Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland

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Alexander Stewart, High Steward of Scotland

Псевдоним: "Alexander FitzWalter of Darnley", "Alexander of Dundonald", "4th High Steward of Scotland", "'Alexander of Dundonald'", "10505", "Laird of Avandale", "Alexander "4th High" Steward of Scotland", "Alexander /High/", "Stewart", "Alexander Alexander Dundonald 4th High Fitzw..."
Дата рождения:
Место рождения: Dundonald Castle, Irvine, Ayrshire, Scotland (Соединённое Королевство)
Смерть: 1283 (68-69)
Dundonald Castle, Irvine, Ayrshire, Scotland
Место погребения: Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland
Ближайшие родственники:

Сын Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland и Bethóc nic Gille Crist, Countess of Angus
Муж wife of Alexander Stewart
Отец Alianore Stewart; John Stewart of Bonkyl and Garlies; Mary Stewart; Hawise Stewart; Elizabeth Stewart of Crawford и ещё 4
Брат Euphemia Stewart; Sybella Mackenzie; Margaret Stewart, Countess of Carrick; John Stewart; Robert Stewart, Knight и ещё 5

Профессия: Co-Regent of Scotland, 4th High Steward of Scotland, 4th High Stewart
Менеджер: James Fred Patin, Jr.
Последнее обновление:

About Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Stewart,_4th_High_Steward_o...

Alexander Stewart (1214 – 1283) was 4th hereditary High Steward of Scotland from his father's death in 1246. He was also kn Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland Language Watch Edit Alexander Stewart (died 1283), also known as Alexander of Dundonald, was 4th hereditary High Steward of Scotland from his father's death in 1246.

Alexander Stewart 4th High Steward of Scotland Basic Stewart arms.svg Coat of arms of the High Stewart of Scotland: Or, a fess chequy argent and azure Tenure 1246–1283 Predecessor Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland Successor James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland Died 1283 Nationality Scottish Parents Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland Bethóc (Beatrix) Mac Gille Críst Origins Edit

He was a son of Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland by his wife Bethóc, daughter of Gille Críst, Earl of Angus.

Career Edit

He is said to have accompanied King Louis IX of France on the Seventh Crusade (1248–1254).[1] In 1255 he was one of the councillors of King Alexander III of Scotland, though under age.[2]

He was the principal commander under King Alexander III at the Battle of Largs, on 2 October 1263, when the Scots defeated the Norwegians under Haakon IV. The Scots invaded and conquered the Isle of Man the following year, which was then, together with the whole of the Western Isles, annexed to the Crown of Scotland.[3][4]

Marriage and issue Edit

He married Jane, heiress of the Isles of Bute and Arran, daughter of James Mac Angus(d.1210) (who with his father and brothers were killed by the men of Skye), son of Angus, Lord of Bute & Arran (younger son of Somerled, King of the South Isles). By his wife he had the following issue:[5][6]

James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland (c. 1260-1309), eldest son and heir; grandfather of King Robert II of Scotland, the first Stewart King of Scots, and thus ancestor of all subsequent Scottish monarchs and of the post-Tudor monarchs of Great Britain, later the United Kingdom . Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll, (d. 22 July 1298), 2nd son, who married Margaret de Bonkyll, the heiress of Bonkyll, by whom he had seven sons and one daughter. Ancestor of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, father of King James VI and I of Scotland and England. He was killed in the Battle of Falkirk (1298).[7][8] Andrew Stewart,[9] third son,[10] who married the daughter of James Bethe. He was the father of Sir Alexander Steward "The Fierce" and an ancestor of Oliver Cromwell.[11][12][13] Elizabeth Stewart (d. before 1288), who married Sir William Douglas the Hardy, Governor of Berwick-upon-Tweed. She was the mother of the James Douglas, Lord of Douglas, "Good Sir James Douglas".[14] Hawise Stewart, who married John de Soulis (died 1310), brother of the Lord of Liddesdale.[15] Sources Edit

Nisbet, Alexander, 1722. Vol.1,p. 48; and appendix, page 149. Burke, Messrs., John and John Bernard, The Royal Families of England, Scotland, and Wales, and Their Descendants &c., volume 2, London, 1851, p. xlii. Anderson, William, "The Scottish Nation", Edinburgh, 1867, vol.vii, p. 200. Mackenzie, A. M., MA., D.Litt., The Rise of the Stewarts, London, 1935, pp. 13–14. The Marquis de Ruvigny & Raineval, The Jacobite Peerage &c., London & Edinburgh (1904), 1974 reprint, p. 8n.</ref> Agnatic ancestor of British kings. References Edit

