedes, Uppland, and its Norwegian namesake Oppland[18]. Whereas, Beowulf leaves the Danish court with the suspicion that Hroðulf (Rolfo Krage, Hrólfr Kraki) might claim the Danish throne for himself at the death of Hroðgar (Roas, Hróarr), it is exactly what he does in Scandinavian tradition. A notable difference is that, in Beowulf, Eadgils receives the help of the Geatish king Beowulf against Onela, whereas it is the Danish king Hroðulf who provides help in Scandinavian tradition.

[edit] Skáldskaparmál

Skáldskaparmál was written by Snorri Sturluson, c. 1220, in order to teach the ancient art of kennings to aspiring skalds. It presents Eadgils, called Aðils, in two sections.

The first section is the Kálfsvísa of which Snorri quotes small parts[19]:

Ali Hrafni,

es til íss riðu,

en annarr austr

und Aðilsi

grár hvarfaði,

geiri undaðr.[20] Áli rode Hrafn,

They who rode onto the ice:

But another, southward,

Under Adils,

A gray one, wandered,

Wounded with the spear.[21]

This is a reference to the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern, during which Eadgils slew Onela and which also appears in the Skjöldunga saga. There is also second stanza, where Eadgils is riding his horse Slöngvir, apparently a combination famous enough to be mentioned.

Björn reið Blakki,

en Bíarr Kerti,

Atli Glaumi,

en Aðils Sløngvi,

Högni Hölkvi,

en Haraldr Fölkvi,

Gunnarr Gota,

en Grana Sigurðr.[20] Björn rode Blakkr,

And Bjárr rode Kertr;

Atli rode Glaumr,

And Adils on Slöngvir;

Högni on Hölvir,

And Haraldr on Fölkvir;

Gunnarr rode Goti,

And Sigurdr, Grani.[21]

Eadgils' horse Slöngvir also appears in Snorri's later work, the Ynglinga saga.

Snorri also presents the story of Aðils and Hrólfr Kraki (Hroðulf) in order to explain why gold was known by the kenning Kraki's seed. Snorri relates that Aðils was in war with a Norwegian king named Áli (Onela), and they fought in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern. Aðils was married to Yrsa, the mother of Hrólfr and so sent an embassy to Hrólfr asking him for help against Áli. He would receive three valuable gifts in recompense. Hrólfr was involved in a war against the Saxons and could not come in person but sent his twelve berserkers, including Böðvarr Bjarki. Áli died in the war, and Aðils took Áli's helmet Battle-boar and his horse Raven. The berserkers demanded three pounds of gold each in pay, and they demanded to choose the gifts that Aðils had promised Hrólfr, that is the two pieces of armour that nothing could pierce: the helmet battle-boar and the mailcoat Finn's heritage. They also wanted the famous ring Svíagris. Aðils considered the pay outrageous and refused.

When Hrólfr heard that Aðils refused to pay, he set off to Uppsala. They brought the ships to the river Fyris and rode directly to the Swedish king's hall at Uppsala with his twelve berserkers. Yrsa welcomed them and led them to their lodgings. Fires were prepared for them and they were given drinks. However, so much wood was heaped on the fires that the clothes started to burn away from their clothes. Hrólfr and his men had enough and threw the courtiers on the fire. Yrsa arrived and gave them a horn full of gold, the ring Svíagris and asked them to flee. As they rode over the Fyrisvellir, they saw Aðils and his men pursuing them. The fleeing men threw the gold on the plain so that the pursuers would stop to collect it. Aðils, however, continued the chase on his horse Slöngvir. Hrólfr then threw Svíagris and saw how Aðils stooped down to pick up the ring with his spear. Hrólfr exclaimed that he had seen the mightiest man in Sweden bend his back.

[edit] Ynglinga saga

The Ynglinga saga was written c. 1225 by Snorri Sturluson and he used Skjöldunga saga as a source when he told the story of Aðils[22]. Snorri relates that Aðils succeeded his father Óttar (Ohthere) and betook himself to pillage the Saxons, whose king was Geirþjófr and queen Alof the Great. The king and consort were not at home, and so Aðils and his men plundered their residence at ease driving cattle and captives down to the ships. One of the captives was a remarkably beautiful girl named Yrsa, and Snorri writes that everyone was soon impressed with the well-mannered, pretty and intelligent girl. Most impressed was Aðils who made her his queen.

Some years later, Helgi (Halga), who ruled in Lejre, attacked Sweden and captured Yrsa. As he did not know that Yrsa was his own daughter, he raped her, and took her back to Lejre, where she bore him the son Hrólfr kraki. When the boy was three years of age, Yrsa's mother, queen Alof of Saxony, came to visit her and told her that her husband Helgi was her own father. Horrified, Yrsa returned to Aðils, leaving her son behind, and stayed in Sweden for the rest of her life. When Hrólfr was eight years old, Helgi died during a war expedition and Hrólfr was proclaimed king.

Aðils waged a war against king Áli (Onela of Oppland), and they fought in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern. Áli died in this battle. Snorri writes that there was a long account of this battle in the Skjöldunga Saga, which also contained an account of how Hrólf came to Uppsala and sowed gold on the Fyrisvellir.


The three large royal mounds at Gamla Uppsala.Snorri also relates that Aðils loved good horses and had the best horses in his days (interestingly, the contemporary Gothic scholar Jordanes noted that the Swedes were famed for their good horses). One horse was named Slöngvi and another one Raven, which he had taken from Áli. From this horse he had bred a horse also named Raven which he sent to king Godgest of Hålogaland, but Godgest could not manage it and fell from it and died, in Omd on the island of Andøya. Aðils himself died in a similar way at the Dísablót. Aðils was riding around the Disa shrine when Raven stumbled and fell, and the king was thrown forward and hit his skull on a stone. The Swedes called him a great king and buried him at Uppsala. He was succeeded by Eysteinn.

[edit] Hrólfr Kraki's saga

Hrólfr Kraki's saga is believed to have been written in the period c. 1230 - c. 1450[23]. Helgi and Yrsa lived happily together as husband and wife, not knowing that Yrsa was Helgi's daughter. Yrsa's mother queen Oluf travelled to Denmark to tell her daughter the truth. Yrsa was shocked and although Helgi wanted their relationship to remain as it was, Yrsa insisted on leaving him to live alone. She was later taken by the Swedish king Aðils as his queen, which made Helgi even more unhappy. Helgi went to Uppsala to fetch her, but was killed by Aðils in battle. In Lejre, he was succeeded by his son Hrólfr Kraki.

After some time, Böðvarr Bjarki encouraged Hrólfr to go Uppsala to claim the gold that Aðils had taken from Helgi after the battle. Hrólfr departed with 120 men and his twelve beserkers and during a rest they were tested by a farmer called Hrani (Odin in disguise) who advised Hrólfr to send back all his troops but his twelve beserkers, as numbers would not help him against Aðils.

They were at first well received, but in his hall, Aðils did his best to stop Hrólfr with pit traps and hidden warriors who attacked the Danes. Finally Aðils entertained them but put them to a test where they had to endure immense heat by a fire. Hrólfr and his beserkers finally had enough and threw the courtiers, who were feeding the fire, into the fire and lept at Aðils. The Swedish king disappeared through a hollow tree trunk that stood in his hall.

