Admiral Edward "Old Grog" Vernon

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Edward Vernon, Vice-Admiral

Birthplace: Greater London, England, United Kingdom
Death: October 30, 1757 (72)
Immediate Family:

Son of James Vernon and Mary Vernon
Husband of Sarah Vernon
Fiancé of Anne Fuller
Partner of NN Unknown, ? 1730 ?
Father of Theodosia Maud Archer and James Vernon
Brother of James Vernon the Younger; Theodosia Vernon and Mary Vernon
Half brother of Francis Vernon, 1st Earl of Shipbrook and Henry Vernon

Managed by: Richard Henry Garfield Panton
Last Updated:

About Admiral Edward "Old Grog" Vernon

Commander-in-ChIef of the West Indies Fleet, Port Royal, Admiral of the White Squadron of the British Fleet.

Edward Vernon was born in Westminster on 12 November 1684, son of James Vernon (d.1727) and Mary, daughter of Sir John Buck. He attended Westminster School and entered the navy in 1700. He rose to be Vice Admiral and also served as a Member of Parliament. “Old Grog” was his nickname, alluding to the grogram cloak he used to wear (made of coarse fibres stiffened with gum). The drink of rum diluted with water, which he was first to issue to his men instead of neat spirits, was also known as Grog. In 1729 he married Sarah (1699-1756), daughter of Thomas Best and they lived at Nacton, near Ipswich, Suffolk. All three of their children pre-deceased them. Edward died on 30 October 1757 and is buried with his wife at Nacton. His nephew Francis erected a monument for him in the north transept of the Abbey. The inscription reads:

“Sacred to the memory of EDWARD VERNON Admiral of the White Squadron of the British Fleet. He was the second son of JAMES VERNON, who was Secretary of State to King William the III, and whose abilitys & integrity were equally conspicuous. In his youth he served under the Admirals SHOVELL & ROOKE. By their example he learned to conquer; by his own merit he rose to command. In the war with Spain of MDCCXXXIX he took the Fort of Porto Bello with six ships, a force which was thought unequal to the attempt. For this he received the thanks of both Houses of Parliament. He subdued Chagre, and at Carthagena conquered as far as naval forces could carry victory. After these services he retired without place or title from the exercise of publick to the enjoyment of private virtue. The testimony of a good conscience was his reward, the love and esteem of all good men, his glory. In battle; though calm, he was active, & though intrepid, prudent: successfull yet not ostentatious, ascribing the glory to God. In the Senate, he was disinterested, vigilant and steady. On the XXXth day of October MDCCLVII he died as he had lived, the friend of Man, the lover of his Country, the father of the poor, aged LXXIII.” 

On the pedestal of the bust:

“As a memorial of his own gratitude and the virtues of his benefactor, this monument was erected by his nephew FRANCIS Lord ORWELL in the year 1763”.

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Edward Vernon ("Old Grog") (12 November 1684 – 30 October 1757) was an English naval officer. Vernon was born in Westminster, England and went to Westminster School. He joined the Navy in 1700 and was promoted to Lieutenant in 1702 and served on several different ships for the next five years. He was appointed Captain in 1706, taking command of HMS Rye, part of the fleet of Admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovell. With HMS Rye he narrowly escaped the Scilly naval disaster of 1707 in which Shovell and nearly 2,000 sailors were lost. In the next ten years Vernon was on half pay for half of this time. In May 1728 he took up parliamentary duties and the case of Robert Jenkins, who was alleged to have had his ear cut off by Spanish coastguards in the Caribbean. This led to the War of Jenkin's Ear in 1739 in which Vice Admiral Vernon led a fleet along with Major General Thomas Wentworth. Vernon captured Porto Bello a Spanish colonial possession, as a result of which, he was granted the Freedom of the City of London. However, Vernon's next campaign against the Spanish, a large-scale assault on Cartagena de Indias in 1741 ended in disaster. This was the biggest amphibious attack until the Invasion of Normandy in 1944. In Cartagena the British fleet of 186 ships and almost 27,000 men was defeated by a garrison of 3,500 men and 6 ships of the line commanded by the one-eyed, one-armed and lame, admiral Blas de Lezo. The strategic defense of the colonial port of Cartagena led to heavy British casualties and eventually a retreat to Jamaica. Following the disease outbreak and quarrels with Wentworth, Vernon returned to the UK to find he had been elected MP for Ipswich. However, the news of the Cartagena defeat eventually led to the collapse of Robert Walpole's government. Vernon maintained his Naval career for another four years before retiring in 1746. In an active Parliamentary career Vernon advocated an improvement in naval procedures and he continued to hold an interest in naval affairs until his death in 1757.

