Arataswa Hagler, Chief of Catawba

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Chief Arataswa Nopkehe Hagler

Also Known As: "catawba.chief.nopkehee"
Birthplace: Catawba Indian Nation, Rock Hill, York, SC, United States
Death: August 30, 1763 (82-83)
Catawba Indian Nation, Rock Hill, York, SC, United States
Immediate Family:

Son of King Yanabe Yalangway
Husband of Lucille Hagler
Father of Jarmin JarFly"A Catawba Indian" Barrett and Fnu Hagler
Brother of lucretia Creasy Rawlinson

Managed by: Alice Zoe Marie Knapp
Last Updated:

About Arataswa Hagler, Chief of Catawba

Chief Arataswa Nopkehe Hagler was born in 1680 in Catawba Indian Nation, Rock Hill, York, SC,. Nopkehe married Unknown Cherokee Hagler. Together they had the following children : * Need actual proof of children. He died on August 30, 1763 in Catawba Indian Nation, Rock Hill, York, SC, United States. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia King Hagler or Nopkehee (c. 1700–1763) was a chief or King of the Catawba Native American tribe from 1754 to 1763. He was the first Native American to be inducted into the South Carolina Hall of Fame.[1] He was chief after King Yanabe Yalangway, who was murdered by a group of Iroquois Natives in 1750. He is known as the "Patron Saint of Camden" On August 29, 1754 he delivered a speech in Catawba: "As to our Liveing on those Lands[,] we Expect to live on those Lands we now possess During our Time here[;] for when the Great Man above made us he also made this Island[,] he also made our forefathers and of this Colour and Hue (Showing his hands & Breast) he also fixed our forefathers and us here and to Inherit this Land[;] and Ever since we Lived after our manner and fashion..."[2] King Haiglar hunted with his bow and arrow and rifle. It may be that he attended Indian school, because King Whitmannetaugheehee agreed that eleven Catawba boys should attend Indian School in Virginia.On August 30, 1763 he was killed by a band of Shawnees.[1] The King is also known by a multitude of other names, mainly other spellings, such as Haigler, Haiglar, King Haigler, Nopkehe, Arataswa and Oroloswa. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


King Hagler, Catawba Chieftain By James H. Williams King Hagler (died 1763), as the English called the tribal Catawba chieftain, was a powerful ally to the English and much respected among the Piedmont tribes along the Catawba River. He was wisely courted by the early Colonial officials in both North and South Carolina.

Hagler led the Catawbas as allies of the English against the French and their Indian allies at Fort Duquesne. Repeatedly, the Catawbas defended settlers from Cherokee marauders. On 26 May 1756, Hagler met with North Carolina Chief Justice Peter Henley in Salisbury. The purpose of the conference was to discuss disputes between the Catawba and Cherokee Nations and to reassure Hagler that North Carolina intended to honor the provisions of a February 1756 treaty negotiated between the colonies of North Carolina and Virginia, and the Cherokee and Catawba Nations.

Hagler arrived accompanied by “15 of his principal Warriors and about 30 of his young Men painted and armed in the manner that they are when going to War.” During the meeting Hagler professed his friendship and loyalty to the English, declaring that their alliance would last “as long as the sun endures.”

Hagler and Henley discussed a number of topics including relations between the English and Indians and the impending escalation of the French and Indian War. Hagler expressed his concern that the Cherokee “have been playing the Rogue.”Hagler issued a promise in possibly one of the state’s earliest temperance speeches: "Mine is a small Nation yet they are brave men, and will be fast friends to their Brothers and White people as long as the sun endures…I desire a stop may be put to the selling of strong Liquors by the White people to my people especially near the Indian Nation. If the White people make strong drink, let them sell it to one another or drink it in their own Families. This will avoid a great deal of mischief which otherwise will happen from my people getting drunk and quarreling with the White people. Hagler asked the chief justice what to do with a "white woman he had captured from the Cherokees. The chief justice indicated that she was an indentured servant. Hagler agreed to return her to her owner in Virginia, adding wistfully, “I am always sorry to lose a Woman. The loss of one Woman may be the loss of many lives because one Woman may be the mother of many children.” Liquor sales to the Indians continued, and Hagler watched his tribes diminish from war and disease. Hagler, in 1761, brought his grandson before South Carolina Lieutenant Governor William Bull. “I am an old Man and I have no Son, but a Grand Son, whom I have brought hither to see your Honour. He will succeed me and I have recommended to him to love the English the same as I have done and I hope he will do so.”