Yrsa admonished Aðils for wanting to kill her son, and went to meet the Danes. She gave them a man named Vöggr to entertain them. This Vöggr remarked that Hrólfr had the thin face of a pole ladder, a Kraki. Happy with his new cognomen Hrólfr gave Vöggr a golden ring, and Vöggr swore to avenge Hrólfr if anyone should kill him. Hrólfr and his company were then attacked by a troll in the shape of a boar in the service of Aðils, but Hrólfr's dog Gram killed it.

They then found out that Aðils had set the hall on fire, and so they broke out of the hall, only to find themselves surrounded by heavily armed warriors in the street. After a fight, king Aðils retreated to summon reinforcements.

Yrsa then provided her son with a silver drinking horn filled with gold and jewels and a famous ring, Svíagris. Then she gave Hrólf and his men twelve of the Swedish king's best horses, and all the armour and provisions they needed.

Hrólfr took a fond farewell of his mother and departed over the Fyrisvellir. When they saw Aðils and his warriors in pursuit, they spread the gold behind themselves. Aðils saw his precious Svíagris on the ground and stooped to pick it up with his spear, whereupon Hrólf cut his back with his sword and screamed in triumph that he had bent the back of the most powerful man in Sweden.

[edit] Danish sources

[edit] Chronicon Lethrense and Annales Lundenses

The Chronicon Lethrense (and the included Annales Lundenses) tell that when the Danish kings Helghe (Halga) and Ro (Hroðgar) were dead, the Swedish king Hakon/Athisl[24] forced the Daner to accept a dog as king. The dog king was succeeded by Rolf Krage (Hrólfr Kraki).

[edit] Gesta Danorum

The Gesta Danorum (book 2), by Saxo Grammaticus, tells that Helgo (Halga) repelled a Swedish invasion, killed the Swedish king Hothbrodd, and made the Swedes pay tribute. However, he committed suicide due to shame for his incestuous relationship with Urse (Yrsa), and his son Roluo (Hrólfr Kraki) succeeded him.

The new king of Sweden, Athislus, thought that the tribute to the Daner might be smaller if he married the Danish king's mother and so took Urse for a queen. However, after some time, Urse was so upset with the Swedish king's greediness that she thought out a ruse to run away from the king and at the same time liberate him of his wealth. She encited Athislus to rebell against Roluo, and arranged so that Roluo would be invited and promised a wealth in gifts.

At the banquet Roluo was at first not recognised by his mother, but when their fondness was commented on by Athisl, the Swedish king and Roluo made a wager where Roluo would prove his endurance. Roluo was placed in front of a fire that exposed him to such heat that finally a maiden could suffer the sight no more and extinguished the fire. Roluo was greatly recompensed by Athisl for his endurance.

When the banquet had lasted for three days, Urse and Roluo escaped from Uppsala, early in the morning in carriages where they had put all the Swedish king's treasure. In order to lessen their burden, and to occupy any pursuing warriors they spread gold in their path (later in the work, this is referred to as "sowing the Fyrisvellir"), although there was a rumour that she only spread gilded copper. When Athislus, who was pursuing the escapers saw that a precious ring was lying on the ground, he bent down to pick it up. Roluo was pleased to see the king of Sweden bent down, and escaped in the ships with his mother.

Roluo later defeated Athislus and gave Sweden to young man named Hiartuar (Heoroweard), who also married Roluo's sister Skulde. When Athislus learnt that Hiartuar and Skulde had killed Roluo, he celebrated the occasion, but he drank so much that he killed himself.

[edit] Archaeology


The mound to the left has been suggested to be the grave where Snorri Sturluson reported that Eadgils was buried. Archaeological finds are consistent with this identification.According to Snorri Sturluson, Eadgils was buried in one of the royal mounds of Gamla Uppsala, and he is believed to be buried in Adils' Mound (also known as the Western mound or Thor's mound) one of the largest mounds at Uppsala. An excavation in this mound showed that a man was buried there c. 575 on a bear skin with two dogs and rich grave offerings. There were luxurious weapons and other objects, both domestic and imported, show that the buried man was very powerful. These remains include a Frankish sword adorned with gold and garnets and a board game with Roman pawns of ivory. He was dressed in a costly suit made of Frankish cloth with golden threads, and he wore a belt with a costly buckle. There were four cameos from the Middle East which were probably part of a casket. The finds show the distant contacts of the House of Yngling in the 6th century.

Snorri's account that Adils had the best horses of his days, and Jordanes' account that the Swedes of the 6th century were famed for their horses find support in archaeology. This time was the beginning of the Vendel Age, a time characterised by the appearance of stirrups and a powerful mounted warrior elite in Sweden, which rich graves in for instance Valsgärde and Vendel.

[edit] Notes

1.^ The dating is inferred from the internal chronology of the sources and the dating of Hygelac's raid on Frisia to c. 516. It is also supported by archaeological excavations of the barrows of Eadgils and Ohthere in Sweden. For a discussion, see e.g. Birger Nerman's Det svenska rikets uppkomst (1925) (in Swedish). For presentations of the archaeological findings, see e.g. Elisabeth Klingmark's Gamla Uppsala, Svenska kulturminnen 59, Riksantikvarieämbetet (in Swedish), or this English language presentation by the Swedish National Heritage Board

2.^ Peterson, Lena (2007). "Lexikon över urnordiska personnamn" (PDF). Swedish Institute for Language and Folklore. pp. 23 and 6, respectively. http://www.sofi.se/images/NA/pdf/urnord.pdf. (Lexicon of nordic personal names before the 8th century)

3.^ Nerman (1925:104)

4.^ Samnordisk runtextdatabas (Swedish)

5.^ Lines 2380-2391

6.^ Lines 2379-2390.

7.^ a b c Modern English translation (1910) by Francis Barton Gummere

8.^ Lines 2609-2619.

9.^ Lines 2391-2396.

10.^ Those care-paths cold refers to his time in exile with the Geats.

11.^ Ála is the genitive case of Áli, the Old Norse form of the name Onela (see Peterson, Lena: Lexikon över urnordiska personnamn, PDF)

12.^ Hägerdal, Hans: Ynglingatal. Nya perspektiv på en kanske gammal text

13.^ The Ynglinga saga in Old Norse

14.^ Laing's translation

15.^ Storm, Gustav (editor) (1880). Monumenta historica Norwegiæ: Latinske kildeskrifter til Norges historie i middelalderen, Monumenta Historica Norwegiae (Kristiania: Brøgger), p. 101.

16.^ Ekrem, Inger (editor), Lars Boje Mortensen (editor) and Peter Fisher (translator) (2003). Historia Norwegie. Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 87-7289-813-5, pp. 77-79.

17.^ Guðni Jónsson's edition of Íslendingabók

18.^ Nerman 1925:103-104

19.^ Nerman 1925:102

20.^ a b heimskringla.no - Eddukvæði : Eddubrot

21.^ a b Brodeur's translation

22.^ Nerman (1925:103)

23.^ Literary Encyclopedia entry

24.^ Hakon according to Chronicon Lethrense proper, Athisl according to the included Annals of Lund

[edit] Bibliography and external links

English translations of the Old Norse Hrólfs saga kraka ok kappa hans :

The Saga of Hrolf Kraki and his Champions. Trans. Peter Tunstall (2003). Available at Norse saga: The Saga of Hrolf Kraki and Northvegr: The Saga of Hrolf Kraki.

The Saga of King Hrolf Kraki. Trans. Jesse L. Byock (1998). London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-043593-X. Selection from this translation are available at The Viking Site: Excerpts from The Saga of King Hrolf Kraki.

