Artaxerxes II Mnemon, king of Persia

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Artaxerxes

Birthdate: (98)
Birthplace: Persia
Death: Died in Persia
Place of Burial: Iran
Immediate Family:

Son of Darius II, King of Persia and Parysatis
Husband of Aspasia of SCYTHIA; Stateira and Atossa
Father of Artaxerxes III, Shah of Persia; Apama; Rodogoune; Phriapatius / Phriapites; Sisygambis Princess of Persia and 10 others
Brother of Ostanes of Persia; Cyrus "The Younger" Persia; Amestris; N/A - Gubernur Media (401 SM); Artostes and 1 other

Occupation: Shah of Persia, aka Mnemon; aka Artaxerxes II Abataka; ACHAEMENID; 8th PHARAOH of the 27th Dynasty of EGYPT; during his reign Egypt became independent of the Persian Empire, but Persia regained the Ionian cities of Anatolia, of Persia [ Achaemenid ]
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Artaxerxes II Mnemon, king of Persia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artaxerxes_II_of_Persia

--------------------------------------------------------------

ID: I62226

Name: Artaxerxes II of Persia

Prefix: King

Given Name: Artaxerxes II

Surname: of Persia

Sex: M

_UID: 7C1DC7EE22CF224BB3E41B335EF943B5E0F2

Change Date: 26 Nov 2005

Death: Y

Father: Darius II of Persia

Mother: Parysatis of Babylon

Marriage 1 Spouse Unknown

Children

Apama of Persia

Marriage 2 Stateira of Armenia

Married:

Children

Sisygambis of Persia

Forrás / Source:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp-fam&id=I62226

Image: Drawn by Faucher-Gudin, from a coin in the Cabinet des

Médailles. This coin, which was struck at Mallos, in

Cilicia, bears as a counter-mark the figure of a bull and

the name of the city of Issus


II Mnemon (Old Persian: ΠμΫΧρςΠ[1] Artaxšaçā, Ancient Greek: Ἀρταξέρξης) was king of Persia from 404 BC until his death. He was a son of Darius II of Persia and Parysatis.

He defended his position against his brother Cyrus the Younger, who was defeated and killed at the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC, and against a revolt of the provincial governors, the satraps (366 – 358 BC). He also became involved in a war with Persia's erstwhile allies, the Spartans, who, under Agesilaus II, invaded Asia Minor. In order to redirect the Spartans attention to Greek affairs, Artaxerxes subsidized their enemies: in particular the Athenians, Thebans, and Corinthians. These subsidies helped to engage the Spartans in what would become known as the Corinthian War. In 386 BC, Artaxerxes II betrayed his allies and came to an arrangement with Sparta, and in the Treaty of Antalcidas he forced his erstwhile allies to come to terms. This treaty restored control of the Greek cities of Ionia and Aeolis on the Anatolian coast to the Persians, while giving Sparta dominance on the Greek mainland.

Although successful against the Greeks, Artaxerxes had more trouble with the Egyptians, who had successfully revolted against him at the beginning of his reign. An attempt to reconquer Egypt in 373 BC was completely unsuccessful, but in his waning years the Persians did manage to defeat a joint Egyptian–Spartan effort to conquer Phoenicia.

He is reported to have had a number of wives. His main wife was Stateira, until she was poisoned by Artaxerxes' mother Parysatis in about 400 BC. Another chief wife was a Greek woman of Phocaea named Aspasia (not the same as the concubine of Pericles). Artaxerxes II is said to have more than 115 sons from 350 wives.[2] He also is said to have loved a young eunuch by the name of Tiridates, who died "as he was emerging from childhood". His death caused Artaxerxes enormous grief, and there was public mourning for him throughout the empire as an offering to the king from his subjects. According to Claudius Aelianus, Artaxerxes was brought out of the mourning by Aspasia, after she wore the eunuch's cloak over her dress.[3]

He is identified as the Persian king Ahasuerus of the Purim story in traditional sources.