^ Simpson, David, The Genealogical and Chronological History of the Stuarts, Edinburgh, 1713. ^ Anderson, William, The Scottish Nation, Edinburgh, 1867, vol.ix, p.512 ^ Burke, Messrs., John and John Bernard, The Royal Families of England, Scotland, and Wales, with Their Descendants &c., volume 2, London, 1851, p. xli-xlii. ^ Anderson (1867) vil.ix, p.512 ^ Sir James Balfour Paul. The Scots Peerage: founded on Wood's edition of Sir Robert Douglas's, The Peerage of Scotland, (Edinburgh, Scotland: David Douglas, 1904), vol. 1, p. 13. ^ Mosley, Charles, editor, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th ed., 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books, Ltd., 2003), vol. 1, p. 449. ^ Paul, James Balfour (1904). The Scottish Peerage. p. 169. ^ "Bunkle Castle". Historic Environment Scotland. ^ International Genealogical Index Source Batch No. 6020347, Sheet 65, Source Call No. 1621525 ^ Visitations of Cambridgeshire, 1575 & 1619 ^ Noble, Mark, Memoirs of the Protectoral House of Cromwell, London, 1757, vol.2, p.204 ^ Foster, John, The Statesmen of the Commonwealth of England, London, 1830, vol.4, p.305 ^ Lauder-Frost, 2004, p.152. ^ Maxwell, Sir Herbert, Bt., A History of the House of Douglas, London, 1902, vol.1, p.28. ^ Cokayne; Gibbs; Doubleday; Howard de Walden (1932) p. 206. Bibliography Edit

Cokayne, GE; Gibbs, V; Doubleday, HA; Howard de Walden, eds. (1932). The Complete Peerage. Vol. 8. London: The St Catherine Press. Lauder-Frost, Gregory, F.S.A.Scot., "East Anglian Stewarts" in The Scottish Genealogist, Dec.2004, vol.LI, no.4., pps:151-161. ISSN 0330-337X MacEwen, ABW (2011). "The Wives of Sir James the Steward (d.1309)". Foundations. 3 (5): 391–398. Sellar, WDH (2000). "Hebridean Sea Kings: The Successors of Somerled, 1164–1316". In Cowan, EJ; McDonald, RA (eds.). Alba: Celtic Scotland in the Middle Ages. East Linton: Tuckwell Press. pp. 187–218. ISBN 1-86232-151-5. External links Edit

Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland House of Stewart Born: 1214 Died: 1283 Peerage of Scotland Preceded by Walter Stewart High Steward of Scotland 1246–1283 Succeeded by James Stewart Last edited 5 months ago by 2601:589:8080:1CC0:78F3:E045:E016:8EA2 RELATED ARTICLES Gille Críst, Earl of Angus Thomas Stewart, 2nd Earl of Angus John Stewart of Bonkyll own as Alexander of Dundonald.

A son of Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland by his wife Bethóc, daughter of Gille Críst, Earl of Angus, Alexander is said to have accompanied Louis IX of France on the Seventh Crusade (1248–1254). In 1255 he was one of the councillors of King Alexander III, though under age.

He was the principal commander under King Alexander III of Scotland at the Battle of Largs, on 2 October 1263, when the Scots defeated the Norwegians under Haakon IV. The Scots invaded and conquered the Isle of Man the following year, which was, with the whole of the Western Isles, then annexed to the Crown of Scotland.

Family

The identity of Alexander's wife is uncertain. Some secondary sources erroneously identify her as Jean, daughter of James, son of Angus, son of Somerled.

Children

  1. James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland (c. 1243-1309)
  2. Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, Berwickshire (c. 1245-22 July 1298), described as the "second son" who married the Bonkill heiress, had seven sons and one daughter, and was killed in the Battle of Falkirk.
  3. Andrew Stewart (a.k.a. Andrew Steward) Esq. (c. 1245), third son of Alexander Stewart. Married the daughter of James Bethe. Father of Sir Alexander 'the fierce' Steward and direct ancestor of Oliver Cromwell. Great uncle of King Robert II.
  4. Elizabeth Stewart, (c. 1248, d. before 1288) Married Sir William Douglas the Hardy, Governor of Berwick-upon-Tweed.[7] She was the mother of the Good Sir James Douglas.
  5. Hawise Stewart (c. 1262) Married the brother of the Lord of Liddesdale, Sir John de Soulis.[18] Had female issue, Muriel de Soulis.