George Washington's half-brother, Lawrence Washington, served on Vernon's flagship "Princess Caroline" [80 guns] as a Captain of the Marines in 1741 and named his estate Mount Vernon in honour of his commander.

Early life

Born in Westminster, London, Vernon was the second son of James Vernon, secretary of state to William III. Edward had one other sibling, James who became British envoy to Denmark and served as a member of parliament and Clerk of the Privy Council. Vernon briefly attended Westminster School, then joined the Royal Navy on 10 May 1700 as a Volunteer per order on board HMS Shrewsbury. It is important to note that Vernon's secondary education was sharply at odds with the norm for Royal Navy officers of his day, most of whom received only an elementary education before they were sent to sea at about the age of twelve.

War of the Spanish Succession

Main article: War of the Spanish Succession

In March 1701, he was transferred to HMS Ipswich and three months later, joined HMS Mary. On 16 September 1702, Vernon was promoted Lieutenant and appointed to HMS Lennox serving in the Channel Squadron. The ship was later transferred to the Mediterranean and finally paid off in March 1704. He was then appointed to HMS Barfleur, which at the time was the flagship of Admiral Cloudesley Shovell in the Mediterranean. The ship was present at the capture of Gibraltar and the Battle of Malaga.

In December, with Shovell, he transferred to HMS Britannia and was present at the capture of Barcelona in 1705.

On 22 January 1706 he was promoted Captain and appointed to HMS Dolphin. However, he was moved ten days later into HMS Rye and remained in the Mediterranean until 1707. With the rest of Shovell’s fleet, he returned to England, but was fortunate to escape the disaster that befell Shovell’s flagship, HMS Association at the Isles of Scilly. In November, he joined HMS Jersey and in April 1708, took command of the West Indies station. In 1710, he successfully broke up a Spanish squadron off Cartegena. At the end of the War of the Spanish Succession in 1712, he returned to Britain.

Peace, promotion and parliament

In March 1715, he was appointed to HMS Assistance, in which he served in the Baltic until 1717 when the ship was paid off. After this, he was put on half pay for the next eighteen months. In March 1719, he was appointed to HMS Mary and returned to the Baltic. Vernon was the commodore of Port Royal in Jamaica in 1720. In 1721, he again went on half pay for five years. During this period, he became the member of Parliament for Penryn and took a leading part in naval debates. In 1726, he was re-appointed to active service in HMS Grafton. This ship served in the Baltic until the winter of 1727 when it was transferred to the fleet at Gibraltar, after Spain had declared war on Britain. In May 1728, peace was made with Spain and Vernon returned to Britain and resumed his Parliamentary duties. He took up the case of Robert Jenkins, a merchant seaman who claimed to have had his ear cut off after his vessel was boarded by Spanish guardacostas in 1731.

War of Jenkins' Ear

Main article: War of Jenkins' Ear

During the ensuing War of Jenkins' Ear, Vernon was promoted Vice-Admiral (of the Blue) on 9 July 1739 and, as he had prominently spoken for both the war and the Navy, he was given the command of a squadron of six ships. The Gentleman's Magazine reported England's preparations for war against Spain in July 1739, noting that: Vernon had been recalled to active duty and promoted; that, on 10 July King George II had instructed the Lords of the Admiralty to prepare Letters of Marque; and (a week after the fact) it reported Vernon and his squadron had sailed for the West Indies on 20 July.

Despite the unmistakable signs of Great Britain preparing for a naval war in the summer of 1739, the formal declaration of war against Spain was not announced in London until Saturday 23 October 1739 (Old Style).

