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Anne Hutchinson (Marbury)

Birthdate: (52)
Birthplace: Alford, Lincolnshire, England
Death: August 20, 1643 (52)
Pelham Heights, (now Eastchester (Bronx County) Bronx County New York, USA), Nieuw-Nederland, Colonial America (Killed by Indians)
Place of Burial: Westchester County, New York, United States
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Reverend Francis Marbury, I and Bridget Marbury
Wife of William Hutchinson and William Hutchinson
Mother of Susanna Cole; Capt. Edward Hutchinson; Susanna Hutchinson; Richard Hutchinson; Faith Savage and 11 others
Sister of Elizabeth Marbury, I; Mary Layton, II; John Marbury; Bridget Marbury, I; Francis Marbury, II and 11 others
Half sister of Mary Marbury, I and Susan Twyford

Occupation: Midwife, Religous Reformer; expelled frm MA in 1637, Banished from Mass Bay Colony 1638, Puritan preacher, came to New England in 1634, midwife / lay physician, Preacher, Historical figure
Managed by: Sherry Cadenhead Klein
Last Updated:

About Anne Hutchinson

Anne Hutchinson (baptized July 20, 1591[1][2] – August 20, 1643) was a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands, and the unauthorized minister of a dissident church discussion group. Hutchinson held Bible meetings for women that soon had great appeal to men as well. Eventually, she went beyond Bible study to proclaim her own theological interpretations of sermons, some of which offended the colony leadership. A major controversy ensued, and after a trial before a jury of officials and clergy, she was banished from her colony.[3]

She is a key figure in the study of the development of religious freedom in England's American colonies and the history of women in ministry. The state of Massachusetts honors her with a State House monument calling her a "courageous exponent of civil liberty and religious toleration."[4]

Anne Hutchinson was born Anne Marbury in Alford, Lincolnshire, England, and baptized there on July 20, 1591, the daughter of Francis Marbury, a dissident Puritan clergyman, and Bridget (Dryden) Marbury.[2] Anne was educated at home and read from her father's library. At the age of 21, on August 9, 1612, Anne married William (Will) Hutchinson (d. Boston, Massachusetts, 1642) at St. Mary Woolnoth, London.[2] She and her family followed the sermons of John Cotton, a Protestant minister whose teachings echoed those of her father's. Cotton left England because of his persecution by the bishops. Anne and her family likewise emigrated from England to Massachusetts in 1634, together with other colonists.[5]

The majority of colonial European settlers who came to America for religious reasons came for the freedom to practice their own religion, and in some cases to impose it on others. In their early years, most colonies enforced a uniformity at least as strict as had occurred in the country they had left. There was considerable Puritan intolerance in Massachusetts and Connecticut.[6] Her particular "heresy" was to maintain that it was a blessing and not a curse to be a woman.[7]

Hutchinson may have been brought down because of her gender. Many commentators have suggested that she fell victim to contemporary mores surrounding the role of women in Puritan society. Hutchinson spoke her mind freely within the context of a male hierarchy unaccustomed to outspoken women. Alternatively, she may have been persecuted mainly because she spoke up against the established church and state government, as even Roger Williams, who had been a Puritan church minister, had been exiled for by the colony not long before. The extent to which she was persecuted was perhaps proportional to the threat the established rulers saw in her, considering the many people who were willing to listen to and follow her and the threat which that may have posed.

Against that background, Anne was extremely outspoken about some of her most controversial views. She was an avid student of the Bible which she freely interpreted in the light of what she termed her "divine inspiration." She generally adhered to the principles of Puritan orthodoxy. Notably, however, she held enormously progressive, ahead-of-her-times notions about the equality and rights of women, in contradiction of both Puritan and prevailing cultural attitudes. She was forthright and compelling in proclaiming these beliefs, which put her in considerable tension not only with the Massachusetts Bay Colony's government, who were accountable to the established Church of England (Anglican), but also with other Puritans, especially the clergy.[7]

She began conducting informal Bible studies and discussion groups in her home, something that gave scope to Puritan intellects.[8] Hutchinson invited her friends and neighbors, at first, all of them women. Participants felt free to question religious beliefs and to decry racial prejudice, including enslavement of Native Americans. Hutchinson explored Scripture much in the way of a minister. Rather than teach traditional Puritan interpretations of Scripture, she studied the Bible in great depth for herself. Often her spiritual interpretation differed widely from the learned but legalistic reading offered from the Puritan Sunday pulpit. In particular, Hutchinson constantly challenged the standard interpretation of the story of Adam and Eve. This was a vital text for the Puritans, key to the doctrine of original sin. But it was regularly cited to assign special blame to women as the source of sin and to justify the extremely patriarchal structure of Puritan society.[7]

Since she had a strong personal concern for women's lack of rights and the racial prejudice against Native Americans, she also applied her personal interpretation of the principles of the Bible to those social concerns. Furthermore, she openly challenged some of the moral and legal codes that the Puritans held, as well as the authority of the clergy,[6] something that would weigh against her later on.

As word of her teachings spread, she attracted new followers, including many men. Among them were men like Sir Henry Vane, who would become the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1636. Attendance at her home study group grew to upwards of eighty people and had to be moved to the local church.[7]

Increasingly, the ministers opposed Hutchinson’s meetings, ostensibly on the grounds that such “unauthorized” religious gatherings might confuse the faithful. But gradually the opposition was expressed in openly misogynistic terms. Anne paid no attention to her critics. When they cited the biblical texts on the need for women to keep silent in church, she rejoined with a verse from Titus permitting that “the elder women should instruct the younger.”[7]

To the chagrin of clergy and colony officials, Hutchinson interpreted the doctrine of the Perseverance of the saints according to the Free Grace model, which taught that the saved could sin freely without endangering their salvation, instead of the Lordship salvation model prevalent then and now, which noted that those who were truly saved would demonstrate by seeking to follow the ways of their Saviour. She also claimed that she could identify "the elect" (see article on Predestination) among the colonists[5]. These positions caused John Cotton, John Winthrop, and other former friends to view her as an antinomian heretic.

By 1637, Puritan ministers in the colony had labeled Hutchinson a modern "Jezebel" who was infecting women with perverse and "abominable" ideas regarding their dignity and rights.[7] That year, Sir Henry Vane lost the governorship to John Winthrop, who did not share Vane's favorable opinion of Hutchinson. He instead "considered her a threat to his 'city set on a hill'" (a distinctive of Puritan theology) and criticized her meetings as being a "thing not tolerable nor comely in the sight of God, nor fitting for [her] sex."[4] Governor Winthrop and the established religious hierarchy considered many of her comments in her discussion groups to be heretical, in particular and specifically, her "unfounded criticism of the clergy from an unauthorized source".