"King Hrolf and his champions" included in Eirik the Red: And Other Icelandic Sagas. Trans. Gwyn Jones (1961). Oxford: Oxford World's Classics, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-283530-0.

Original texts:

Hrólfs saga kraka ok kappa hans in Old Norse from heimskringla.no

University of Oregon: Norse: Fornaldarsögur norðurlanda: Hrólfs saga kraka ok kappa hans

Sagnanet: Hrólfs saga kraka

Anderson, Poul (1973). Hrolf Kraki's Saga. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-23562-2. New York: Del Rey Books. ISBN 0-345-25846-0. Reprinted 1988 by Baen Books, ISBN 0-671-65426-8.

Literary Encyclopedia entry

Birger Nerman, 1925, Det svenska rikets uppkomst (in Swedish)

Beowulf:

Beowulf read aloud in Old English

Modern English translation by Francis Barton Gummere

Modern English translation by John Lesslie Hall

Ringler, Dick. Beowulf: A New Translation For Oral Delivery, May 2005. Searchable text with full audio available, from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries.

Several different Modern English translations

Chronicon Lethrense and Annales Lundense:

Chronicon Lethrense and Annales Lundense in translation by Peter Tunstall

The same translation at Northvegr

Book 2 of Gesta Danorum at the Online and Medieval & Classical library

The Relation of the Hrolfs Saga Kraka and the Bjarkarimur to Beowulf by Olson, 1916, at Project Gutenberg

the Ynglinga saga in translation by Samuel Laing, 1844, at Northvegr

The Gróttasöngr in Thorpe's translation

Skáldskaparmál:

Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda in the original language

CyberSamurai Encyclopedia of Norse Mythology: Prose Edda - Skáldskaparmál (English)

CyberSamurai Encyclopedia of Norse Mythology: Prose Edda - Skáldskaparmál (Old Norse)

Krag, C. Ynglingatal og Ynglingesaga: en studie i historiske kilder (Oslo 1991).

Sundquist, O. "Freyr"s offspring. Rulers and religion in ancient Svea society". (2004)


Roi de Uppland


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eadgils Eadgils, Adils, Aðils, Adillus, Aðísl at Uppsölum, Athisl, Athislus, Adhel was a semi-legendary king of Sweden, who is estimated to have lived during the 6th century.[1]

Beowulf and Old Norse sources present him as the son of Ohthere and as belonging to the ruling Yngling (Scylfing) clan. These sources also deal with his war against Onela, which he won with foreign assistance: in Beowulf he gained the throne of Sweden by defeating his uncle Onela with Geatish help, and in two Scandinavian sources (Skáldskaparmál and Skjöldunga saga), he is also helped to defeat Onela in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern, but with Danish help. However, Scandinavian sources mostly deal with his interaction with the legendary Danish king Hrólfr Kraki (Hroðulf), and Eadgils is mostly presented in a negative light as a rich and greedy king.

Name

The Norse forms are based an older (Proto-Norse) *Aþagīslaz (where *aþa is short for *aþala meaning "noble, foremost" (German 'adel') and *gīslaz means "arrow shaft"[2]). However, the Anglo-Saxon form is not etymologically identical. The A-S form would have been *Ædgils, but Eadgils (Proto-Norse *Auða-gīslaz, *auða- meaning "wealth") was the only corresponding name used by the Anglo-Saxons[3]. The name Aðils was so exceedingly rare even in Scandinavia that among almost 6000 Scandinavian runic inscriptions, it is only attested in three runestones (U 35, DR 221 and Br Olsen;215)[4].

Beowulf

The Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf, which was composed sometime between the 8th century and the 11th century, is beside the Norwegian skaldic poem Ynglingatal (9th century) the oldest source that mentions Eadgils.

It is implied in Beowulf that the Swedish king Ohthere died and was succeeded by his younger brother Onela, because Ohthere's two sons, Eadgils and Eanmund had to seek refuge with Heardred, Hygelac's son and successor as king of the Geats[5]. This caused Onela to attack the Geats, and Heardred was killed. Onela returned home and Beowulf succeeded Heardred as the king of Geatland. In the following lines, Onela is referred to as the Scylfings helmet and the son of Ongenþeow, whereas Eadgils and Eanmund are referred to as the sons of Ohtere:

  ...Hyne wræc-mæcgas
  ofer sæ sohtan, suna Ohteres:
  hæfdon hy forhealden helm Scylfinga,
  þone selestan sæ-cyninga,
  þara þe in Swio-rice sinc brytnade,
  mærne þeoden. Him þæt to mearce wearð;
  he þær orfeorme feorh-wunde hleat
  sweordes swengum, sunu Hygelaces;
  and him eft gewat Ongenþiowes bearn
  hames niosan, syððan Heardred læg;
  let þone brego-stol Biowulf healdan,
  Geatum wealdan: þæt wæs god cyning.[6]
  ...Wandering exiles
  sought him o'er seas, the sons of Ohtere,
  who had spurned the sway of the Scylfings'-helmet,
  the bravest and best that broke the rings,
  in Swedish land, of the sea-kings' line,
  haughty hero. Hence Heardred's end.
  For shelter he gave them, sword-death came,
  the blade's fell blow, to bairn of Hygelac;
  but the son of Ongentheow sought again
  house and home when Heardred fell,
  leaving Beowulf lord of Geats
  and gift-seat's master. – A good king he![7]

Later in the poem, it tells that during the battle, Eadgils' brother Eanmund was killed by Onela's champion Weohstan, Wiglaf's father. In the following lines, Eanmund also appears as the son of Ohtere and as a brother's child:

  ...hond rond gefeng,
  geolwe linde, gomel swyrd geteah,
  þæt wæs mid eldum Eanmundes laf,
  suna Ohteres, þam æt sæcce wearð
  wracu wine-leasum Weohstanes bana
  meces ecgum, and his magum ætbær
  brun-fagne helm, hringde byrnan,
  eald sweord eotonisc, þæt him Onela forgeaf,
  his gædelinges guð-gewædu,
  fyrd-searo fuslic: no ymbe þa fæhðe spræc,
  þeah þe he his broðor bearn abredwade.[8]
  ...The linden yellow,
  his shield, he seized; the old sword he drew: --
  as heirloom of Eanmund earth-dwellers knew it,
  who was slain by the sword-edge, son of Ohtere,
  friendless exile, erst in fray
  killed by Weohstan, who won for his kin
  brown-bright helmet, breastplate ringed,
  old sword of Eotens, Onela's gift,
  weeds of war of the warrior-thane,
  battle-gear brave: though a brother's child
  had been felled, the feud was unfelt by Onela.[7]

Eadgils, however, survived and later, Beowulf helped Eadgils with weapons and warriors. Eadgils won the war and killed his uncle Onela. In the following lines, Eadgils is mentioned by name and as the son of Ohtere, whereas Onela is referred to as the king:

  Se þæs leod-hryres lean gemunde
  uferan dogrum, Eadgilse wearð
  fea-sceaftum feond. Folce gestepte
  ofer sæ side sunu Ohteres
  wigum and wæpnum: he gewræc syððan
  cealdum cear-siðum, cyning ealdre bineat.[9]
  The fall of his lord he was fain to requite
  in after days; and to Eadgils he proved
  friend to the friendless, and forces sent
  over the sea to the son of Ohtere,
  weapons and warriors: well repaid he
  those care-paths cold[10] when the king he slew.[7]

This event also appears in the Scandinavian sources Skáldskaparmál and Skjöldunga saga, which will be treated below.