Through their eldest son James they were great-grandparents of King Robert II, the first Stewart to be King of Scots, and thus ancestors of all subsequent Scottish monarchs and the later and current monarchs of Great Britain.

Through their second son John, they were the direct ancestors in the male line of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, and of the Stuart monarchs of Scotland and England from Darnley's son James VI and I onwards.

Through their third son Andrew they were the 9x great grandparents of Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector.

Sources

  1. The Scots Peerage: Founded on Wood's Edition of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, Containing an Historical and Genealogical Account of the Nobility of that Kingdom, with Armorial Illustrations (1904-1914), Paul , Sir James Balfour, (9 volumes. Edinburgh: D. Douglas, 1904-1914), vol. 1 p. 13. "His wife is said to have been Jean, daughter of James, Lord of Bute."

Links

Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland

Alexander Stewart (died 1283), also known as Alexander of Dundonald, was 4th hereditary High Steward of Scotland from his father's death in 1246.

Coat of arms of the High Stewart of Scotland: Or, a fess chequy argent and azure Tenure 1246–1283 Predecessor Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland Successor James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland Died1283 Nationality Scottish Parents Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland and Bethóc (Beatrix) Mac Gille Críst

Origins He was a son of Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland by his wife Bethóc, daughter of Gille Críst, Earl of Angus.

Career He is said to have accompanied King Louis IX of France on the Seventh Crusade (1248–1254).[1] In 1255 he was one of the councillors of King Alexander III of Scotland, though under age.[2]

He was the principal commander under King Alexander III at the Battle of Largs, on 2 October 1263, when the Scots defeated the Norwegians under Haakon IV. The Scots invaded and conquered the Isle of Man the following year, which was then, together with the whole of the Western Isles, annexed to the Crown of Scotland.[3][4]

Marriage and issue He married Jane, heiress of the Isles of Bute and Arran, daughter of James Mac Angus(d.1210) (who with his father and brothers were killed by the men of Skye), son of Angus, Lord of Bute & Arran (younger son of Somerled, King of the South Isles). By his wife he had the following issue:[5][6]

James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland (c. 1260-1309), eldest son and heir; grandfather of King Robert II of Scotland, the first Stewart King of Scots, and thus ancestor of all subsequent Scottish monarchs and of the post-Tudor monarchs of Great Britain, later the United Kingdom . Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll, (d. 22 July 1298), 2nd son, who married Margaret de Bonkyll, the heiress of Bonkyll, by whom he had seven sons and one daughter. Ancestor of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, father of King James VI and I of Scotland and England. He was killed in the Battle of Falkirk (1298).[7][8] Andrew Stewart,[9] third son,[10] who married the daughter of James Bethe. He was the father of Sir Alexander Steward "The Fierce" and an ancestor of Oliver Cromwell.[11][12][13] Elizabeth Stewart (d. before 1288), who married Sir William Douglas the Hardy, Governor of Berwick-upon-Tweed. She was the mother of the James Douglas, Lord of Douglas, "Good Sir James Douglas".[14] Hawise Stewart, who married John de Soulis (died 1310), brother of the Lord of Liddesdale.[15]

Sources Nisbet, Alexander, 1722. Vol.1,p. 48; and appendix, page 149. Burke, Messrs., John and John Bernard, The Royal Families of England, Scotland, and Wales, and Their Descendants &c., volume 2, London, 1851, p. xlii. Anderson, William, "The Scottish Nation", Edinburgh, 1867, vol.vii, p. 200. Mackenzie, A. M., MA., D.Litt., The Rise of the Stewarts, London, 1935, pp. 13–14. The Marquis de Ruvigny & Raineval, The Jacobite Peerage &c., London & Edinburgh (1904), 1974 reprint, p. 8n.</ref> Agnatic ancestor of British kings.