She told the governor that the Lord had revealed himself to her: "…upon a Throne of Justice, and all the world appearing before him, and though I must come to New England, yet I must not fear nor be dismayed." Governor Winthrop's retort came swiftly: "I am persuaded that the revelation she brings forth is delusion."[9]

She was brought to civil trial in 1638 by the General Court of Massachusetts, presided over by Winthrop, on the charge of “traducing the ministers.” The Court included both government officials and Puritan clergy. She was forty-six at the time and advanced in her fifteenth pregnancy. Nevertheless, she was forced to stand for several days before a board of male interrogators as they tried desperately to get her to admit her secret blasphemies. They accused her of violating the fifth commandment – to “honor the father and mother” – accusing her of encouraging dissent against the fathers of the commonwealth. It was charged that by attending her gatherings women were being tempted to neglect the care of their own families.[7]

Anne skillfully defended herself until it was clear that there was no escape from the court’s predetermined judgment. Cornered, she addressed the court with her own judgment: have no power over my body, neither can you do me any harme, for I am in the hands of the eternall Jehovah my Saviour, I am at his appointment, the bounds of my habitation are cast in heaven, no further doe I esteeme of any mortal man than creatures in his hand, I feare none but the great Jehovah, which hath foretold me of these things, and I doe verily beleeve that he will deliver me out of our hands, therefore take heed how you proceed against me; for I know that for this you goe about to doe to me, God will ruine you and your posterity, and this whole state.

– Anne Hutchinson at trial[10]

This outburst brought forth angry jeers. She was called a heretic and an instrument of the devil. In the words of one minister, “You have stepped out of your place, you have rather been a husband than a wife, a preacher than a hearer, and a magistrate than a subject.” In August 1637 she was condemned by the Court that included John Eliot, famous missionary to Massachusetts Bay Colony Indians, and translator of the first complete Bible printed in America.[11] They voted to banish her from the colony "as being a woman not fit for our society."[9] She was put under house arrest to await her religious trial.[7]

In March 1638, the First Church in Boston conducted a religious trial. They accused Hutchinson of blasphemy. They also accused her of "lewd and lascivious conduct" for having men and women in her house at the same time during her Sunday meetings. This religious court found her guilty and voted to excommunicate her from the Puritan Church for dissenting from Puritan orthodoxy.

During her imprisonment, some of the leaders of the Hutchinsonian movement prepared to leave the colony and settle elsewhere. Nineteen men, including William Hutchinson, met on March 7, 1638 at the home of the wealthy Boston merchant William Coddington. The men formed themselves into a "Bodie Politick" and elected Coddington their judge. They initially planned to move to Jersey or Long Island, but Roger Williams convinced them to settle in the area of Rhode Island, near Williams' Providence Plantations settlement. Coddington purchased Aquidneck island from the Indians and the settlement of Pocasset (now Portsmouth) was founded. Anne Hutchinson followed in April, after the conclusion of her trial.[12]

After enduring months of persecution and suffering while pregnant, Mrs. Hutchinson suffered a miscarriage. The Puritan leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony gloated in her suffering and that of Mary Dyer, one of her followers who also suffered a miscarriage, labelling their misfortunes as the judgment of God. Massachusetts Bay continued to persecute Hutchinson's followers who had not followed her, and sent church leaders from Boston to Aquidneck in an attempt to persuade her of the correctness of their doctrine. Anne expelled the delegates from her home, denouncing the Boston church as a "whore and a strumpet".[12]

Meanwhile, judge Coddington began to instigate theocratic policies in the government of the Pocasset colony. Coddington declared that he was permitted to exercise his interpretations of the "word of God" on the settlers and to see himself as a feudal lord ruling the island, with the settlers as his tenants. Anne successfully led a movement to amend the Pocasset constitution to allow the freemen the power to veto the governor's actions and established the positions of three "elders" to be elected by the freemen to share the powers of the governor and thus check his power. Hutchinson and the freemen demanded an election for a government to replace Coddington, who was forced to concede. William Hutchinson was elected governor and Coddington left the colony along with some of his followers, who established the settlement of Newport at the south end of the island. The freemen of Pocasset changed the name of their town to Portsmouth and adopted a new government which provided for trial by jury and separation of church and state. William Hutchinson was chosen as governor.[12]

Coddington returned with an armed force, which was initially repelled, but soon he arrested William Hutchinson and ordered his disenfranchisement. On March 12, 1640, a year after the attack, the towns of Portsmouth and Newport agreed to re-unite peacefully. Coddington was to be governor and William Hutchinson was chosen as one of his assistants. The towns were to remain autonomous with laws made by the citizens.[12]

Soon after, Anne Hutchinson realized a result of her philosophy which she had until then overlooked. Deciding that the office of magistracy was unlawful, she persuaded her husband to resign from his position, as Roger Williams put it, "because of the opinion, which she had newly taken up, of the unlawfulness of magistry." Anne Hutchinson had been led by her conscience and by meditation on the Scripture and logic to the conclusion of individualist anarchism.[12]

William Hutchinson died in 1642, soon after his resignation, and the widow Anne decided to leave Portsmouth, along with some of her family and some followers. The group went to Pelham Bay, then part of New Netherland, the Dutch possession which now is the Bronx in New York City. During this time the local Indians were fighting with the Dutch, and in 1643 she and all of her family who followed her except her youngest daughter were killed there by a group of Indians who came calling in a friendly manner, and then suddenly turned on their unsuspecting victims. The Hutchinsons had been friendly to them but the native Americans had been subject to much mistreatment by the ruling Dutch and rampaged the New Netherland colony in a series of incidents known as Kieft's War. They killed the Hutchinson residents, put all their possessions in the house, including animals, and set the house afire. The youngest Hutchinson, Susanna, was taken captive and lived with the Indians until ransomed by her family members who stayed in the Bay Colony. It is said that she did not want to leave her captors. In 1651 she married John Cole and they started a farm in Rhode Island beginning a long line of descendants.

Upheld equally as a symbol of religious freedom, liberal thinking and Christian feminism, Anne Hutchinson is a contentious figure, having been lionized, mythologized and demonized by various writers. In particular, historians and other observers have interpreted and re-interpreted her life within the following frameworks: the status of women, power struggles within the church, and a similar struggle within the secular political structure. She is the only woman to have co-founded an American colony, Rhode Island, together with Roger Williams.

Historians who interpret Hutchinson's life events through the lens of the power politic have drawn the conclusion that Hutchinson suffered more because of her growing influence among local believers than because of her radical teachings.