Norwegian and Icelandic sources

The allusive manner in which Eadgils and his relatives are referred to in Beowulf suggests that the scop expected his audience to have sufficient background knowledge about Eadgils, Ohthere and Eanmund to understand the references. Likewise, in the roughly contemporary Norwegian Ynglingatal, Eadgils (Aðils) is called Onela's enemy (Ála[11] dólgr), which likewise suggests that the conflict was familiar to the skald and his audience.

The tradition of Eadgils and Onela resurfaces in several Old Norse works in prose and poetry, and another matter also appears: the animosity between Eadgils and Hrólfr Kraki, who corresponds to Hroðulf in Beowulf.

Ynglingatal

The skaldic poem Ynglingatal is a poetic recital of the line of the Yngling clan. They are also called Skilfingar in the poem (in stanza 19), a name that appears in its Anglo-Saxon form Scylfingas in Beowulf when referring to Eadgils' clan. It is presented as composed by Þjóðólfr of Hvinir by Snorri Sturluson in the Ynglinga saga.

Although its age has been debated, most scholars hold to date from the 9th century[12]. It survives in two versions: one is found in the Norwegian historical work Historia Norvegiæ in Latin, and the other one in Snorri Sturluson's Ynglinga saga, a part of his Heimskringla. It presents Aðils (Eadgils) as the successor of Óttarr (Ohthere) and the predecessor of Eysteinn. The stanza on Aðils refers to his accidental death when he fell from his horse:

  Þat frá ek enn,
  at Aðils fjörvi
  vitta vettr
  um viða skyldi,
  ok dáðgjarn
  af drasils bógum
  Freys áttungr
  falla skyldi.
  Ok við aur
  œgir hjarna
  bragnings burs
  um blandinn varð;
  ok dáðsæll
  deyja skyldi
  Ála dólgr
  at Uppsölum.[13]
  Witch-demons, I have heard men say,
  Have taken Adils' life away.
  The son of kings of Frey's great race,
  First in the fray, the fight, the chase,
  Fell from his steed – his clotted brains
  Lie mixed with mire on Upsal's plains.
  Such death (grim Fate has willed it so)
  Has struck down Ole's [Onela's] deadly foe.[14]

Note that Eadgils' animosity with Onela also appears in Ynglingatal as Aðils is referred to as Ole's deadly foe (Ála dólgr). This animosity is treated in more detail in the Skjöldunga saga and Skáldskaparmál, which follow.

The Historia Norwegiæ, which is a terse summary in Latin of Ynglingatal, only states that Eadgils fell from his horse and died during the sacrifices. In this Latin translation, the Dísir are rendered as the Roman goddess Diana:

Cujus filius Adils vel Athisl ante ædem Dianæ, dum idolorum, sacrificia fugeret, equo lapsus exspiravit. Hic genuit Eustein, [...][15]

His son Adils gave up the ghost after falling from his horse before the temple of Diana, while he was performing the sacrifices made to idols. He became sire to Øystein, [...][16] The same information is found the Swedish Chronicle from the mid-15th century, which calls him Adhel. It is probably based on the Ynglingatal tradition and says that he fell from his horse and died while he worshipped his god.

Íslendingabók

In Íslendingabók from the early 12th century, Eadgils only appears as a name in the listing of the kings of the Yngling dynasty as Aðísl at Uppsala. The reason what that the author, Ari Þorgilsson, traced his ancestry from Eadgils, and its line of succession is the same as that of Ynglingatal.

  i Yngvi Tyrkjakonungr. ii Njörðr Svíakonungr. iii Freyr. iiii Fjölnir. sá er dó at Friðfróða. v Svegðir. vi Vanlandi. vii Visburr. viii Dómaldr. ix Dómarr. x Dyggvi. xi Dagr. xii Alrekr. xiii Agni. xiiii Yngvi. xv Jörundr. xvi Aun inn gamli. xvii Egill Vendilkráka. xviii Óttarr. xix Aðísl at Uppsölum. xx Eysteinn. xxi Yngvarr. xxii Braut-Önundr. xxiii Ingjaldr inn illráði. xxiiii Óláfr trételgja...[17]

As can be seen it agrees with the earlier Ynglingatal and Beowulf in presenting Eadgils as the successor of Óttarr (Ohthere).

Skjöldunga saga

The Skjöldunga saga was a Norse saga which is believed to have been written in the period 1180-1200. The original version is lost, but it survives in a Latin summary by Arngrímur Jónsson.

Arngrímur's summary relates that Eadgils, called Adillus, married Yrsa with whom he had the daughter Scullda. Some years later, the Danish king Helgo (Halga) attacked Sweden and captured Yrsa, not knowing that she was his own daughter, the result of Helgo raping Olava, the queen of the Saxons. Helgo raped Yrsa as well and took her back to Denmark, where she bore the son Rolfo (Hroðulf). After a few years, Yrsa's mother, queen Olava, came to visit her and told her that Helgo was her own father. In horror, Yrsa returned to Adillus, leaving her son behind. Helgo died when Rolfo was eight years old, and Rolfo succeeded him, and ruled together with his uncle Roas (Hroðgar). Not much later, Roas was killed by his half-brothers Rærecus and Frodo, whereupon Rolfo became the sole king of Denmark.

In Sweden, Yrsa and Adillus married Scullda to the king of Öland, Hiørvardus/Hiorvardus/Hevardus (Heoroweard). As her half-brother Rolfo was not consulted about this marriage, he was infuriated and he attacked Öland and made Hiørvardus and his kingdom tributary to Denmark.

After some time, there was animosity between king Adillus of Sweden and the Norwegian king Ale of Oppland. They decided to fight on the ice of Lake Vänern. Adillus won and took his helmet, chainmail and horse. Adillus won because he had requested Rolfo's aid against king Ale and Rolfo had sent him his berserkers. However, Adillus refused to pay the expected tribute for the help and so Rolfo came to Uppsala to claim his recompense. After surviving some traps, Rolfo fled with Adillus' gold, helped by his mother Yrsa. Seeing that the Swedish king and his men pursued him, Rolfo "sowed" the gold on the Fyrisvellir, so that the king's men would pick up the gold, instead of continuing the pursuit.

As can be seen, the Skjöldunga saga retells the story of Eadgils fighting his uncle Onela, but in this version Onela is no longer Eadgils' uncle, but a Norwegian king of Oppland. This change is generally considered to be a late confusion between the core province of the Swedes, Uppland, and its Norwegian namesake Oppland[18]. Whereas, Beowulf leaves the Danish court with the suspicion that Hroðulf (Rolfo Krage, Hrólfr Kraki) might claim the Danish throne for himself at the death of Hroðgar (Roas, Hróarr), it is exactly what he does in Scandinavian tradition. A notable difference is that, in Beowulf, Eadgils receives the help of the Geatish king Beowulf against Onela, whereas it is the Danish king Hroðulf who provides help in Scandinavian tradition.

Skáldskaparmál

Skáldskaparmál was written by Snorri Sturluson, c. 1220, in order to teach the ancient art of kennings to aspiring skalds. It presents Eadgils, called Aðils, in two sections.

