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Ellis Albert "Al" Swearengen

Birthdate: (59)
Birthplace: Six Mile Prairie, Oskaloosa, Mahaska County, Iowa, United States
Death: November 15, 1904 (59)
Denver, Denver County, Colorado, United States (Skull Fracture of Unknown Origin, Found Dead in Street)
Immediate Family:

Son of Daniel J Swearengen and Keziah "Katie" Montgomery
Husband of Nettie Swearengen and Odelia Swearengen
Brother of Lemuel Abraham Swearengen; Winfield S Swearengen; Sarah E Swearengen; Theo L Swearengen and Eldora D Swearengen

Occupation: Gem Theater Proprietor, Sex Trafficker
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Al Swearengen

Photo: the Gem Theatre in Deadwood, South Dakota in 1878. The man in the buggy on the left is thought to be Al Swearengen.

Ellis Albert "Al" Swearengen (b. Oskaloosa, Iowa, 8 July 1845 – d. Colorado, 15 November 1904) was a pimp and early entertainment entrepreneur in Deadwood, South Dakota. He ran the Gem Theater, a notorious brothel, for 22 years and combined a reputation for brutality with an uncanny instinct for forging political alliances.

Swearengen and his twin brother, Lemuel, were two of eight children of Daniel Swearengen and Keziah (often called Katie) Swearengen of Oskaloosa. Unlike so many of Deadwood's residents who left home at a young age to make their fortunes on the wild frontier, Swearengen remained at home well into his adult years, arriving in Deadwood in May, 1876 with his wife, Nettie Swearengen. Nettie would later divorce him on the grounds of spousal abuse, and Swearengen would marry two more times, both marriages ending as the first.

Swearengen was one of the first Deadwood residents not to be a prospector or miner; he represented the beginning of a second wave of residents, attracted there by the promise of riches to be stripped not from the earth, but from the prospectors and miners. He built a small saloon called the Cricket Saloon, which featured as entertainment in its close spaces local miners engaged in what were advertised as "prize fights", although no prizes were actually awarded. Within a year, Swearengen had accumulated enough money to build the much larger and more opulent Gem Variety Theater, which opened on April 7, 1877, featuring the now traditional "prize fights" in addition to stage shows, and, mainly, prostitution.

Swearengen lured desperate young women from far away to Deadwood, then forced them into prostitution through a combination of bullying and physical brutality, by himself and his henchmen. The results were highly lucrative, the Gem bringing in an average of $5,000 a night, sometimes as much as $10,000 (between $140,000 and $280,000 inflation adjusted for 2009). When it burned down along with much of the town on September 26, 1879, Swearengen rebuilt it larger and more opulent than ever, to great public acclaim. Swearengen's talent for canny alliances and financial payoffs kept him insulated from the general drive to clean up the town, including the otherwise successful work of Seth Bullock, until the Gem burned down once again in 1899. He was remarried the same year to Odelia Turgeon. It appears that the Methodist church in Deadwood - which also took a moralist crusade to clean up the town - specifically targeted the Gem Theater.

According to his rediscovered obituary, Swearengen was found dead in the middle of a suburban Denver street on November 15, 1904. He apparently died of a massive head wound and was not hopping a freight train as is often reported.

In popular culture

From 2004 to 2006, the HBO television series Deadwood depicted Swearengen as a powerful and influential figure in the early history of the town, ruthlessly murderous and abusive but ultimately guiding it towards its development and annexation to the Dakota Territory, once he comes to see this course as fitting his best interests. English actor Ian McShane won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Television Drama in 2005 for his portrayal of the role, and was also nominated that year at the Emmy and Screen Actors Guild Awards. The script altered Swearengen to British-born and his character was referred-to as 'the slimy Limey'. TV Guide named him #6 in their 2013 list of The 60 Nastiest Villains of All Time.


Ellis Alfred Swearengen and his twin brother Lemuel were born in Oskaloosa, Iowa on July 8, 1845. The twins were the oldest of eight children, raised by parents Daniel and Keziah Swerengen until they were adults in Iowa.

Al, as he was known, arrived in Deadwood in May, 1876 as one of the earliest non-mining men in the area. By the end of the week he had a temporary dance-hall up and running. Arriving with his wife Nettie, she soon left him in September and later divorced him claiming spousal abuse. Swearengen would marry two more times while in Deadwood, both marriages resulting in divorces and similar claims of abuse.

Swearengen soon replaced his temporary dance-hall with a permanent building called the Cricket Saloon, a very small tavern that the newspapers referred to as a "hall” due to its narrowness.