In his article on Hutchinson in Forerunner magazine, Rogers articulates this view, writing that her interpretations were not "antithetical to what the Puritans believed at all. What began as the quibbling over fine points of Christian doctrine ended as a confrontation over the role of authority in the colony."[3] Hutchinson may have criticized the established religious authorities, as did others, but she did so while cultivating an energetic following. That religious following was large enough to be a significant force in secular politics. Hutchinson may have doomed herself by her strong support of Vane, who was replaced by Winthrop who presided at her civil trial—as much as for the specific content of her religious views.

In front of the State House in Boston, Massachusetts, a statue stands of Anne Hutchinson with her daughter Susanna, sole survivor of the attack by Siwanoy Native Americans who killed her mother and siblings in 1643. Susannah Hutchinson was spared because of her red hair, which the Siwanoy had never seen; she was taken hostage, named "Autumn Leaf" and raised among them until ransomed back years later.[13][14]

The statue was erected in 1922. The inscription on the marble pediment of the statue reads:





20 JULY 1595 (sic)






South of Boston in Quincy, Massachusetts, stands another memorial to Hutchinson at the corner of Beale Street and Grandview Avenue. This marks the place where Hutchinson remained for a while en route from Boston to Rhode Island.[citation needed]

Some literary critics trace the character of Hester Prynne in The Scarlet Letter to Hutchinson's persecution in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.[16]

Anne Hutchinson and her political struggle with Governor Winthrop are depicted in the 1980 play "Goodly Creatures" by William Gibson. Other notable historical characters who appear in the play are Rev. John Cotton, Governor Harry Vane, and future Quaker martyr Mary Dyer.

In southern New York, the Hutchinson River, one of the very few rivers named after a woman, and the Hutchinson River Parkway are her most prominent namesakes. Co-incidentally, another female river namesake, Sacagawea, is her neighbor at table in Judy Chicago's art installation The Dinner Party in the Brooklyn Museum. Elementary schools, such as in the town of Portsmouth, Rhode Island, and in the Westchester County towns of Pelham and Eastchester are other examples.

Among her notable descendants are U.S. Presidents Franklin Delano Roosevelt, George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush, First Lady Lucretia Garfield, former Michigan Governor George W. Romney and former Massachusetts Governor and 2008 U.S. presidential candidate Mitt Romney,[citation needed] actors Chevy Chase and Ted Danson, actresses Marilyn Monroe (possibly) and Jane Wyatt, writers Louis Stanton Auchincloss, Dubose Heyward, Robert Lowell and John P. Marquand, U.S. Attorney General Elliot Richardson, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. and Chief Justice Melville Weston Fuller, Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, Senator Stephen Arnold Douglas, Ambassador Pamela Harriman, neuropathologist Stanley Cobb, numismatist Q. David Bowers, and LDS evangelists Parley P. Pratt and Helaman Pratt[citations needed]

In 1987, Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis pardoned Anne Hutchinson, revoking the order of banishment by Governor Winthrop 350 years earlier.

Killed by Indians in New York with all bt 1 of her family

Back from Anne Marbury Hutchinson are the royal heads of Europe to Cedric, King of the West Saxons (519-534), the ancestor of the English royal line.

[edit] Footnotes

^ a b

^ a b c Anne Hutchinson by Peter Gomes. Harvard Magazine November 2002. Accessed February 13, 2007.

^ Frederick Lewis Weis, Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., & William R. and Kaleen E. Beall, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1760, 8th ed., p. 21, line 14-40 (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2004

^ a b c "Liberty for All? Religious Tolerance.

^ a b Fraser, James W. Between Church and State. Palgrave Macmillan, 2000. ISBN 0312233396

^ a b c d e f g h Ellsberg, Robert. All Saints: Daily Reflections on Saints, Prophets, and Witnesses From Our Time. ‘’Crossroad Classic,’’ 1997. ISBN 0824516796

^ a b Hutchinson, Anne. (n.d.). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 23, 2007, from website:

^ a b Crawford, Deborah. Four Women in a Violent Time. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1970, pp. 144-146

^ The Trial of Anne Hutchinson Accessed February 13, 2007.

^ Dunlea, William. Anne Hutchinson and the Puritans: An Early American Tragedy. Dorrance, 1993

^ Pritchard, Evan T. Native New Yorkers, Council Oak, 2002.

^ Anne Hutchinson Notable Women Ancestors at Rootsweb.Com, a genealogy site. Accessed February 13, 2007.

^ Eve LaPLante, "American Jezebel", San Francisco, 2004;

^ Gary Boyd Roberts, "The Royal Descents of 600 Immigrants, etc." Baltimore, 2006, pp. 278-281.

Bibliography - Battis, Emery. Saints and Sectaries. University of North Carolina Press, 1962. ("Sectaries" refers to a dissenter from an established church, especially a Protestant nonconformist.)

Ditmore, Michael G. "A Prophetess in Her Own Country: an Exegesis of Anne Hutchinson's 'Immediate Revelation.'" William and Mary Quarterly 2000 57(2): 349-392. (The article includes an annotated transcription of Hutchinson's "Immediate Revelation.")

Dunlea, William. Anne Hutchinson and The Puritans: An Early American Tragedy. Dorrance Publishing, 1993. 286 pp.

Gura, Philip F. A Glimpse of Sion's Glory: Puritan Radicalism in New England, 1620-1660. Wesleyan U. Press, 1984. 398 pp.

Krieger, Robert E. Anne Hutchinson: Troubler of the Puritan Zion. Krieger Publishing, 1980. 152 pp.

Lang, Amy Schrager. Prophetic Woman: Anne Hutchinson and the Problem of Dissent in the Literature of New England. University of California Press, 1987. 237 pp.

LaPlante, Eve. American Jezebel: The Uncommon Life of Anne Hutchinson, The Woman Who Defied the Puritans. HarperSanFrancisco, 2004, pp. 19, 31.

Leonardo, Bianca, and Rugg, Winifred K. Anne Hutchinson: Unsung Heroine of History. Tree of Life Publications, 1995. 347 pp.

Morgan, Edmund S. "The Case Against Anne Hutchinson." New England Quarterly 10 (1937): 635-649. (online at

Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Genealogical Publishing Co., 2004, p. 493

Williams, Selma R. Divine Rebel: The Life of Anne Marbury Hutchinson. 1981. 246 pp.

Winship, Michael P. The Times and Trials of Anne Hutchinson: Puritans Divided. University Press of Kansas, 2005. 180 pp.

Winship, Michael P. Making Heretics: Militant Protestantism and Free Grace in Massachusetts, 1636-1641 (2002)

Primary sources - Hall, David D., ed. The Antinomian Controversy, 1636-1638: A Documentary History. Second Edition. Duke University Press, 1990

LaPlante, Eve. "American Jezebel: The Uncommon Life of Anne Hutchinson, the Woman Who Defied the Puritans." 2004. 336 pp. [ Author's Website] Bremer, Francis J., ed. Anne Hutchinson, Troubler of the Puritan Zion. 1980. 152 pp.