References ^ Simpson, David, The Genealogical and Chronological History of the Stuarts, Edinburgh, 1713. ^ Anderson, William, The Scottish Nation, Edinburgh, 1867, vol.ix, p.512 ^ Burke, Messrs., John and John Bernard, The Royal Families of England, Scotland, and Wales, with Their Descendants &c., volume 2, London, 1851, p. xli-xlii. ^ Anderson (1867) vil.ix, p.512 ^ Sir James Balfour Paul. The Scots Peerage: founded on Wood's edition of Sir Robert Douglas's, The Peerage of Scotland, (Edinburgh, Scotland: David Douglas, 1904), vol. 1, p. 13. ^ Mosley, Charles, editor, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th ed., 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books, Ltd., 2003), vol. 1, p. 449. ^ Paul, James Balfour (1904). The Scottish Peerage. p. 169. ^ "Bunkle Castle". Historic Environment Scotland. ^ International Genealogical Index Source Batch No. 6020347, Sheet 65, Source Call No. 1621525 ^ Visitations of Cambridgeshire, 1575 & 1619 ^ Noble, Mark, Memoirs of the Protectoral House of Cromwell, London, 1757, vol.2, p.204 ^ Foster, John, The Statesmen of the Commonwealth of England, London, 1830, vol.4, p.305 ^ Lauder-Frost, 2004, p.152. ^ Maxwell, Sir Herbert, Bt., A History of the House of Douglas, London, 1902, vol.1, p.28. ^ Cokayne; Gibbs; Doubleday; Howard de Walden (1932) p. 206.

Bibliography Cokayne, GE; Gibbs, V; Doubleday, HA; Howard de Walden, eds. (1932). The Complete Peerage. Vol. 8. London: The St Catherine Press. Lauder-Frost, Gregory, F.S.A.Scot., "East Anglian Stewarts" in The Scottish Genealogist, Dec.2004, vol.LI, no.4., pps:151-161. ISSN 0330-337X MacEwen, ABW (2011). "The Wives of Sir James the Steward (d.1309)". Foundations. 3 (5): 391–398. Sellar, WDH (2000). "Hebridean Sea Kings: The Successors of Somerled, 1164–1316". In Cowan, EJ; McDonald, RA (eds.). Alba: Celtic Scotland in the Middle Ages. East Linton: Tuckwell Press. pp. 187–218. ISBN 1-86232-151-5.

External links Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland House of Stewart Born: 1214 Died: 1283 Peerage of Scotland Preceded by Walter Steward High Steward of Scotland 1246–1283 Succeeded by James Stewart Last edited 5 months ago by 2601:589:8080:1CC0:78F3:E045:E016:8EA2

RELATED ARTICLES Gille Críst, Earl of Angus Thomas Stewart, 2nd Earl of Angus John Stewart of Bonkyll


Notes ◦1 - Principal commander under King Alexander III at the Battle of Largs 2 Oct 1263 when the Scottish army defeated the Norwegians. In 1264 he invaded the Isle of Man.

2 -He commanded the right wing of the Scots army at the battle of Largs, 1263. He had two sons
In the thirteenth century, the 4th Stewart of Scotland (a crusader) married the heiress of the Lord of Bute of the royal House of Isles
3 - Battle of the Largs
1 October 1283: Invasion of Scotland by Haakon, King of Norway, attacked on the beaches by gathering Scottish forces, beginning the Battle of the Largs.
5 October 1283: Norwegians abandon invasion of Scotland, leaving ships and wounded on the beach.
Despite the victory of Brian Boru over the Danes in Ireland in 1014, the Scandinavian incursions into the Celtic nations took a long time to fade away. It would be nearly 270 years after the Battle of Clontarf before the ScandinaviansÙu last hurrah in the spectacular Battle of the Largs.
In the year 1283 the English were just consolidating their conquest of Wales with the execution on 3 October of Dafydd, the last native Prince of Wales. The power of Norway still dominated the North Sea and reached around the coast of Scotland into the Irish Sea, hedging the growing power of Scotland with a chain of island possessions that included the Orkneys, Shetland, the Hebrides, and the Isle of Mann.
When ScotlandÙus boy king Alexander III turned 21 in 1262, one of his first acts was to try to purchase the Hebrides from Norway. The offer was refused, but when the Earl of Ross led a bloody raid on the Norwegian-held Isle of Skye, the Norwegian King Haakon prepared for an armed showdown with Scotland.
Haakon assembled a fleet of 100 ships, the largest armada yet seen in those waters, and was joined by Magnus, the King of Mann, along with other Scandinavian jarls. But after wasting the summer in fruitless sparring and maneuvering, Haakon divided his forces, sending most of the Manx fleet off on coastal raids and dispatching 40 other ships to be dragged overland and floated in Loch Lomond, a novel if pointless tour de force.
King Alexander in the meantime was biding his time, keeping his field armies intact behind a defensive screen of castles. The opportunity he was waiting for came at last on 1 October, when the first storms of autumn forced Haakon to decide between abandoning the campaign or chancing a risky landing on the Scottish coast. Haakon chose to go for the landing. The Norwegians struggled through the storm-roiled surf on the west coast of Scotland only to be met on the beaches by a Scottish vanguard of archers and mailed knights, who commenced a running battle with the Norwegians on 2 October.
The bedraggled Norwegians were in no shape to deal with a hot landing zone, but found themselves unable to put back out to sea due to the worsening weather. They were equally unable to gain a secure beachhead for themselves in the face of the growing numbers of Scots that Alexander dispatched from their inland bases as soon as he learned of the Norwegian predicament. After some 72 hours of debilitating and almost continuous combat, the weather lifted just enough to enable the remaining Norwegians to make a hasty evacuation, leaving most of their dead and wounded on beaches lit by the burning hulks of their ships.
The Battle of the Largs marked the rise of independent Scotland and the terminal decline of NorwayÙus North Sea hegemony. The victory was followed by the death of Haakon, NorwayÙus cessation of the Hebrides to Scotland, and the Scottish takeover of the Orkneys and the Kingdom of Mann and the Isles. Scotland eventually gained Shetland too, as a wedding present, but that is a story for another day.
[ http://www.celticleague.org/ ]