The first section is the Kálfsvísa of which Snorri quotes small parts[19]:

  Ali Hrafni,
  es til íss riðu,
  en annarr austr
  und Aðilsi
  grár hvarfaði,
  geiri undaðr.[20]
  Áli rode Hrafn,
  They who rode onto the ice:
  But another, southward,
  Under Adils,
  A gray one, wandered,
  Wounded with the spear.[21]

This is a reference to the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern, during which Eadgils slew Onela and which also appears in the Skjöldunga saga. There is also second stanza, where Eadgils is riding his horse Slöngvir, apparently a combination famous enough to be mentioned.

  Björn reið Blakki,
  en Bíarr Kerti,
  Atli Glaumi,
  en Aðils Sløngvi,
  Högni Hölkvi,
  en Haraldr Fölkvi,
  Gunnarr Gota,
  en Grana Sigurðr.[22]	
  Björn rode Blakkr,
  And Bjárr rode Kertr;
  Atli rode Glaumr,
  And Adils on Slöngvir;
  Högni on Hölvir,
  And Haraldr on Fölkvir;
  Gunnarr rode Goti,
  And Sigurdr, Grani.[23]

Eadgils' horse Slöngvir also appears in Snorri's later work, the Ynglinga saga.

Snorri also presents the story of Aðils and Hrólfr Kraki (Hroðulf) in order to explain why gold was known by the kenning Kraki's seed. Snorri relates that Aðils was in war with a Norwegian king named Áli (Onela), and they fought in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern. Aðils was married to Yrsa, the mother of Hrólfr and so sent an embassy to Hrólfr asking him for help against Áli. He would receive three valuable gifts in recompense. Hrólfr was involved in a war against the Saxons and could not come in person but sent his twelve berserkers, including Böðvarr Bjarki. Áli died in the war, and Aðils took Áli's helmet Battle-boar and his horse Raven. The berserkers demanded three pounds of gold each in pay, and they demanded to choose the gifts that Aðils had promised Hrólfr, that is the two pieces of armour that nothing could pierce: the helmet battle-boar and the mailcoat Finn's heritage. They also wanted the famous ring Svíagris. Aðils considered the pay outrageous and refused.

When Hrólfr heard that Aðils refused to pay, he set off to Uppsala. They brought the ships to the river Fyris and rode directly to the Swedish king's hall at Uppsala with his twelve berserkers. Yrsa welcomed them and led them to their lodgings. Fires were prepared for them and they were given drinks. However, so much wood was heaped on the fires that the clothes started to burn away from their clothes. Hrólfr and his men had enough and threw the courtiers on the fire. Yrsa arrived and gave them a horn full of gold, the ring Svíagris and asked them to flee. As they rode over the Fyrisvellir, they saw Aðils and his men pursuing them. The fleeing men threw the gold on the plain so that the pursuers would stop to collect it. Aðils, however, continued the chase on his horse Slöngvir. Hrólfr then threw Svíagris and saw how Aðils stooped down to pick up the ring with his spear. Hrólfr exclaimed that he had seen the mightiest man in Sweden bend his back.

Ynglinga saga

The Ynglinga saga was written c. 1225 by Snorri Sturluson and he used Skjöldunga saga as a source when he told the story of Aðils[24]. Snorri relates that Aðils succeeded his father Óttar (Ohthere) and betook himself to pillage the Saxons, whose king was Geirþjófr and queen Alof the Great. The king and consort were not at home, and so Aðils and his men plundered their residence at ease driving cattle and captives down to the ships. One of the captives was a remarkably beautiful girl named Yrsa, and Snorri writes that everyone was soon impressed with the well-mannered, pretty and intelligent girl. Most impressed was Aðils who made her his queen.

Some years later, Helgi (Halga), who ruled in Lejre, attacked Sweden and captured Yrsa. As he did not know that Yrsa was his own daughter, he raped her, and took her back to Lejre, where she bore him the son Hrólfr kraki. When the boy was three years of age, Yrsa's mother, queen Alof of Saxony, came to visit her and told her that her husband Helgi was her own father. Horrified, Yrsa returned to Aðils, leaving her son behind, and stayed in Sweden for the rest of her life. When Hrólfr was eight years old, Helgi died during a war expedition and Hrólf was proclaimed king.

Aðils waged a war against king Áli (Onela of Oppland, and they fought in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern. Áli died in this battle. Snorri writes that there was a long account of this battle in the Skjöldunga Saga, which also contained an account of how Hrólf came to Uppsala and sowed gold on the Fyrisvellir.

Snorri also relates that Aðils loved good horses and had the best horses in his days (interestingly, the contemporary Gothic scholar Jordanes noted that the Swedes were famed for their good horses). One horse was named Slöngvi and another one Raven, which he had taken from Áli. From this horse he had bred a horse also named Raven which he sent to king Godgest of Hålogaland, but Godgest could not manage it and fell from it and died, in Omd on the island of Andøya. Aðils himself died in a similar way at the Dísablót. Aðils was riding around the Disa shrine when Raven stumbled and fell, and the king was thrown forward and hit his skull on a stone. The Swedes called him a great king and buried him at Uppsala. He was succeeded by Eysteinn.

Hrólfr Kraki's saga

Hrólfr Kraki's saga is believed to have been written in the period c. 1230 - c. 1450[25]. Helgi and Yrsa lived happily together as husband and wife, not knowing that Yrsa was Helgi's daughter. Yrsa's mother queen Oluf travelled to Denmark to tell her daughter the truth. Yrsa was shocked and although Helgi wanted their relationship to remain as it was, Yrsa insisted on leaving him to live alone. She was later taken by the Swedish king Aðils as his queen, which made Helgi even more unhappy. Helgi went to Uppsala to fetch her, but was killed by Aðils in battle. In Lejre, he was succeeded by his son Hrólfr Kraki.

After some time, Böðvarr Bjarki encouraged Hrólfr to go Uppsala to claim the gold that Aðils had taken from Helgi after the battle. Hrólfr departed with 120 men and his twelve beserkers and during a rest they were tested by a farmer called Hrani (Odin in disguise) who advised Hrólfr to send back all his troops but his twelve beserkers, as numbers would not help him against Aðils.

They were at first well received, but in his hall, Aðils did his best to stop Hrólfr with pit traps and hidden warriors who attacked the Danes. Finally Aðils entertained them but put them to a test where they had to endure immense heat by a fire. Hrólfr and his beserkers finally had enough and threw the courtiers, who were feeding the fire, into the fire and lept at Aðils. The Swedish king disappeared through a hollow tree trunk that stood in his hall.

Yrsa admonished Aðils for wanting to kill her son, and went to meet the Danes. She gave them a man named Vöggr to entertain them. This Vöggr remarked that Hrólfr had the thin face of a pole ladder, a Kraki. Happy with his new cognomen Hrólfr gave Vöggr a golden ring, and Vöggr swore to avenge Hrólfr if anyone should kill him. Hrólfr and his company were then attacked by a troll in the shape of a boar in the service of Aðils, but Hrólfr's dog Gram killed it.

They then found out that Aðils had set the hall on fire, and so they broke out of the hall, only to find themselves surrounded by heavily armed warriors in the street. After a fight, king Aðils retreated to summon reinforcements.

Yrsa then provided her son with a silver drinking horn filled with gold and jewels and a famous ring, Svíagris. Then she gave Hrólf and his men twelve of the Swedish king's best horses, and all the armour and provisions they needed.