[edit]Building projects

Much of Artaxerxes's wealth was spent on building projects. He restored the palace of Darius I at Susa,[4] and also the fortifications; including a strong redoubt at the southeast corner of the enclosure and gave Ecbatana a new apadana and sculptures. He seems not to have built much at Persepolis.[citation needed]

[edit]Offspring

By Stateira

Artaxerxes III

Darius

Ariaspes or Ariarathes

Atossa, wife of Artaxerxes II & then Artaxerxes III

By other wives

Arsames

Mithridates

Phriapatius(?), probable ancestor of Arsacids

Amestris, wife of Artaxerxes II

Rhodogune, wife of satrap Orontes

Apama, wife of Pharnabazus

Ocha, mother of an unnamed wife of Artaxerxes III

The unnamed wife of Tissaphernes

112 other unnamed sons


Extracts from interesting book at gutenberg site:

HISTORY OF EGYPT

CHALDEA, SYRIA, BABYLONIA, AND ASSYRIA

By G. MASPERO,

http://images.google.co.za/imgres?imgurl=http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17329/17329-h/images/293.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17329/17329-h/v9b.htm&usg=__mmi-hEOeYN0cBs2jkTj_Dz3TXes=&h=207&w=325&sz=19&hl=en&start=4&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=KR8yuMz8sYxn1M:&tbnh=75&tbnw=118&prev=/images%3Fq%3DArtaxerxes%2BII%2BMemnon%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26tbs%3Disch:1

On ascending the throne, Ochus assumed the name of Darius. His confidential advisers were three eunuchs, who ruled the empire in his name—Artoxares, who had taken such a prominent part in the campaign which won him the crown, Artibarzanes, and Athôos; but the guiding spirit of his government was, in reality, his wife, the detestable Parysatis. She had already borne him two children before she became queen; a daughter, Amestris, and a son, Arsaces, who afterwards became king under the name of Artaxerxes. Soon after the accession of her husband, she bore him a second son, whom she named Cyrus, in memory of the founder of the empire, and a daughter, Artostê; several other children were born subsequently, making thirteen in all, but these all died in childhood, except one named Oxendras. Violent, false, jealous, and passionately fond of the exercise of power, Parysatis hesitated at no crime to rid herself of those who thwarted her schemes, even though they might be members of her own family; and, not content with putting them out of the way, she delighted in making them taste her hatred to the full, by subjecting them to the most skilfully graduated refinements of torture; she deservedly left behind her the reputation of being one of the most cruel of all the cruel queens, whose memory was a terror not only to the harems of Persia, but to the whole of the Eastern world. The numerous revolts which broke out soon after her husband's accession, furnished occasions for the revelation of her perfidious cleverness....

Cyrus (artaxerxes' brother) entered the temple of Pasargadae surreptitiously during the coronation ceremony, with the intention of killing his brother at the foot of the altar; but Tissaphernes, warned by one of the priests, denounced him, and he would have been put to death on the spot, had not his mother thrown her arms around him and prevented the executioner from fulfilling his office. Having with difficulty obtained pardon and been sent back to his province, he collected thirty thousand Greeks and a hundred thousand native troops, and, hastily leaving Sardes (401 B.C.), he crossed Asia Minor, Northern Syria, and Mesopotamia, encountered the royal army at Cunaxa, to the north of Babylon, and rashly met his end at the very moment of victory. He was a brave, active, and generous prince, endowed with all the virtues requisite to make a good Oriental monarch, and he had, moreover, learnt, through contact with the Greeks, to recognise the weak points of his own nation, and was fully determined to remedy them: his death, perhaps, was an irreparable misfortune for his country. Had he survived and supplanted the feeble Artaxerxes, it is quite possible that he might have confirmed and strengthened the power of Persia, or, at least, temporarily have arrested its decline.


Artaxerxes II Mnemon, King of Persia, was born circa 456 BC; died circa 358 BC.