A canny diplomat, Hagler continued to negotiate for lands to guarantee against inroads of the settlers until the day in 1763 when he was murdered by seven Shawnees. After his death, the land agreement he had so long pursued was finalized. A tract fifteen miles square, covering 144,000 acres, was set aside for the Catawbas. King Hagler’s name was put on the document, since it accomplished what he had persistently sought. The Catawba land centered on the mouth of Sugar Creek, and the English asked Hagler if he wanted to be in North or South Carolina. He chose South Carolina, which is why the state line has the odd angle, framing Catawba land.

Hagler’s burial—five years before Charlotte was founded— ended an era along the Catawba River and among the Indian nation. In 1775, James Adair, Irish traveler, writer and trader, wrote, “The Katahba are now reduced to very few above one hundred fighting men.”


Mary Kratt, Charlotte North Carolina: A Brief History (Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2009) 1756/ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Hagler (Arataswa or Oroloswa) by Jerry C. Cashion

d. 30 Aug. 1763 Arataswa or Oroloswa Hagler, king or head man of the Catawbas , lived and died in the region that was in bitter dispute between the two Carolinas. Upon the murder of The Young Warrior (Yanabe Yalangway) by northern Indians, Hagler was recognized by provincial authorities in Charles Town as king. Governor James Glen of South Carolina and his counterpart in New York attempted to end the ancient feud between the Catawbas and the Six Nations composing the Iroquois Confederacy by arranging a meeting in Albany in 1751. Hagler, accompanied by Lieutenant Governor William Bull, led the Catawba delegation to New York. Although an agreement was reached, the Catawba chief complained in subsequent years of continued harassment of his people by members of the Six Nations.

Although Hagler remained a stalwart ally of the British, he was not above attempting to play upon the rivalries among the southern provinces for the best interests of his nation. As early as 1752 he informed the Charles Town government of the encroachment of whites on Catawba lands. A similar complaint was made to North Carolinians at a meeting in Rowan County in 1754. The frequency of white encroachments increased as settlers fled south after General Edward Braddock's defeat in 1755. Hagler became involved in the controversy between Virginia's Governor Robert Dinwiddie and North Carolina's Governor Arthur Dobbs on one side and Glen on the other. Virginia had requested Catawba braves to accompany Braddock's army and accused South Carolina of preventing the Indians from participating by calling a meeting with them at the time they were supposed to march to Virginia. Also, at about this time Dobbs sent a captain's commission to Jimmy Bullen, a Catawba head man. Some have interpreted this as an attempt by the North Carolina government to establish a rival leader among the Catawbas.

During the early spring of 1756 Virginia commissioned William Byrd III and Peter Randolph to negotiate with Hagler at a site on the Broad River. North Carolina was invited to participate and Captain Hugh Waddell, then commanding the frontier rangers in that province, was appointed commissioner. Hagler agreed to send forty Catawba braves at once to aid the Virginians. This assistance was not forthcoming. The Catawba king later claimed that Glen had instructed him not to go.

In mid-May 1756, a group of Cherokee braves returning from service on the Virginia front terrorized and pillaged the North Carolina backcountry. Hagler and his band, along with some Rowan settlers, captured the offending Indians and delivered them to authorities in Salisbury. On 26–27 May the Catawba king met with Peter Henley, chief justice of North Carolina, at Salisbury. At this meeting he requested gifts, ammunition, and a fort to be built to protect his people while his warriors were away fighting for the British. Dobbs and the North Carolina Assembly reluctantly agreed to this. A site was selected and subsequently purchased for the tribe. Hugh Waddell, who had just constructed Fort Dobbs, was sent with a group of rangers to build the Catawba fort. For some reason relations between the Catawbas and North Carolina cooled, perhaps due to continued white settlement from that colony within Catawba lands. Hagler requested that the North Carolinians cease work on the fort as he wished the stronghold to be built by South Carolinians. In August 1757 Dobbs ordered the work suspended.

From 1756 to 1759 the Catawbas journeyed north to aid the British in their campaigns against the French and their Indian allies. In the fall of 1758 about twenty-five Catawbas took part in General John Forbes's expedition. When these braves returned home, they brought with them the dreaded smallpox which decimated the nation during the winter of 1759–60. It was estimated that between one-half and two-thirds of the tribe died. Hagler withdrew to the Camden area while the disease ran its course. Later the principal settlement of the nation was established at Pine Tree Hill, away from white incursions.