Porto Bello

Main article: Battle of Porto Bello

On 21 November 1739 Vernon captured the Spanish colonial possession of Porto Bello (now in Panama) using just six ships (against the 90 men Spanish garrison). Vernon was subsequently granted the Freedom of the City of London and commemorative medals were produced. The Portobello areas in London, Dublin and Edinburgh (see Portobello Road and Portobello, Dublin) are named for his victory, and "Rule Britannia" was composed by Thomas Arne during the celebratory frenzy of 1740. A tower commemorating his victory was erected by members of the Vernon family living at Hilton Hall outside Wolverhampton.

Addressed by Hosier's Ghost

Vernon's action was seen by the "Patriots", or pro-war party opposed to Walpole, as just vengeance for Admiral Hosier's disastrous Blockade of Porto Bello during 1726-28 where with a greater force of 20 ships, and Porto Bello inadequately defended, government orders forbade him from firing a shot, leaving him and some 4,000 sailors to linger ineffectually off the shore and to die of tropical diseases. The ballad Admiral Hosier's Ghost was written by Richard Glover following Vernon's triumph, as an attempt to remind Walpole of his previous failed policy of inaction, and to check any basking in Vernon's glory on his part. In the ballad, the Ghost of Hosier appears to Vernon as he rests at anchor following his successful engagement, and congratulates him:

Unrepining at thy glory

Thy successful arms we hail.
He then charges him to let Hosier's wrongs prevail when he returns to England, upon which he and his fellow ghosts can finally rest, their reputations restored. The first half of verse 7 is thus:

For resistance I could fear none

But with twenty ships had done
What thou brave and happy Vernon
Hast atchiev'd with six alone.

Cartagena de Indias

Main article: Battle of Cartagena de Indias

In April 1741, with a much larger fleet and land forces under Major General Thomas Wentworth, 26,600 men and 186 ships, Vernon turned his attention to Cartagena de Indias in Nueva Granada (now Colombia). Vernon was so self-confident that he sent a message to his King assuring he had conquered the city, generating a euphoria in England bigger than the capture of Portbelo produced the year before. Previously he tried to bombard Cartagena with his huge squadron without success. Vernon and Wentworth did not get on and time was wasted in deciding where to land the army. When the army finally attacked at the battle of Cartagena, it was repelled by the garrison of less than 3,000 men and 6 ships commanded by Blas de Lezo. An epidemic of yellow fever which ravaged the crews of the ships and the soldiers ashore, compounded the problems and the force returned to Port Royal.

George Washington's half-brother, Lawrence Washington, served on Vernon's flagship "Princess Caroline" [80 guns] as a Captain of the Marines in 1741 and named his estate Mount Vernon in honour of his commander. At the end of May 1741, the British forces in the Caribbean decided to attack Cuba. Vernon captured Guantánamo Bay, briefly renaming it Cumberland Bay. He arrived with a force of eight warships and 4,000 soldiers with plans to march on Santiago de Cuba, but was resisted by local guerilla forces and finally abandoned the attempt in December after sickness broke out again. Vernon could no longer hold back his anger at what he perceived as Wentworth’s ineptitude and a bitter quarrel ensued ending in the recall of both parties to Britain at the end of 1742.

Further political career

While he had been away, Vernon had been elected MP for Ipswich, after having purchased the Nacton estate in Suffolk. Vernon returned to Parliament and continued to harass the government on naval affairs. At this time, many anonymous pamphlets criticising the Admiralty appeared and although Vernon denied he was the author, some have been attributed to him. In 1745, Vernon was promoted to Admiral and appointed to command the North Sea Fleet in response to the threat from the French forces in support of Charles Edward Stuart, "Bonnie Prince Charlie". This was his last operational command. When the Admiralty refused to grant him the status of Commander-in-Chief, he asked to be relieved on 1 December 1745, and the Admiralty removed him from the list of flag officers in 1746.

Naval innovation and health

Throughout his career, Vernon had tried to improve naval procedures and encouraged his captains to improve manoeuvres and gun drill. He introduced new instructions to aid the flexibility of handling fleets in battle and formed the basis of continuing improvement to Admiralty fighting instructions by subsequent naval commanders. Vernon continued to serve in Parliament and remained active in the interest of naval affairs until his death at Nacton on 30 October 1757. Many of his proposals were subsequently adopted and contributed to Britain's victory in the Seven Years War.