Note/Article (2) - The following excerpt regards Anne Marbury Hutchinson. References will be added at a later date.

The English family of William Hutchinson was of Lincolnshire stock, not identical with those of Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire, although it has assumed the same arms. It can be traced to the early part of the sixteenth century in Lincoln, until Edward, the father of William Hutchinson, the immigrant, removed from Lincoln to Alford about 1580. It was there that William Hutchinson resided until his removal to New England with his wife, Anne Marbury. Thirteen children were born to them in Alford; three died and were buried there. Ten accompanied their parents to New England; and two were born to them in Boston. As Anne Hutchinson was so distinctly a representative of her sex, her blood inheritance is more important than that which furnishes quarterings to heraldry, granting even that her husband's branch of the Hutchinson name were entitled to the coat which they assumed. Thus the fact that Anne's mother was by birth a Dryden is of essential interest.

The neighborhood of Alford to Boston, England, where the Hutchinsons had often sat under John Cotton at St. Botolph's Church, had created friendly relations with him, and his change of residence doubtless induced them to follow his example. In fact, their eldest son, Edward, then twenty years old, actually accompanied Mr. Cotton on his voyage to Boston.

The Hutchinsons were received with all the cordiality of which the Puritan community was capable. In March, 1635, William Hutchinson and two of his sons, Richard and Francis, became "freemen" of the colony, and, in the following May, William was chosen to represent Boston in the General Court.

Anne Hutchinson took a prominent place in the church and the community almost from the time of her admission, and assumed a position hitherto almost unknown by women, or permitted to them in public affairs. For a considerable time she encountered no difficulty in asserting her views upon religious questions-having passed on the "torch of life" in so wonderful a manner by the duties of maternity-and continued to carry forward in service to her neighbors and to all who were in need of mercy, charity, and sympathy. She was generous in means, and in those days, when nursing as a distinctive occupation or profession was unknown, her personal devotion in childbirth, and in all kinds of illness, her comfort of the needy, and her consolation to the dying, won her way to the affections of the community. Those who afterwards became her enemies, including Governor Winthrop himself, and the Reverend John Wilson, her implacable opponent, paid tribute to her knowledge of scripture, her wit and wisdom, arid her discreet and unfailing charity.

It had been the custom at week-day meetings for the men of the community to discuss the pulpit deliverances of the preceding Sunday. Mistress Hutchinson instituted similar meetings for the women. These grew to have such large attendance, and consequent importance, that, in a community already excited by the controversies which resulted in the banishment of Roger Williams, attention began to be directed to the assemblies at Anne Hutchinson's house. This was increased, perhaps, by the fact that Henry Vane, newly arrived and chosen-governor (as well as Mr. Cotton), became advocates, not only of Mistress Hutchinson's methods, but of the special doctrine upon which she insisted, namely, that the works of professors of religion could not be appealed to as justification, without the spiritual gifts of grace. As a result of the personal antagonism which resulted from the severe criticism of their opinions at her meetings, the first warnings were heard of active proceedings against those who listened to Anne Hutchinson's teachings. Governor Vane as a candidate for reflection was defeated, and returned to England, and while the sentiment in Boston remained less bitter and menacing, the ministers of many towns in Massachusetts were mustered to support measures to be propounded at the General Court against heretical teachings and heretics. Anne Hutchinson's former friends turned against her. Even her old champion, John Cotton, made only a feeble defense, fearing the safety of his own position.

After a two day's trial she was found guilty of heresy and was sentenced to banishment-the sentence to be deferred until the end of the existing winter season-and confined as a prisoner to the care of Mr. Joseph Welde, on the approval of her most bitter enemy, the Roxbury minister. Of this mock trial it has been said: "It was the most shameful proceeding in the annals of Protestantism. Winthrop, a trained lawyer, sat there, grave, stern, convinced beforehand of the culprit's guilt and resolved to banish her from the plantation. As the proceedings came to their predestined conclusion: 'I desire to know whereof I am banished,' said this woman, with the quiet courage of the early martyrs. 'Say no more,' replied Winthrop, 'the court knows whereof, and is satisfied.' Anne Hutchinson bowed her head and placing her hand upon the Bible said: 'The Lord judgeth not as man judgeth. Better to be cast out of the Church than to deny Christ.'"

In the latter part of March, 1638, she was sent from Boston and joined her husband in Rhode Island, where William Hutchinson died at Newport in 1642.

Threats which were made to extend the jurisdiction of the Bay State Colony over the Narragansett country seemed to render the Rhode Island residence an unsafe one for the banished, and several English families having already settled in the New Amsterdam jurisdiction, the Hutchinson family removed thither in the autumn of 1642, and took up their residence in a tract of land purchased near what is now Pelham Bay. It was an unfortunate choice of residence, as the Dutch governor had aroused the enmity of the Indians. In August, 1643, an attack was made on the settlement by savages, who burned Anne Hutchinson's house and slew every person within it, including six of her children, excepting her youngest daughter, who was carried into captivity by the Indians. She was not recovered from the hands of the savages for four years, and had then become one of them, having forgotten her own mother tongue.

The particular conditions of the theological controversy in which Mistress Hutchinson took such a prominent part are interesting today only to the churchman and the historian. The principles which she represented, both in the Bay colony and afterwards in Rhode Island, were woman's freedom of thought and expression, and religious toleration-in her own words, "no person to be accounted delinquent for opinion" in religion or in civil affairs.

In 1911 a bronze tablet to the memory of Mrs. Hutchinson was placed on Split Rock by the Society of Colonial Dames of the State of New York, who recognized that the resting place of this most noted woman of her time was well worthy of such a memorial. The tablet bears the following inscription:


Banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1638

Because of her Devotion to Religious Liberty This Courageous Woman

Sought Freedom from Persecution in New Netherland

Near this Rock in 1643 She and her Household

were Massacred by IndiansThis Tablet is placed here by the

Colonial Dames of the State of New York


Virtutes Majorurn Filiae Conservant

This tablet was destroyed by some vandal hands and replaced by the original givers, the Colonial Dames of New York.

There has been much confusion in the statements concerning the massacre of the Hutchinson family and as to the exact number of her children. It has been said at one time that all her children were there slaughtered. As appears by the following table, which is believed to be an accurate enumeration, there were only six who were killed there.

The testimony of the Reverend James De Normandie given to Anne Hutchinson's character and services was the inspiration for the effort to present an effigy of this notable woman the noble statue by Cyrus F. Dallin-to the State of Massachusetts, where the installation in the State House might be considered as a symbol of the reparation due by the General Court of today for the injustice and cruelty of its predecessor. In regard to this Doctor De Normandie wrote:

"Anne Hutchinson wielded a power and influence never before nor since equaled by any of her sex in America. Her influence upon the life of women is very marked even at the present day. Their freedom of thought is due to her more than to any other person. She is the spiritual ancestor of every woman's alliance; indeed of every organization in the land for patriotic or social or intellectual or religious conference and improvement-and in all years to come every such assembly should pay homage to the name and the spirit and the gifts and the memory of Anne Hutchinson."