Hrólfr took a fond farewell of his mother and departed over the


http://en.wiki

Om Aldis "den mektige" Ottarson, Konge i Uppsala (Norsk)

Aðils, Adillus, Aðísl at Uppsölum, Eadgils, Athisl, Athislus, og Adhel) var en semi-legendarisk konge i Sverige som er beregnet til å ha levd en gang på 500-tallet. [1] Adils er nevnt som en hovedfigur i Rolf Krakes saga, særlig Rolf Krakes eventyrlige reise til svenskekongen i Uppsala. I danske sagn kjennes Adils som den som satte «Hundekongen», en hund som konge, til å herske i Danmark.

Navnet:

Den norrøne formene av navnet Adils er basert på eldre urnordisk *Aþagīslaz (hvor *aþa er kort for *aþala i betydning «edel», «fremst», tilsvarende germanske «adel», og *gīslaz i betydning «pilskaft»). [2] Det angelsaksiske navnet er derimot ikke etymologisk identisk. A-S-formen ville ha vært *Ædgils, men Eadgils (urnordisk *Auða-gīslaz, *auða- i betydningen «rikdom») var det eneste tilsvarende navnet som ble benyttet av angelsakserne. [3] Navnet Adils (Aðils) ble deretter økende sjeldent selv i Norden slik at blant bortimot 6000 nordiske runeinskripsjoner er navnet kun dokumentert på tre runesteiner (U 35, DR 221 & Br Olsen;21

Gammelengelske kilder

Beowulf

Det angelsaksiske diktet Beowulf, som ble nedskrevet en gang mellom 700-tallet og 1000-tallet, er foruten det norske skaldediktet Ynglingatal fra 800-tallet den eldste kilden som nevner Adils/Eadgils.

Det er underforstått i Beowulf at den svenske kongen Ohthere døde og ble etterfulgt av sin yngre bror Onela ettersom Ohtheres to sønner, Eadgils og Eanmund, måtte søke tilflukt hos Heardred, Hygelacs sønn og etterfølger som gøtenes konge. [5] Dette fikk Onela til å angripe gøtene, og Heardred ble drept. Onela dro hjem og Beowulf etterfulgte Heardred som konge av Gøtaland. I de følgende linjene er Onela referert til som Scylfingenes hjelm og sønn av Ongenþeow mens Eadgils og Eanmund er referert til som sønnene av Ohthere. Senere i diktet blir det fortalt at i løpet av slaget ble Eadgils' bror Eanmund drept av Onelas kjempe Weohstan, Wiglafs far. I de følgende linjene opptrer Eanmund også som sønn av Ohthere og som en brors barn.

Eadgils overlever imidlertid, og senere får Eadgils hjelp av Beowulf med våpen og krigere. Eadgils vant krigen og drepte sin onkel Onela. I de følgende linjene er Eadgils nevnt med navn og som sønn av Ohthere mens Onela er referert til som kongen.

Denne hendelsen opptrer også i de norrøne kildene Skaldskaparmål og Skjoldungesaga som blir behandlet nedenfor.

Norske og islandske kilder

Den hentydende vis som Eadgils og hans slektninger blir referert til i Beowulf antyder at skopen (scop) (angelsaksisk skald) forutsatte at hans publikum hadde tilstrekkelig med bakgrunnskunnskap om Eadgils, Ohthere og Eanmund. Tilsvarende er den noenlunde samtidige norske Ynglingatal blir Adils (Eadgils) kalt for Åles fiende (Ála dólgr[6], noe som tilsvarende antyder at konflikten var velkjent for skalden og hans tilhørere.

Tradisjonen med Adils (Eadgils) og Åle (Onela) dukker opp til overflaten i flere norrøne verker i prosa og poesi, og en annen sak opptrer også: fiendskapet mellom Adils og Rolf Krake (Hrólfr Kraki), som korresponderer til Hroðulf i Beowulf.

Ynglingatal

Kvadet Ynglingatal er en poetisk framstillingen om Ynglingeætten. De er også kalt for «Skilfingar» i diktet i vers 19, et navn som opptrer i dets angelsaksiske form «Scylfingas» i Beowulf når det refereres til Eadgils’ slekt. Det er presentert som kvadet av Tjodolv den kvinværske (Þjóðólfr Hvinir) av Snorre Sturlason i Ynglingesaga.

Kvadets alder har blitt diskutert, men de fleste forskere har kommet fram til at det er fra 800-tallet. [7] Det er blitt bevart i to versjoner: det ene er funnet i det norske historieverket Historia Norvegiæ på latin, og det andre er i Snorre Sturlasons Ynglingesaga, en av sagaene i hans kongesagaer, Heimskringla. Det presenterer Adils som etterfølger av faren Ottar og ble selv etterfulgt av sønnen Øystein Adilsson. Verset om Adils viser til hans ulykke med døden som følge da han falt av hesten:

Jeg har hørt at Adils’ liv var det troll som tok engang ;ærelysten av øykens bak Frøys ætling falle måtte Og med grus grundig blandet ble kongssønns kloke hjerne; dø måtte den dådrike ,Åles skrekk i Uppsala

Merk at Adils fiendskap med Åle også opptrer i Ynglingatal hvor Adils blir referert til som Åles dødelige fiende, eller poetisk som «Åles skrekk» (Ála dólgr). Dette fiendskapet er utmeislet i større detaljer i Skjoldungesaga og Skaldskaparmål som følger.

Historia Norwegiæ som er et enkelt sammendrag på latin av Ynglingatal hevder kun at Adils falt fra hesten og døde i løpet av ofringer. I denne latinske oversettelsen er disene (Dísir) gjengitt som den romerske gudinnen Diana:

Cujus filius Adils vel Athisl ante ædem Dianæ, dum idolorum, sacrificia fugeret, equo lapsus exspiravit. Hic genuit Eustein,

«Hans sønn Adils oppga ånden etter å ha falt fra hesten sin foran tempelet til Diana mens han utførte ofringene til idolene. Han ble far til Øystein,

Den samme informasjonen er funnet i det svenske manuskriptet Prosaiska krönikan (Vetus chronicon sveciæ prosaicum) fra midten av 1400-tallet og som kaller ham for Adhel. Det er sannsynligvis basert på Ynglingatal-tradisjonen og forteller at han falt fra hesten sin og døde mens han dyrket sin gud.

Íslendingabók

I Íslendingabók fra begynnelsen av 1100-tallet opptrer Adils som et navn i en opplisting av konger fra Ynglingeætten ved Uppsala. Grunnen er at forfatteren, Are Frode, sporet sin egen ætt tilbake til Adils og dens kongerekke er den samme som blir oppgitt i Ynglingatal.

«i Yngvi Tyrkjakonungr. ii Njörðr Svíakonungr. iii Freyr. iiii Fjölnir. sá er dó at Friðfróða. v Svegðir. vi Vanlandi. vii Visburr. viii Dómaldr. ix Dómarr. x Dyggvi. xi Dagr. xii Alrekr. xiii Agni. xiiii Yngvi. xv Jörundr. xvi Aun inn gamli. xvii Egill Vendilkráka. xviii Óttarr. xix Aðísl at Uppsölum. xx Eysteinn. xxi Yngvarr. xxii Braut-Önundr. xxiii Ingjaldr inn illráði. xxiiii Óláfr trételgja...»[12]

Som det kan bli sett er informasjonene i Íslendingabók på linje med den tidligere Ynglingatal og Beowulf i å presentere Adils som etterfølger av Ottar


Skjoldungesaga

Skjoldungesaga var en norrøn saga som er antatt blitt skrevet i perioden 1180–1200. Originalen har gått tapt, men fragmenter er blitt bevart i et latinsk sammendrag ved Arngrímur Jónsson.