His enduring claim to fame was his 1740 order that his sailors' rum should be diluted with water. In 1740, citrus juice (usually lemon or lime juice) was added to the recipe of the traditional daily ration of watered-down rum known to cut down on the water's foulness. Although they did not know the reason at the time, Admiral Edward Vernon's sailors were healthier than the rest of the navy, due to the daily doses of vitamin C the sailors received. However, it was not until 1747 that James Lind formally proved that scurvy could be treated and prevented by supplementing the diet with citrus fruit such as limes or lemons. The rest of the Royal Navy rapidly followed Vernon's lead, supposedly calling the new drink "grog" after Vernon's nickname "Old Grog", attributed to his habitual wearing of a grogram coat. The tradition of a provision to each seaman of a tot of rum per day continued until "Black Tot Day" on July 31, 1970 when the last pipe of "Up Spirits" was heard throughout the ships and shore establishments of the Royal Navy.

Mount Vernon, the estate of George Washington, was named for the Admiral. Washington's older half-brother Lawrence Washington had served under Vernon in the War of Jenkins' Ear, and named his estate for his former commander.


  • 1.^ Victoria, Pablo (2005). El día que España derrotó a Inglaterra : de cómo Blas de Lezo, tuerto, manco y cojo, venció en Cartagena de Indias a la otra "Armada Invencible". Barcelona: Áltera. ISBN 84-89779-68-6.
  • 2.^ The Gentleman's Magazine, "Historical Chronicle: Tuesday, 31 July" Vol. 9, July 1739, pp. 383 and 384; accessed 13 May 2010.
  • 3.^ The Gentleman's Magazine, "Historical Chronicle" Saturday 23 October Vol. 9, October 1739, page 551; accessed 13 May 2010.
  • 4.^ [1] History of Hilton Hall
  • 5.^ Paper presented in 2000 to LACLIO Conference at Stanford University
  • 6.^ Harding, Richard. Amphibious Warfare in the Eighteenth Century: The British Expedition to the West Indies, 1740-1742. Royal Historical Society: Studies in History, vol. 62. The Boydell Press. London: 1991.
  • 7.^ Crewe, Duncan. Yellow Jack and the Worm: British Naval Administration in the West Indies, 1739-1748. Liverpool University Press: 1993
  • 8.^ Ranft, Brian, editor. The Vernon Papers. Naval Records Society, vol. 99. London: 1958
  • 9.^ Hartman, Cyril H. The Angry Admiral: The Later Career of Edward Vernon, Admiral of the White. William Heinemann Ltd. London: 1953.
  • 10.^ Precursors of Nelson: British Admirals of the Eighteenth Century; edited by Peter Le Fevre & Richard Harding; Stackpole Books (London: 2000); Chapter 6 "Edward Vernon" pp. 151-176
  • 11.^ Palmer, Michael A. Command of the Sea: Naval Command and Control since the Sixteenth Century. Harvard University Press. London:2005, pp.101-104
  • 12.^ Pack, James. Nelson's Blood: The Story of Naval Rum. Naval Institute Press. Annapolis:1982, chapter 1 "Old Grogram" pp.1-18.


  • Harding, Richard (2008). "Vernon, Edward (1684–1757)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/28237. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
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Other References

Admiral Edward Vernon (12 November 1684 – 30 October 1757) was an English naval officer. Vernon was born in Westminster and went to Westminster School. He joined the Royal Navy in 1700 and was promoted to Lieutenant in 1702. After five years as Lieutenant, he was appointed Captain in 1706. His first command was the HMS Rye, part of the fleet of Admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovell.

Vernon had a long and distinguished career, rising to the rank of Admiral after 46 years service. He fought during the War of the Spanish Succession, rising to the rank of post-captain and commanding the West Indies Station. During the War of Jenkins' Ear Vernon was a Rear Admiral and commanded the Jamaica Station. In 1739 he was responsible for the capture of Porto Bello, seen as expunging the failure of Admiral Hosier there in a previous conflict. However, a later amphibious operation against Cartagena de Indias suffered a severe defeat.

Vernon served as MP on three occasions and was out-spoken on naval matters in Parliament, making him a controversial figure.