"As I understand it, laws, commands, rules and edicts are for those who have not the light which makes plain the pathway." Anne Marbury Hutchinson


Anne MARBURY, my 10th great grandmother, was the daughter of Reverend Francis MARBURY and Bridget DRYDEN, and was born in 1591 in Alford, Lincolnshire, England. She married William HUTCHINSON, a merchant, 9 Aug 1612 in London. She and her husband came to America in 1634 with Reverend John Lothrop's group on the ship "Griffin" and settled in Boston.

No stranger to religion, Anne grew up during the persecution of the Catholics and Separatists under Elizabeth and James I. Her father, Rev. Francis Marbury, had been imprisoned twice for preaching against the incompetence of English ministers, though he later became the rector of St. Martin's Vintry, London, rector of St. Pancras, Soper Lane, and finally rector of St. Margaret's, New Fish Street. He was holding two of these offices simultaneously when he died in 1611.

Anne began her involvment with religion quite innocently, using her intelligence to interpret the only book available to her - the Bible. She had followed her beloved minister, Reverend John Cotton, whose removal to New England a year earlier had been "a great trouble to me...I could not be at rest but I must come hither."

The religious climate in the Massachusetts Bay Colony was oppresive. As the colony took hold, ministers emphasized everyone's pious duty to pray, fast and discipline oneself. Noting that the male members of Boston's church met regularly after sermons to discuss the Bible, she started to hold similar meetings for women in her own home. At first the women discussed the previous Sunday's sermons, but before long Anne began telling them of her own beliefs which differed from those of the Boston ministers. She attracted hundreds of women - aided by her reputation as a skilled midwife - and men, too, soon joined her discussion group.

Brilliant, articulate and learned in the Bible and theology, she denied that conformity with the religious laws were a sign of godliness and inisted that true godliness came from inner experience of the Holy Spirit. Anne further exacerbated the local elders by claiming that only two Boston ministers were "elect" or saved, John Cotton and her brother-in-law, John Wheelwright.

Anne's weekly meetings took on a new importance. As many as eighty people filled her house, including "some of the magistrates, some gentlemen, some scholars and men of learning." Among them was Sir Henry Vane, who became governor of the colony in 1636. When Anne, with the aid of Governor Vane and John Cotton, attemped to have her brother-in-law, John Wheelwright installed as minister of the Boston chuch, most of the congregation supported her. But the pastor of the church, Reverend John Wilson, gave a speech on the "inevitable dangers of separation" caused by the religious dissensions, and joined with John Winthrop in opposing her.

What started as a religious point of difference grew into a schism that threatened the political stability of the colony. To her opponents, questioning the church meant questioning the State. Anne's ideas were branded as the heresy of "Antinomianism" (a belief that Christians are not bound by moral law), and her followers became known as "Antinomians". Intended to be derogatory, the term was erroneously applied to Anne's followers, who did not believe that the inner Holy Spirit released them from obligation to moral law.

The colonial government moved to discipline her and her numerous followers in Boston. In May 1637, Vane lost the governorship to John Winthrop. To prevent new Antinomians from settling, he imposed a restriction on immigrants, among them Anne's brother and several of her friends. In August, eighty-two "heresies" committed by the Antinomians were read at a synod, and a ban was placed on all private meetings.

But Wheelwright continued to preach and Anne now held her meetings twice a week. In November, Winthop and his supporters filed charges against Anne and Wheelwright, who were then put on trial for heresy before a meeting of the General Court. Intending to prove that Anne's behavior was immoral, Winthrop described her meetings as "a thing not tolerable nor comely in the sight of God, nor fitting for your sex," and accused her of breaking the Fifth Commandment by not honoring her father and mother (in this case, the magistrates of the colony). At this trial, she parried all questions so well that Edmund S. Morgan, a biographer of Gov. John Winthrop, was led to comment that Anne Hutchinson was the governor's "intellectual superior in everything except political judgment; in everything except the sense of what was possible in this world." Answering deftly, Anne came close to clearing herself of all charges. But suddenly, she mentioned that she had had several revelations. The Lord revealed himself to her, she said, "upon a Throne of Justice, and all the world appearing before him, and though I must come to New England, yet I must not fear nor be dismaied," she said. "Therefore, take heed. For I know that for this that you goe about to doe unto me," she threatened, "God will ruin you and your posterity, and this whole State." Winthop immediately replied, "I am persuaded that the revelation she brings forth is delusion." The court voted to banish her from the colony, "as being a woman not fit for our society".

Wheelwright was exiled and shortly left for New Hamphire while Anne was put under house arrest for the winter to await a church trial in the spring. On March 15, 1638, Anne was brought to trial before the elders of the church of Boston. When her sons and sons-in-law tried to speak on her behalf, John Cotton cautioned them against "hindering" the work of God in healing her soul. To the women of the congretation he said to be careful in listening to her, "for you see she is but a woman and many unsound and dayngerous Principles are held by her."

Once her friend, Cotton now turned full force against her, attacking her meetings as a "promiscuous and filthie coming together of men and women without Distinction of Relation of Marriage," and accused her of believing in free love. "Your opinions frett like a Gangrene and spread like a Leprosie, and will eate out the very Bowells of Religion."

Then Reverend Wilson, whom she had once tried to evict from the Boston church, delivered her excommunication. "I doe cast you out and in the name of Christ I doe deliver you up to Satan, that you may learne no more to blaspheme, to seduce, and to lye."

"The Lord judgeth not as man judgeth," she retored. "Better to be cast out of the church than to deny Christ."

Banished from Boston, Anne Hutchinson with her husband, children and 60 followers settled in the land of Narragansetts, from whose chief, Miantonomah, they purchased the island of Aquidneck (Peaceable Island), now part of Rhode Island. In March, 1638 they founded the town of Pocasset, the Indian name for that locality; the name "Portsmouth" was given to the settlement in 1639. Here they established that colony's first civil government.

After William's death in 1642, Anne took her children, except for five of the eldest, to the Dutch colony in New York. But a few months later, fifteen Dutchmen were killed in a battle between Mahicans and the Mohawks. In August, 1643 the Mahicans raided the Hutchinson house and slaughtered Anne and five of her youngest children. Only one young daughter who was present, Susanna who was taken captive, survived. (Note: Many older sources insist that ALL of Anne's children except her daughter, Susanna were killed with her. This is simply not true. Sons Edward, Richard and Samuel were not present, nor were her eldest daughters, Faith and Bridget, most of whom left numerous descendants.)