During 1760 Hagler was ill and unable to make trips to Charles Town in May and October. Nevertheless, he participated in the negotiations for the Treaty of Pine Tree Hill (July 1760) with Edmond Atkin, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southern District. By this agreement the Catawba tribe was restricted to a fifteen-square-mile territory. This boundary was not established until after the Augusta Congress of 1763 due to the objections of Arthur Dobbs.

South Carolina finally built the oft-promised Catawba fort in the winter of 1760. The following year Hagler met with Chief Silver Heels of the Iroquois at Charles Town to reaffirm the peace between the two tribes. Also, in the spring of 1761 a number of Catawbas joined Colonel James Grant in his expedition to crush the Cherokee. Although peace was achieved with the Cherokee in December 1761, sporadic fighting continued among the ancient Indian rivals. Two years later, while out hunting, Hagler was ambushed and killed by seven Shawnee braves. One tribal tradition states that his grave was looted by whites, whereas another story contends that his remains were secretly buried. No likeness of Hagler is known to exist. A weather vane in Camden is said to be an effigy of the Catawba king; however, the artisan who made it did not arrive in the area until over a half century after Hagler's death.


Douglas S. Brown, The Catawba Indians: The People of the River (1966) Walter Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina, vol. 22 (1907) William L. McDowell, Jr., ed., Colonial Records of South Carolina, Series Two, vols. 2, 3 (1958, 1970) Chapman J. Milling, Red Carolinians (1940) William L. Saunders, ed., Colonial Records of North Carolina, vols. 5, 6, 8 (1887–90) M. Eugene Sirman, Colonial South Carolina: A Political History (1966).

Article Written by Anne M. McCulloch He rose to power in 1750 or early 1751 after the previous chief, Young Warrior, and the other headmen of the tribe were ambushed by a group of northern Indians, probably of the Iroquois Confederation.Catawba chief. King Hagler (Haigler, Arataswa) is the best known of the Catawba chieftains. Nothing is known of his early life. He rose to power in 1750 or early 1751 after the previous chief, Young Warrior, and the other headmen of the tribe were ambushed by a group of northern Indians, probably of the Iroquois Confederation. Hagler had been hunting and was not with the group when they were killed. His first official act came in 1751, involving a peace delegation organized by Governor James Glen of South Carolina and Governor Dewitt Clinton of New York to treat with the Iroquois Confederation at Albany, New York. Hagler was accompanied on this journey by William Bull II and five headmen of the Catawba tribe. The Catawba and the Iroquois had been implacable enemies for hundreds of years, leading to much bloodshed between them, despite the great distance separating their lands. After signing the peace treaty, Hagler returned home to discover that a band of “northern Indians” had attacked members of the Catawba tribe. Two more peace envoys were required (1752 and 1761) before peace was finally established between the ancient enemies.The Catawba under King Hagler supported the British in the French and Indian War by sending a contingent of soldiers to fight with Colonel George Washington in the winter of 1756 and the spring of 1757. A smaller contingent of Catawba returned to Virginia to fight with General John Forbes in 1758. While there they contracted smallpox. On their returning home, the disease quickly spread through the Catawba, killing half their population. King Hagler was not in the village at the time of the outbreak and again escaped death.The single most important event of King Hagler’s reign was the Treaty of Pine Tree Hill, which he negotiated in July 1760. It provided for a reservation fifteen miles square (144,000 acres) on the border of North and South Carolina. The reservation borders were later fixed by the Treaty of Augusta, which was signed on November 5, 1763, shortly after Hagler’s death.Although Hagler is commonly known in history as King Hagler, the title of “King” was not a traditional Indian title. Rather, it was bestowed on him by Governor James Glen sometime in the early 1750s. This was a common custom of colonial governors when dealing with Indian nations. Simultaneously, Governor Arthur Dobbs of North Carolina gave the title to James Bullen, a brave Catawba warrior during the French and Indian War. However, Bullen died before he could successfully challenge Hagler for leadership of the tribe.On August 30, 1763, Hagler was returning with a servant from visiting the Waxhaws. He was ambushed on the road to Catawba Old Town on Twelve Mile Creek by seven Shawnees, who shot him six times and then scalped him.Brown, Douglas Summers. The Catawba Indians: The People of the River. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1966.Merrell, James H. The Indians’ New World: Catawbas and Their Neighbors from European Contact through the Era of Removal. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.Milling, Chapman J. Red Carolinians. 1940. Reprint, Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1969. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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Arataswa Hagler, Chief of Catawba's Timeline

Rock Hill, York, SC, United States
Rock Hill, York Co., SC, Brit AM Colony
August 30, 1763
Age 83
Rock Hill, York, SC, United States