The origin of the name "grog" for rum diluted with water is attributed to Vernon. He was known for wearing coats made of grogram cloth, earning him the nickname of Old Grog, which in turn came to mean diluted rum. The use of citrus juice helped to avoid scurvy. Mount Vernon, the home of the first American president George Washington, was named after Vernon. Washington's elder brother Lawrence served under Edward Vernon, and gave it his name.

The Battle of Porto Bello, or the Battle of Portobello, was a 1739 battle between a British naval force aiming to capture the settlement of Portobello in Panama, and its Spanish defenders. It took place during the War of the Austrian Succession, in the early stages of the war sometimes known as the War of Jenkins' Ear. It resulted in a popularly acclaimed British victory.

The settlement of Portobello was an important port on the Spanish Main. Following the failure of an earlier British naval blockade to prevent a fully laden treasure fleet sailing to Spain from Porto Bello in 1727, an action in which he had taken part, the then Vice Admiral Edward Vernon repeatedly claimed he could capture it with just six ships.[4] Following his appointment to command the Jamaica Station, Vernon organised an expedition with just six ships, despite criticism that this was far too few. Vernon was a strong advocate of using small squadrons of powerfully armed warships hitting hard and moving fast rather than larger slower-moving expeditions that were prone to heavy losses through disease.[5]

Battle[edit] Vernon's force appeared off Portobello on 20 November 1739. The British ships entered the bay prepared for a general attack, but a wind coming from the east obliged Vernon to concentrate his ships on the Todo Fierro harbour fort.[6] The Spanish garrison was caught unprepared. When some Spaniards began to flee from several parts of the fort, several landing parties were sent inshore.[7] The British sailors and marines scaled the walls of the fort, struck the Spanish colours in the lower battery and hoisted an English ensign. The Spaniards surrendered then at discretion. Of the 300-man Spanish garrison, only 40 soldiers led by Lieutenant Don Juan Francisco Garganta had remained in the fort.[1][7]

Once captured Todo Fierro, Vernon shifted his ships against Santiago Fortress, sinking a Spanish sloop and causing other damages.[1] At dawn on the following morning, the Spaniards requested terms.[3] Governor Francisco Javier Martínez de la Vega y Retes surrendered at the afternoon. Portobello was occupied by the British at the cost of three dead and seven injured.[3] Three prizes were taken: an armed snow which was renamed Triumph and two coastguards of 20 guns each one.[3] The British occupied the town for three weeks, destroying the fortress and other key buildings and ending the settlement's main function as a major Spanish maritime base, before withdrawing.[5]

Legacy[edit] The capture of Porto Bello was welcomed as an exceptionally popular triumph throughout Britain and America, and the name of Portobello came to be used in commemoration at a variety of locations, such as the Portobello Road in London, the Portobello district of Edinburgh and also in Dublin; as well as Porto Bello in Virginia and Porto Bello in St. Mary's County, Maryland. The victory was particularly well received in the North-American British colonies, where the Spanish had been preying on British shipping.[4]

Admiral Vernon became a popular hero, and was himself commemorated in several places, perhaps most famously Mount Vernon, later the estate of George Washington.[8] He was promoted to the rank of Admiral.[9] Vernon was a notable opponent of the British government, and in the wake of the victory, as well as prior to the expedition, he was one of the advocates of a more belligerent approach towards Britain's enemies. The British Prime Minister Robert Walpole was placed under great pressure by the Opposition to launch similar raids along the Spanish coast. Vernon's next battle in this campaign, a large-scale assault on Cartagena de Indias in 1741, ended in disaster and defeat by disease. The British fleet of 186 ships and almost 27,000 men was defeated by a garrison of 3,500 men and 6 ships of the line commanded by the one-eyed, one-armed, one-legged, Spanish admiral Blas de Lezo.[10]

Although British control lasted just three weeks the effect on Porto Bello was devastating; it was largely abandoned due to a complete re-organisation of Spanish trading practices designed to make them less vulnerable. The economy of the town did not recover fully until the construction of the Panama Canal nearly two centuries later.

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Admiral Edward "Old Grog" Vernon's Timeline

November 12, 1684
Greater London, England, United Kingdom
October 30, 1757
Age 72