The site of Anne's house and the scene of her murder is in what is now Pelham Bay Park, within the limits of New York City, less than a dozen miles from the City Hall. Not far from it, beside the road, is a large glacial boulder, popularly called Split Rock from its division into two parts, probably by the action of frost aided by the growth of a large tree, the stump of which separates the parts. The line of vision of one looking through the split towards Hutchinson River at the foot of the hill will very nearly cross the site of the house. In 1911 a bronze tablet to the memory of Mrs. Hutchinson was placed on Split Rock by the Society of Colonial Dames of the State of New York, who recognized that the resting place of this most noted woman of her time was well worthy of such a memorial. The tablet bears the following inscription:


Banished From the Massachusetts Bay Colony

In 1638

Because of Her Devotion to Religious Liberty

This Courageous Woman

Sought Freedom From Persecution

In New Netherland

Near This Rock in 1643 She and Her Household

Were Massacred by Indians

This Table is placed here by the

Colonial Dames of the State of New York

Anno Domini MCMXI

Virtutes Majorum Fillae Conservant

Some twentieth century observers credit Anne Hutchinson with being the first American woman to lead the public fight for religious diversity and female quality. In his 1971 biography, Eleanor and Franklin, Joseph P. Lash reported that Eleanor Roosevelt began her list of America's greatest women with Anne Hutchinson. Anne did indeed use her considerable influence as a woman to test the Massachusetts Bay Colony's religious tolerance which, ironically, had been the reason for the settlement.

In April, 1996, Anne Hutchinson was honored by the dedication of a plaque which appears in the photo. It was placed at Founders Brook Park on Aquidneck Island (Portsmouth), Rhode Island. The plaque is the work of the Anne Hutchinson Memorial Committee, a group of Aquidneck Island volunteers led by Valerie DeBrule of Newport, who raised funds to pay for the plaque and surrounding medicinal herb garden.

The following article appeared in the Sakonnet Times in the April 25, 1996 edition.

Anne Hutchinson - Finally the Honor She Deserves

by James Garman

Anne Hutchinson played a vital role in the founding of a settlement at the northern end of Aquidneck Island that came to be known as Portsmouth.

According to local historian Edward H. West, residents of this state should realize the debt they owe Anne Hutchinson for "without her there would never have been a Rhode Island." While this accolade might be just a bit overdrawn, she did play an important role in the colony's founding.

Anne Marbury was born in England in 1591, the daughter of Francis Marbury, a loyal minister to the Anglican Church. In 1612 she married a London merchant, William Hutchinson. Ultimately they had 15 children.

The Hutchinsons followed a reform minister, the Rev. John Cotton, to Boston in 1634. Anne was popular among the women in Massachusetts Bay, whom she sometimes served as midwife. Boston was a fairly severe place dominated by the Puritan Church which saw the Bible as the source of all law. Anne gathered a group that would meet in her home and discuss issues of religion. She frequently would analyze and criticize the previous Sunday's sermon by Rev. Cotton or the Rev. John Wilson. The nature of Anne's criticism of the church revolved around their idea of salvation by works or deeds. She believed in salvation by grace, and therefore that one could not prepare to be saved. Many influential men of the Massachusetts Bay colony listened to her and became followers.

Anne and her supporters began to be referred to as "Antinomians" by their detractors. This term meant "against law." Their ideas were actually a return to the fundamental ideas of John Calvin in their belief that grace was more important than works.

Anne's husband William, meanwhile, had been elected a judge in Massachusetts Bay in 1635 and a deputy in 1636.

The pace of Anne's religious zeal accelerated. With her friend and associate, Mary Dyer, she walked out on a sermon by the Rev. John Wilson in Boston. She urged others to do the same when the ministers swayed from "the true course."

Ultimately, as the risk of the Massachusetts Bay colony splitting apart grew, there came to be accusations against Anne and her followers. Anne's brother-in-law, John Wheelwright, denounced the ministers and said that the wrath of God would descend on Massachusetts Bay unless there were changes. His outburst was claimed to be seditious and he was put on trial. Anne and about 70 of her followers signed a petition opposing Wheelwright's conviction. The signatories were forced to give up their weapons and they were threatened with banishment from the colony.

In November of 1637, Anne was put on trial, charged with "traducing the ministers and their ministry." In her dramatic defense she claimed that it had been revealed to her that the entire Massachusetts Bay Colony would be destroyed of the leaders continued to persecute her for speaking the truth.

Anne was convicted, imprisoned and sentenced to be banished from the colony along with a number of her supporters. The group of banished Bostonians gathered on March 7, 1638, and agreed to the following Compact for their new colony:

"We whose names are underwritten do here solemnly in the presence of Jehovah incorporate ourselves into a Bodie Politick and as he shall help, will submit our person, lives and estates unto our Lord Jesus Christ, the King of Kings and Lord of Lords and all those perfect and most absolute laws of his given us in his holy word of truth, to be guided and judged thereby." [Click here to see a picture of the Portsmouth Compact Memorial by my cousin & friend, Elliot J. Wilcox; scanned by Sam Behling]

Among those signing the Compact were William Coddington, one of the richest men in Boston, Dr. John Clarke, Samuel Gorton and William Hutchinson. A committee under Clarke had been searching for a site to which they could relocate, including Long Island and Delaware.

They met with Roger Williams who had himself been banished from Massachusetts Bay in 1636, establishing a settlement at Providence. With his help they bought Aquidneck Island from the Sachems of the Narragansett Indian tribe, Canonicus and Miantonomi. The price was 40 fathoms of white beads, 10 coats and 20 hoes. The first settlement was around the Town Pond in the vicinity of the Bay Pointe Inn today. Part of this pond still exists in that area, but the bay side was filled in during the 1940's.

The first recorded town meeting at Portsmouth was on March 13, 1638. There the construction of the first meeting house was authorized. This colony was led by William Coddington and, to a degree, the spiritual leadership of Anne Hutchinson. They, along with Samuel Gorton, each had their own followers.

The Portsmouth colony was based more on farming than on religion. Large farms were laid out early and commercial crops, especially corn, peas, beans and tobacco were grown and livestock was raised. It was not easy to be admitted as a freeman in this colony, because the increase in their numbers meant a potential reduction in the size of the existing farms.

Farming on Aquidneck Island was successful from the beginning, and it soon became evident that it would be necessary to develop a port to ship produce out. In addition, there developed religious differences between some of the leaders of the colony.

William Coddington had been a very wealthy man in Boston and among the political leaders there. He had been a member of the Boston Court that had expelled Roger Williams. Coddington was, in William's view "a worldly man" who was most concerned about his own profit and power. He later was to adopt the religious beliefs of the Quakers.