 

Sources 1.[S235] http://www.dcs.hull.ac.uk/cgi-bin/gedlkup/n=royal?royal37864, (Website defunct as at 18 Mar 2008)

2.[S265] Colquoun_Cunningham.ged, Jamie Vans

3.[S239] http://www.stewartsociety.org/lines.htm

4.[S288] Alexander Gardner, Paisley, 1906, McKerlie, (Alexander Gardner, Paisley, 1906), ii, 267 (Reliability: 3)

5.[S289] Betty and Dick Field's Family History, Richard Field




Links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Stewart,_4th_High_Steward_o...

Alexander Stewart (1214 – 1283) was 4th hereditary High Steward of Scotland from his father's death in 1246. He was also known as Alexander of Dundonald.

A son of Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland by his wife Bethóc, daughter of Gille Críst, Earl of Angus, Alexander is said to have accompanied Louis IX of France on the Seventh Crusade (1248–1254). In 1255 he was one of the councillors of King Alexander III, though under age.

He was the principal commander under King Alexander III of Scotland at the Battle of Largs, on 2 October 1263, when the Scots defeated the Norwegians under Haakon IV. The Scots invaded and conquered the Isle of Man the following year, which was, with the whole of the Western Isles, then annexed to the Crown of Scotland.

Family

The identity of Alexander's wife is uncertain. Some secondary sources erroneously identify her as Jean, daughter of James, son of Angus, son of Somerled.

Children 1.James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland (c. 1243-1309) 2.Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, Berwickshire (c. 1245-22 July 1298), described as the "second son" who married the Bonkill heiress, had seven sons and one daughter, and was killed in the Battle of Falkirk. 3.Andrew Stewart (a.k.a. Andrew Steward) Esq. (c. 1245), third son of Alexander Stewart. Married the daughter of James Bethe. Father of Sir Alexander 'the fierce' Steward and direct ancestor of Oliver Cromwell. Great uncle of King Robert II. 4.Elizabeth Stewart, (c. 1248, d. before 1288) Married Sir William Douglas the Hardy, Governor of Berwick-upon-Tweed.[7] She was the mother of the Good Sir James Douglas. 5.Hawise Stewart (c. 1262) Married the brother of the Lord of Liddesdale, Sir John de Soulis.[18] Had female issue, Muriel de Soulis.

Through their eldest son James they were great-grandparents of King Robert II, the first Stewart to be King of Scots, and thus ancestors of all subsequent Scottish monarchs and the later and current monarchs of Great Britain.

Through their second son John, they were the direct ancestors in the male line of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, and of the Stuart monarchs of Scotland and England from Darnley's son James VI and I onwards.

Through their third son Andrew they were the 9x great grandparents of Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector.

Sources 1.The Scots Peerage: Founded on Wood's Edition of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, Containing an Historical and Genealogical Account of the Nobility of that Kingdom, with Armorial Illustrations (1904-1914), Paul , Sir James Balfour, (9 volumes. Edinburgh: D. Douglas, 1904-1914), vol. 1 p. 13. "His wife is said to have been Jean, daughter of James, Lord of Bute."

Links •http://histfam.familysearch.org/getperson.php?personID=I2377&tree=E...

Notes ◦1 - Principal commander under King Alexander III at the Battle of Largs 2 Oct 1263 when the Scottish army defeated the Norwegians. In 1264 he invaded the Isle of Man.