Jónssons sammendrag forteller at Adils, her kalt Adillus giftet seg med Yrsa og som han fikk datteren Scullda med. Noen år senere angrep den danske kongen Helgo (Helge) Sverige og tok Yrsa til fange uten å vite at hun var hans egen datter, resultatet av at han tidligere hadde voldtok Olava (Aaluf), saksernes dronning og Yrsas mor. Han voldtok også Yrsa og tok henne med til Danmark hvor hun fødte sønnen Rolfo (Rolf Krake). Etter noen få år kom dronning Olava på besøk til sin datter Yrsa og fortalte at Helge var hennes egen far. I avsky dro Yrsa tilbake til Adillus og etterlot sin sønn. Helgo døde da Rolfo var åtte år gammel, Rolfo etterfulgte ham og styrte Danmark sammen med sin onkel Roas (Roar). Ikke lenge etter ble Roas drept av sine halvbrødre Rærecus og Frodo, og da ble Rolfo enekonge av Danmark.

I Sverige giftet Yrsa og Adillus datteren Scullda til kongen av Öland, kalt Hiørvardus/Hiorvardus/Hevardus (Heoroweard). Da hennes halvbror Rolfo ikke var blitt rådført om dette ekteskapet ble hans så rasende at han angrep Öland og underkastet Hiørvardus og hans rike Danmark.

Etter en del tid ble det fiendskap mellom kong Adillus av Sverige og den norske kong Ale (Åle) av Oppland. De besluttet å kjempe på isen av innsjøen Vänern. Adillus vant seier og tok Ales hjelm, brynje og hest som seiersbytte. Adillus vant seier for at han hadde bedt om Rolfos støtte mot kong Ale og Rolfo sendte ham sine berserker. Imidlertid nektet Adillus å betale den avtalte lønna for hjelpen og Rolfo kom da til Uppsala for å kreve vederlag. Etter å ha overlevd en del feller flyktet Rolfo med Adillus' gull, hjulpet av sin mor Yrsa. Da den svenske kongen og hans menn fulgte etter, «sådde» Rolfo gullet på Fyrisvollene slik at svenskekongens menn stoppet opp for å samle gullet. Slik slapp Rolfo og mennene hans unna.

Skjoldungesaga gjenforteller historien om Eadgils (Adils) som slåss mot sin onkel Onela, men i denne versjonen er Onela ikke lenger Eadgils' onkel, men Åle, en norsk småkonge fra Oppland. Denne endringen er betraktet som en senere forvirring mellom den svenske provinsen Uppland og det norske området med et tilsvarende navn, Oppland. [13] Hvor Beowulf forlater det danske hoff med mistanken at Hroðulf (Rolf Krake) vil kreve den danske trone for seg selv når Hroðgar (Roar) er død, så er det nøyaktig hva han gjør i den norrøne tradisjonen. En betydelig forskjell er at i Beowulf mottar Eadgils hjelp fra den gøtiske kongen Beowulf mot Onela mens det er den danske kongen Rolf Krake som gir hjelp i den norrøne tradisjonen.

Skaldskaparmål

Skaldskaparmål ble skrevet av Snorre Sturlason, en gang rundt 1220 med den hensikt å være et læredikt for å undervise i den gamle kunsten å bruke kjenninger og hva disse betyr. Diktet presenterer Adils i to seksjoner.

Den første er fra Kálfsvísa som Snorre siterer små deler av[14]:

Åle red Ravn, en red ut på isen, en annen øst, og Adils red,  en grå en, dro ut, såret av spydene

Det er også en referanse til slaget på isen av Vänern hvor Adils drepte Åle og som også fortelles om Skjoldungesaga. Det er også et andre vers hvor Adils rir sin hest Sløngve og Åle sin hest Ravn. Den siste hesten var så bra og dyktig til å løpe at Adils, i henhold til Ynglingesagaen, lot avle en hest som også het Ravn og som ble sendt som gave til kong Godgjest i Hålogaland – noe som var til liten glede for mottakeren: «Godgjest rei den, men han kunne ikke få den til å stanse; så falt han av hesten og døde

Snorre forteller historien om Adils og Rolf Krake for å forklare betydningen av hvorfor gull var kjent av kjenningen «Rolf Krakes såkorn». Snorre gjenforteller derfor at Adils var i krig med Åle, for her vinner Adils i bytte de gilde rikdommene hjelmen Hildegalt, og brynja Finnsleiv som det ikke jern beit på, og i tillegg hadde Adils gullarmringen Sviagris som han hadde arvet fra forfedrene sine. Disse gjenstandene er den rikdommen som Rolf Krake tar fra Adils etter at han har krevet vederlag for å ha støttet Adils i kampen mot Åle. For å unnslippe forfølgerne når de flykter til hest, særlig fordi Adils har den raske norske hesten Ravn (Ramn), lar Rolf Krake gullet så som såkorn etter seg, og høster at forfølgerne stopper opp for å samle gullet. Denne historien har også den hensikt å ikke bare vise hvor gløgg Rolf Krake er, men også hvor gjerrig og gnien svenskekongen er.

Ynglingesaga

Ynglingesaga ble skrevet en gang rundt 1225 av Snorre Sturlason og han benyttet Skjoldungesagaen som kilde da han fortalte historien om Adils, den samme historien han også tidligere hadde fortalte om i Skaldskaparmål og det er få avvikende detaljer, men mer utførlig fortalt.

Snorre forteller at Adils etterfulgte sin far Ottar, han plyndret sakserne i Saksland hvor en konge ved navn Geirtjov og hans hustru Ålov den mektige rådde. Kongen og dronningen var ikke hjemme, men Adils og hans menn plyndret stedet og tok krøtter og tjenestefolk med seg. Blant dem var ei jente som var enestående vakker og het Yrsa. Snorre skriver at alle var imponert over henne, og mest var Adils som giftet seg med henne.

En del år senere angrep Helge Halvdansson, som hersket i Lejre i Danmark, Svitjod (Sverige) og tok Yrsa til fange. Da han ikke visste at Yrsa var hans egen datter voldtok han henne og tok henne med til Danmark hvor hun fødte sønnen Rolf Krake. Da gutten var tre år gammel kom Yrsa mor Ålov på besøk og fortalte datteren at hennes ektemann var også hennes far. Yrsa etterlot sønnen og dro tilbake til Adils og hun ble i Sverige resten av livet. Da Rolf var åtte år gammel døde Helge på krigstokt og gutten ble erklært konge.

Adils gikk til krig mot kong Åle fra Oppland og de kjempet på isen på Vänern. Åle døde i dette slaget, og Snorre forteller at det var lang redegjørelse av dette slaget i Skjoldungesagaen, og om hvordan Rolf Krake dro til Uppsala og bruke gullet som såkorn på Fyrisvollene.