Because of the need for a deep water port and the religious differences, Coddington, Clarke, Nicholas Easton, William Baulston and five other leaders of the Portsmouth colony moved south in 1639 and established Newport. By the end of that first year, 93 people were residents of Newport, and its numbers were growing dramatically.

Meanwhile in Portsmouth, William Hutchinson was elected leader of the settlement. He seemed to be a mild-mannered man dominated by his wife, Anne. He was elected assistant to Governor Coddington of the Rhode Island Colony in 1640 and died in 1642.

His wife was afraid that the Massachusetts Bay authorities would try to gain control of the Portsmouth settlement. In 1643, therefore, she took the younger part of her family and moved to the Dutch Colony of New Netherlands (New York), settling at Pelham Bay (the Bronx today). Because the Dutch had antagonized nearby Indians that year, the Indians rose up an attacked settlements beyond the walled protection of New Amsterdam (New York City). Anne and all but one of her children were murdered by the Indians an 1643. The unharmed child was adopted by the Indians for a while.

Anne Hutchinson's role in the founding of Portsmouth was important. She was the lightning rod that attracted some of the most prominent men of Boston. It is noteworthy that although it was for religious reasons that they came here, there developed such differences that it does not appear that they constructed a church of any kind. It is known that Anne Hutchinson continued to hold religious services in her home while at Portsmouth.

There are differing opinions as to Anne's influence here. Edward West, writing in 1939, said, "While it is to Anne Hutchinson that the credit of the founding of Rhode lsland must be given, for it was the quality of her disarmed followers that led to the founding of a separate colony . . . more or less it is to William Coddington that the credit of the actual founding of the colony must be made, as it was through his wealth and influence . . . that other men of influence settled there."

In spite of this, however, the important role of Anne Hutchinson cannot be denied. After all it was she who led a group of her supporters to Aquidneck Island. She was a dynamic person, a woman of great faith and one whom others were willing to follow to this island in the wilderness.

She is worthy of being honored and the plaque being dedicated to her on April 27 is, in fact, a little more than three hundred years overdue.

from Wikipedia:

Anne Hutchinson (baptized July 20, 1591[1][2] – August 20, 1643) was a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands, and the unauthorized minister of a dissident church discussion group. Hutchinson held Bible meetings for women that soon had great appeal to men as well. Eventually, she went beyond Bible study to proclaim her own theological interpretations of sermons, some of which offended the colony leadership. A major controversy ensued, and after a trial before a jury of officials and clergy, she was banished from her colony.

She is a key figure in the study of the development of religious freedom in England's American colonies and the history of women in ministry. The state of Massachusetts honors her with a State House monument calling her a "courageous exponent of civil liberty and religious toleration."

Emigrated to America. Banished from Massachusettes Bay Colony to Rhode Island. Killed by Indians in New York. This information may concern her husband, William.

Died in Pelham Bay

Anne Hutchinson (baptized July 20, 1591[1][2] – August 20, 1643) was a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands and the unauthorized minister of a dissident church discussion group. Hutchinson held Bible meetings for women that soon appealed to men as well. Eventually, she went beyond Bible study to proclaim her own theological interpretations of sermons, some, such as antinomianism offended the colony leadership. A major controversy ensued, and after a trial before a jury of officials and clergy, she was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

She is a key figure in the study of the development of religious freedom in England's American colonies and the history of women in ministry. The State of Massachusetts honors her with a State House monument calling her a "courageous exponent of civil liberty and religious toleration." (wikipedia)

Anne Marbury

F, b. 20 July 1591, d. 20 September 1643, #467

Father Rev. Francis Marbury1,2,3,4 b. 27 October 1555, d. between 25 January 1611 and 14 February 1611

Mother Bridget Dryden1,5,2,3,6 b. after 1563, d. between 12 February 1645 and 2 April 1645

Pop-up Pedigree

Charts Pedigree for Anne Marbury

Pedigree for Parley Parker Pratt

Pedigree for Winifred Dean

Reference 2QVT-22

Christening* Anne Marbury was christened on 20 July 1591 at Alford, Lincolnshire, England.7,5,3,6

Marriage* She married William Hutchinson Gentleman, son of Edward Hutchinson and Susanna (?), on 9 August 1612 at St. Mary Woolnoth, London, Middlesex, England.7,8,9,5,3,6

Married Name Her married name was Hutchinson.

Emigration* She and William Hutchinson Gentleman emigrated on 18 September 1634 from Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts; on the ship "Griffin".9,3,6

Event-Misc* She was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and fled to join Roger Williams (who was banished in 1636) in Rhode Island in March 1638 at Massachusetts.10

HTML* Br Weblinks:;

my Anne Marbury page which has links to other sites.

Death* She died was killed by Indians with those members of her family living with her at the time except for 9 year-old Susanna on 20 September 1643 at Pelham Bay, New York, Bronx, NY, at age 52.7,3

Baptism She witnessed the baptism of Anne Marbury on 21 March 1931.

Occupation* She was a midwife.3

Note Birth & christening dates in question; cannot be the same date (?), family

group record shows the date to be correct for christening date and shows no

date for birth date.

Family William Hutchinson Gentleman b. 14 August 1586, d. 1642

Marriage* She married William Hutchinson Gentleman, son of Edward Hutchinson and Susanna (?), on 9 August 1612 at St. Mary Woolnoth, London, Middlesex, England.7,8,9,5,3,6


Capt. Edward Hutchinson b. 28 May 1613, d. 19 Aug 1675

Susanna Hutchinson b. 4 Sep 1614, d. Sep 1630

Richard Hutchinson b. 8 Dec 1615, d. 1645

Faith Hutchinson b. 14 Aug 1617, d. 20 Feb 1650/51

Bridget Hutchinson b. 15 Jan 1618/19, d. 29 Sep 1696

Francis Hutchinson b. 24 Dec 1620, d. 20 Sep 1643

Elizabeth Hutchinson b. 15 Feb 1622, d. Oct 1630

William Hutchinson b. 22 Jun 1623

Samuel Hutchinson b. 17 Dec 1624, d. 20 Sep 1643

Anne Hutchinson b. 5 May 1626, d. 20 Sep 1643

Mary Hutchinson b. 22 Feb 1627/28, d. 20 Sep 1643

Katherine Hutchinson b. 7 Feb 1629/30, d. 20 Sep 1643

William Hutchinson b. 28 Sep 1631, d. 20 Sep 1643

Susanna Hutchinson b. 15 Nov 1633, d. 1713

Zuryell Hutchinson b. 13 Mar 1636/37, d. 20 Sep 1643

Last Edited 1 Aug 2004


[S168] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots, 14-40.

[S234] David Faris, Plantagenet Ancestry, Marbury 1.