2 -He commanded the right wing of the Scots army at the battle of Largs, 1263. He had two sons In the thirteenth century, the 4th Stewart of Scotland (a crusader) married the heiress of the Lord of Bute of the royal House of Isles

3 - Battle of the Largs

1 October 1283: Invasion of Scotland by Haakon, King of Norway, attacked on the beaches by gathering Scottish forces, beginning the Battle of the Largs. 5 October 1283: Norwegians abandon invasion of Scotland, leaving ships and wounded on the beach. Despite the victory of Brian Boru over the Danes in Ireland in 1014, the Scandinavian incursions into the Celtic nations took a long time to fade away. It would be nearly 270 years after the Battle of Clontarf before the ScandinaviansÙu last hurrah in the spectacular Battle of the Largs. In the year 1283 the English were just consolidating their conquest of Wales with the execution on 3 October of Dafydd, the last native Prince of Wales. The power of Norway still dominated the North Sea and reached around the coast of Scotland into the Irish Sea, hedging the growing power of Scotland with a chain of island possessions that included the Orkneys, Shetland, the Hebrides, and the Isle of Mann. When ScotlandÙus boy king Alexander III turned 21 in 1262, one of his first acts was to try to purchase the Hebrides from Norway. The offer was refused, but when the Earl of Ross led a bloody raid on the Norwegian-held Isle of Skye, the Norwegian King Haakon prepared for an armed showdown with Scotland. Haakon assembled a fleet of 100 ships, the largest armada yet seen in those waters, and was joined by Magnus, the King of Mann, along with other Scandinavian jarls. But after wasting the summer in fruitless sparring and maneuvering, Haakon divided his forces, sending most of the Manx fleet off on coastal raids and dispatching 40 other ships to be dragged overland and floated in Loch Lomond, a novel if pointless tour de force. King Alexander in the meantime was biding his time, keeping his field armies intact behind a defensive screen of castles. The opportunity he was waiting for came at last on 1 October, when the first storms of autumn forced Haakon to decide between abandoning the campaign or chancing a risky landing on the Scottish coast. Haakon chose to go for the landing. The Norwegians struggled through the storm-roiled surf on the west coast of Scotland only to be met on the beaches by a Scottish vanguard of archers and mailed knights, who commenced a running battle with the Norwegians on 2 October. The bedraggled Norwegians were in no shape to deal with a hot landing zone, but found themselves unable to put back out to sea due to the worsening weather. They were equally unable to gain a secure beachhead for themselves in the face of the growing numbers of Scots that Alexander dispatched from their inland bases as soon as he learned of the Norwegian predicament. After some 72 hours of debilitating and almost continuous combat, the weather lifted just enough to enable the remaining Norwegians to make a hasty evacuation, leaving most of their dead and wounded on beaches lit by the burning hulks of their ships. The Battle of the Largs marked the rise of independent Scotland and the terminal decline of NorwayÙus North Sea hegemony. The victory was followed by the death of Haakon, NorwayÙus cessation of the Hebrides to Scotland, and the Scottish takeover of the Orkneys and the Kingdom of Mann and the Isles. Scotland eventually gained Shetland too, as a wedding present, but that is a story for another day. [ http://www.celticleague.org/ ]

Sources 1.[S235] http://www.dcs.hull.ac.uk/cgi-bin/gedlkup/n=royal?royal37864, (Website defunct as at 18 Mar 2008)

2.[S265] Colquoun_Cunningham.ged, Jamie Vans

3.[S239] http://www.stewartsociety.org/lines.htm

4.[S288] Alexander Gardner, Paisley, 1906, McKerlie, (Alexander Gardner, Paisley, 1906), ii, 267 (Reliability: 3)

5.[S289] Betty and Dick Field's Family History, Richard Field

Links •http://www.montyhistnotes.com/genealogy/getperson.php?personID=I330...


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Хронология Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland

1214
1214
Dundonald Castle, Irvine, Ayrshire, Scotland
1239
1239
1246
1246
Bonkyl, Berwickshire, Scotland
1247
1247
Scotland
1249
1249
Dundonald Castle, Irvine, Ayrshire, Scotland
1250
1250
Irvine, North Ayrshire, Scotland, United Kingdom
1260
1260
Durisdeer, Dumfreshire, Scotland
1264
1264
Irvine, Ayrshire, Scotland
1268
1268
Ayr, Scotland