Snorre forteller også at Adils likte gode hester og at han hadde de beste hestene i sin tid. Den samtidige gotiske lærde Jordanes noterte at svenskene var berømte for deres gode hester. En god hest var kalt Sløngve og en annen for Ravn som han hadde vunnet fra Åle etter dennes død. Ravn fikk han avlet til enda en hest ved navn Ravn og som han sendte som gave til Godgjest i Hålogaland. Som de fleste som Snorre omtaler i Ynglingesagaen dør Godgjest på ynkelig og til dels underlig vis ved at han faller av hesten. Tilsvarende dør også Adils:

«Adils var til et diseblot og rei hesten omkring disesalen, hesten snublet under ham, og kongen falt framover, hodet slo mot en stein så hausen sprakk, og hjernen fløt ut på steinen, det ble hans bane; han døde i Uppsala og ble hauglagt der, svearne reknet ham for en mektig konge.»

Adils ble etterfulgt av sin sønn Øystein, slår Snorre fast, og nevner ikke moren, og av det kan man anta at Yrsa ikke var det.

Rolf Krakes saga

Rolf Krakes saga er antatt å ha blitt skrevet i tiden mellom 1230 og 1450[18], men har en lang muntlig tradisjon før den fikk sin skriftlige form. Sagaen forteller at Helge og Yrsa levde lykkelig sammen som ektefeller ved at ingen av dem kjente til at de var far og datter før Yrsa mor Ålov kom til Danmark og avslørte sannheten. Selv om Helge ønsket å fortsette insisterte Yrsa på å forlate ham for å leve alene. Hun ble senere tatt av den svenske kongen Adils som hans dronning. Helge dro til Uppsala for å hendte henne, men ble drept av Adils i et slag. I Lejre ble han etterfulgt av sin sønn Rolf Krake.

Etter en tid ble Rolf Krake oppmuntret av berserken Bodvar Bjarke til å dra til Uppsala for å kreve det gull som Adils hadde tatt fra Helge etter slaget. Rolf dro av sted med 120 menn og sine tolv berserker og underveis ble de testet av en bonde som kalte seg Rane (Odin i forkledning) som rådet Rolf å sende tilbake alle unntatt sine tolv berserker da antall ikke vil hjelpe ham mot Adils.

Danene ble først godt mottatt, men i Adils’ hall ble de hindret med hindringer, lureri og bakholdsangrep, og til slutt utfordret Adils dem om de tålte intens hete. Rolf og berserkene kastet skjoldene på ilden og hoppet over. Adils lurte seg ut bakvegen. Yrsa sendte en mann ved navn Vogg for å underholde danene, og han sa at Rolf Krake hadde et tynt ansikt som en stige, en «kraki», og Rolf likte tilnavnet sitt og ga mannen en gullring for det. Vogg sverget til gjengjeld å hevne danskekongen om han ble drept. Et troll i Adils tjeneste angrep dem i form av et villsvin, men Rolfs hund Gram drepte den.

De fant deretter ut at Adils hadde satte hallen i brann, og da de brøt ut ble de omringet av Adils’ tungt væpnede krigere som de slo tilbake. Yrsa ga Rolf et drikkehorn av sølv fylt med gull og juveler, og den berømte ringen Sviagris. Hun ga dem også Adils’ beste hester og de forsyninger de trengte. Rolf tok farvel med sin mor og de red mot kysten.

Over Fyrisvollene oppdaget de at Adils og krigere fulgte etter dem. Rolf Krake brukte da gullet som «såkorn» og sådde det etter seg. Adils oppdaget at hans kostbare Sviagris og gullet lå strødd på bakken, og han stoppet for å plukke ringen opp med spydet sitt. Rolf slo da sverdet mot ryggen hans og skrek at han hadde bøyd ryggen på den mektigste mannen i Sverige Dansk kilder[rediger | rediger kilde]

Chronicon Lethrense og Annales Lundenses

Chronicon Lethrense, også kalt Lejrekrøniken (og den inkluderte Annales Lundenses) forteller at da de danske kongene Helghe (Helge) og Ro (Roar) var døde, tvang den svenske kongen Hakon/Athis[19] danskene å utrope en hund som konge. Hunden ble etterfulgt av Rolf Krage.

Gesta Danorum

Gesta Danorum (bok 2), av Saxo Grammaticus, forteller at Helgo (Helge) slo tilbake en svensk invasjon, drepte den svenske kongen Hothbrodd, og fikk svenskene til å betale skatt. Han begikk derimot selvmord av skam for sitt incestiøse forhold til Urse (Yrsa), og hans sønn Roluo (Rolf Krake) etterfulgte ham.

Den nye kongen av Sverige, Athislus (Adils), tenkte at skatten til danske kunne bli mindre om han giftet seg med den danske kongens mor og han tok Urse som dronning. Senere ble Urse så oppskaket av den svenske kongens gjerrighet at hun planla å rømme fra ham og samtidig frigjøre ham fra hans rikdom. Hun oppmuntret Athislus til å gjøre opprør mot Roluo, og sørget det slik at Roluo bli invitert til Sverige og lovet rike gaver.

Ved banketten ble Roluo først ikke gjenkjent av sin mor, men deres ømhet for hverandre ble deretter kommentert av Athislus og Roluo inngikk et veddemål med svenskekongen for å bevise sin manndomskraft.

Da gjestebudet hadde vart i tre dager rømte Urse og Roluo fra Uppsala tidlig om morgenen og fraktet med seg Athislus’ rikdommer i vogner. For å lette byrden og oppholde etterfølgerne spredde de gullet etter seg. Senere ble denne hendelsen i dette verket referert til å «så Fyrisvollene». Da Athislus oppdaget en kostbar ring liggende på bakken bøyde han seg for å plukke den opp og Roluo var fornøyd med å se kongen av Sverige bøye seg. Deretter unnslapp Roluo i skipene med sin mor.

Senere beseiret Roluo svenskekongen og ga Sverige til en ung mann ved navn Hiartuar (Heoroweard) som ble gift med Roluos søster Skulde. Da Athislus fikk høre at Hiartuar og Skulde hadde drept Roluo feiret han det, men han drakk så mye at han døde.

henhold til Snorre Sturlason ble Adils gravlagt i kongehaugene på Gamle Uppsala, og det er antatt han er den som gravlagt i det som kalles for «Adils’ gravhaug», også kjent som «Den vestlige gravhaug» eller «Tors gravhaug», og er en av de største gravhaugene på Uppsala. En utgravningen av denne haugen avslørte at en mann ble gravlagt her en gang rundt år 575 på et bjørneskinn og med to hunder og rike gravgaver. Det var kostbare våpen og andre objekter, både innlandske og importerte, noe som beviser at den gravlagte hadde vært en mektig mann.

Disse levningene omfattet også et frankisk sverd smykket med gull, og et brettspill med romerske brikker gjort av elfenben. Han var kledd i en kostbar drakt gjort av frankisk tøy med gulltråder, og han bar et belte med en kostbar spenne. De var fire kaméer (smykkestein med utskåret bilde i relieff) fra Midtøsten som antagelig var deler av en kiste. Disse funnene viste de fjerne kontaktene som Ynglingeætten hadde på 500-tallet. Arkeologi

Snorre Sturlasons redegjørelse at Adils hadde de beste hestene i sin tid og Jordanes' redegjørelse at svenskene på 500-tallet var berømte for sine hester er støttet av arkeologiske spor. Denne tiden var begynnelsen på Vendeltiden, en arkeologisk periode i Sveriges forhistorie, en tid karakterisert av tilsynekomsten av oppfinnelsen stigbøyle og en mektig krigerelite i Sverige, bevist av rike graver i eksempelvis Valsgärde og Vendel.

https://nn.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adils

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