[S281] Marston Watson, Reverend Francis Marbury, p. 2.

[S284] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p 492.

[S233] Frederick Lewis Weis, Magna Charta Sureties, 34-17.

[S284] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p 493.

[S168] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots, 14-41.

[S182] Joseph Lemuel Chester, "Hutchinson Family", p. 363.

[S183] Jr. Meredith B. Colket, Marbury Ancestry, p. 33.

[S281] Marston Watson, Reverend Francis Marbury, p. 3.

Anne Marbury (Alford, Lincolnshire, England Jul 17 1591 – Aug 20 1643) daughter of Francis Marbury and Bridget Dryden She was a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands, and the unauthorized minister of a dissident church discussion group. Hutchinson held Bible meetings for women that soon had great appeal to men as well. Eventually, she went beyond Bible study to proclaim her own theological interpretations of sermons, some, such as antinomianism, offended the colony leadership. A major controversy ensued, and after a trial before a jury of officials and clergy, she was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.[3] She is a key figure in the study of the development of religious freedom in England's American colonies and the history of women in ministry. The state of Massachusetts honors her with a State House monument calling her a "courageous exponent of civil liberty and religious toleration."[

Among her ancestors are George Walker Bush, George Herbert Walker Bush, Chevy Chase, Ted Danson, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr, Averell Harriman, Benny Goodman, James A. Garfield

My wife Robyns` 9th great grandmother

Spiritual Leader/ Visionary religion: Puritan immigration to New England, USA 1634 aboard the ship Griffin. occupation: Wife/ Mother/ Midwife/ Lay Physician In Founders Brook Park, near Pelham Bay Park, New York., there is a large boulder off the side of the road popurlarly called, split rock. At this site, in April 1996, the Society of the Colonial Dames of New York placed a tablet that bears this inscription:

Anne Hutchinson

Bannished from the Massachusetts bay Colony in 1638 Because of her devotion to Religious Liberty, this courageous woman sought freedom from persecution in New Netherland.

Near this rock in 1643, she and her household were massacred by Indians.

This table is placed here by the Colonial Dames of the State of New York Anno Domini MCMXI Virtutes Majorum Filliae Conservant

(f/g) Anne Marbury Hutchinson Birth: Jul. 20, 1595 Death: Aug., 1643 Eastchester (Bronx County) Bronx County New York, USA

American Colonist, Religious Leader, Social Reformer. One of many persons victim of the religious persecutions in Europe, she followed the highly venerated Reverend John Cotton from England to Massachusetts Bay Colony with her husband in 1634 on the ship "Griffin" and they settled in Boston.

  • [see f/g # 7177401 for more]

Family links:

 Francis Marbury (1555 - 1611) 
 William Hutchinson (1586 - 1642)
 Edward Hutchinson (1613 - 1675)*
 Susanna Hutchinson (1614 - 1630)*
 Richard Hutchinson (1615 - 1670)*
 Faith Hutchinson Savage (1617 - 1651)*
 Bridget Hutchison Sanford Phillips (1618 - 1698)*
 Francis Hutchinson (1620 - 1643)*
 William Hutchinson (1623 - 1643)*
 Samuel Hutchinson (1624 - 1643)*
 Anne Hutchinson Collins (1626 - 1643)*
 Mary Hutchinson (1627 - 1643)*
 Katherine Hutchinson (1630 - 1643)*
 Susannah Hutchinson Cole (1633 - 1713)*
 Zuriel Hutchinson (1636 - 1643)

Burial: Pelham Bay Park Bronx Bronx County New York, USA Maintained by: Find A Grave Originally Created by: Stuthehistoryguy Record added: Feb 11, 2003 Find A Grave Memorial# 7177401 -tcd

Anne Hutchinson, born Anne Marbury (1591–1643), was a Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and important participant in the Antinomian Controversy that shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638. Her strong religious convictions were at odds with the established Puritan clergy in the Boston area, and her popularity and charisma helped create a theological schism that threatened to destroy the Puritans' religious experiment in New England. She was eventually tried and convicted, then banished from the colony with many of her supporters.

Born in Alford, Lincolnshire, England, Anne was the daughter of Francis Marbury, an Anglican minister and school teacher who gave her a far better education than most other girls received. She lived in London as a young adult, and married there an old friend from home, William Hutchinson. The couple moved back to Alford, where they began following the dynamic preacher named John Cotton in the nearby major port of Boston, Lincolnshire. After Cotton was compelled to emigrate in 1633, the Hutchinsons followed a year later with their 11 children, and soon became well established in the growing settlement of Boston in New England. Anne was a midwife, and very helpful to those needing her assistance, as well as forthcoming with her personal religious understandings. Soon she was hosting women at her house weekly, providing commentary on recent sermons. These meetings became so popular that she began offering meetings for men as well, including the young governor of the colony, Henry Vane.

As a follower of Cotton, she espoused a "covenant of grace," while accusing all of the local ministers (except for Cotton and her husband's brother-in-law, John Wheelwright) of preaching a "covenant of works." Following complaints of many ministers about the opinions coming from Hutchinson and her allies, the situation erupted into what is commonly called the Antinomian Controversy, resulting in her 1637 trial, conviction, and banishment from the colony. This was followed by a March 1638 church trial in which she was excommunicated. With encouragement from Providence founder Roger Williams, Hutchinson and many of her supporters established the settlement of Portsmouth in what became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. After her husband's death a few years later, threats of Massachusetts taking over Rhode Island compelled Hutchinson to move totally outside the reach of Boston, into the lands of the Dutch. While five of her older surviving children remained in New England or in England, she settled with her younger children near an ancient landmark called Split Rock in what later became The Bronx in New York City. Tensions with the native Siwanoy were high at the time. In August 1643, during Kieft's War, Hutchinson, six of her children, and other household members were massacred during an attack. The only survivor was her nine-year old daughter, Susanna, who was taken captive.

Hutchinson is a key figure in the development of religious freedom in England's American colonies and the history of women in ministry. She challenged the authority of the ministers, exposing the subordination of women in the culture of colonial Massachusetts. She is honoured by Massachusetts with a State House monument calling her a "courageous exponent of civil liberty and religious toleration." She has been called the most famous, or infamous, English woman in colonial American history.

Killed by Indians at Pelham Bay

view all 52

Anne Hutchinson's Timeline

July 20, 1591
Alford, Lincolnshire, England
July 20, 1591
Alford, Lincolnshire, England
July 20, 1591
Lincolnshire, England
July 20, 1591
Lincolnshire, England
July 20, 1591
Lincolnshire, England
July 20, 1591
Lincolnshire, England
July 20, 1595
Age 4
Alford, Lincolnshire, England
May 28, 1613
Age 21
Alford, Lincolnshire, England