For entertainment, Swearengen offered "prize fights” in a 5’x5’ space, though no prizes actually existed. The non-professionals engaged in the matches were generally normal working miners who were persuaded by Swearengen to participate.

On April 7, 1877, Swearengen opened the Gem Variety Theater that was described in the Black Hills Daily Pioneer as being "neat and tastefully arranged as any place of its kind in the west.” The Gem Theater soon provided the entertainment starved camp with comedians, singers and dancers, as well as continuing its display of "prize fights.” However, the theater was mostly a masquerade for its primary purpose as a brothel, which soon gained a reputation for its debasement of the women who were pressed into service there.

Al Swearengen recruited women from the east by advertising jobs in hotels and promising to make them stage performers at his theater. Purchasing a one way ticket for the women, when they arrived, the hapless ladies would find themselves stranded with little choice other than to work for the notorious Swearengen or be thrown into the street. Some of these desperate women took their own lives rather than being forced into a position of virtual slavery. Those who stayed were known to sport constant bruises and other injuries.

With the entertainment provided and numerous women, the Gem prospered and soon became the camp’s chief attraction. Drawing its support from many so-called leading citizens, the saloon was left alone by the authorities.

In the front of the theater were a bar and many seat for spectators. The rear of the building held several small curtained rooms where the Gem's "painted ladies” entertained their customers. On its balcony, the Gem band was said to have played every night, while the girls beckoned to potential customers to com forth. Once inside, the women charged their customers 10¢ for a dance, 20¢ for a beer and $1 for a bottle of wine. As to charges for the "other," it remains unknown.

In addition to the many girls, Swearengen's staff included Dan Doherty, who acted as general manager, Johnny Burns, who was in charge of the girls, and several bouncers. These men were said to have been as brutal to the girls as Swearengen, with beating of the women being a commonplace practice.

Though a popular spot amongst the rowdy miners of the camp, the Gem quickly gained a reputation as a violent saloon where gunshots flying through its interior became commonplace. Sometimes aimed between men in drunken fights, the bullets were just as often aimed at the girls themselves. At one time a Gem prostitute named Tricksie shot a man through the front of his skull after having taken a beating from him. However, the man didn’t immediately die. The doctor was called in who put a probe through the man’s head, amazed that he survived the gunshot at all. He died about thirty minutes later.

Where was Marshal Seth Bullock while all this was going on at the notorious theater? Reportedly, Bullock and Swearengen agreed to draw an imaginary line on Main Street that marked what was referred to as the "Badlands” and the rest of the town. From then on, Swearengen controlled lower Main Street, and Sheriff Bullock controlled upper Main Street.

In the early summer of 1879, the Gem suffered a fire, but the damage was quickly repaired and rebuilt. Just three months later, in September, 1879, the entire town of Deadwood suffered a disastrous inferno that claimed some 300 of its buildings, including the Gem Theater.

Swearengen again rebuilt, this time from the ground up, resulting in a bigger and better theater. When the new  Gem was opened in December, 1879 The Daily Times touted it to be the finest theater building ever proposed for   Deadwood.

Continuing to prosper, the Gem averaged a nightly profit of $5,000, sometimes even reaching as high as $10,000. But, for Swearengen, it was not to last. In 1899, the Gem suffered its final destructive fire and Swearengen called it quits, leaving Deadwood for good.

After its final demise in 1899, the newspaper had this to say of the  Gem:

"harrowing tales of iniquity, shame and wretchedness; of lives wrecked and fortunes sacrificed; of vice unhindered and esteem forfeited, have been related of the place, and it is known of a verity that they have not all been groundless."

The Gem was one of the longest continuously-operating entertainment venues in Deadwood; however, after its demise, the Gem was referred to in the press as the "ever-lasting shame of Deadwood," "a vicious institution," and a "defiler of youth and a destroyer of home ties."

Five years later, in 1904, Swearengen was found dead near a streetcar track in Denver Colorado. According to an obituary found around 2007, it was determined he died of blunt force trauma to the head. They were unable to determine whether it was an accident or not. This is different from previous historical accounts that said he died penniless while trying to hop a train.

After the Gem burned in 1899, another fire, six months later, destroyed the adjacent buildings leaving a large vacant lot. In 1921, the site became the location of Deadwood's first gas station. Today, the location of the Gem Theater is the site of the Mineral Palace Casino.

For more information on the Gem Theater, Deadwood, and its notorious characters, visit the Adams Museum at 54 Sherman Street, Deadwood, South Dakota, 605-578-1714.

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Al Swearengen's Timeline

July 8, 1845
Oskaloosa, Mahaska County, Iowa, United States
November 15, 1904
Age 59
Denver, Denver County, Colorado, United States