Artaxerxes II Mnemon (Old Persian: ΠμΫΧρςΠ[1] Artaxšaçā, Ancient Greek: Ἀρταξέρξης) was king of Persia from 404 BC until his death. He was a son of Darius II of Persia and Parysatis.

He defended his position against his brother Cyrus the Younger, who was defeated and killed at the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC, and against a revolt of the provincial governors, the satraps (366 – 358 BC). He also became involved in a war with Persia's erstwhile allies, the Spartans, who, under Agesilaus II, invaded Asia Minor. In order to redirect the Spartans attention to Greek affairs, Artaxerxes subsidized their enemies: in particular the Athenians, Thebans, and Corinthians. These subsidies helped to engage the Spartans in what would become known as the Corinthian War. In 386 BC, Artaxerxes II betrayed his allies and came to an arrangement with Sparta, and in the Treaty of Antalcidas he forced his erstwhile allies to come to terms. This treaty restored control of the Greek cities of Ionia and Aeolis on the Anatolian coast to the Persians, while giving Sparta dominance on the Greek mainland.

Although successful against the Greeks, Artaxerxes had more trouble with the Egyptians, who had successfully revolted against him at the beginning of his reign. An attempt to reconquer Egypt in 373 BC was completely unsuccessful, but in his waning years the Persians did manage to defeat a joint Egyptian–Spartan effort to conquer Phoenicia.

He is reported to have had a number of wives. His main wife was Stateira, until she was poisoned by Artaxerxes' mother Parysatis in about 400 BC. Another chief wife was a Greek woman of Phocaea named Aspasia (not the same as the concubine of Pericles). Artaxerxes II is said to have more than 115 sons from 350 wives.[2] He also is said to have loved a young eunuch by the name of Tiridates, who died "as he was emerging from childhood". His death caused Artaxerxes enormous grief, and there was public mourning for him throughout the empire as an offering to the king from his subjects. According to Claudius Aelianus, Artaxerxes was brought out of the mourning by Aspasia, after she wore the eunuch's cloak over her dress.[3]

He is identified as the Persian king Ahasuerus of the Purim story in traditional sources.

Much of Artaxerxes's wealth was spent on building projects. He restored the palace of Darius I at Susa,[4] and also the fortifications; including a strong redoubt at the southeast corner of the enclosure and gave Ecbatana a new apadana and sculptures. He seems not to have built much at Persepolis.


Artaxerxes II Memnon (Old Persian: Artaxšaçrā, Persian: اردشیر - Ardašir, Ancient Greek: Αρταξέρξης) (ca. 436 – 358 BC) was king of Persia from 404 BC until his death. He defended his position against his brother Cyrus the Younger, who was defeated and killed at the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC, and against a revolt of the provincial governors, the satraps (366 – 358 BC). He also became involved in a war with Persia's erstwhile allies, the Spartans, who, under Agesilaus, invaded Asia Minor. To keep the Spartans busy, Artaxerxes subsidized their enemies in Greece—the Athenians, Thebans, and Corinthians, especially—to keep them busy back at home, in what would become known as the Corinthian War. In 386 BC, Artaxerxes II betrayed his allies and came to an arrangement with Sparta, and in the Treaty of Antalcidas he forced his erstwhile allies to come to terms. This treaty restored control of the Greek cities of Ionia and Aeolis on the Anatolian coast to the Persians, while giving Sparta dominance on the Greek mainland.

Although thus rather successful against the Greeks, Artaxerxes had more trouble with the Egyptians, who had successfully revolted against him at the beginning of his reign. An attempt to reconquer Egypt in 373 BC was completely unsuccessful, but in his waning years the Persians did manage to defeat a joint Egyptian–Spartan effort to conquer Phoenicia.

He is reported to have had a number of wives, chief among whom was a Greek woman of Phocaea named Aspasia (not the same as the concubine of Pericles). He also is said to have loved a young eunuch by the name of Tiridates, who died "as he was emerging from childhood". His death caused Artaxerxes enormous grief, and there was public mourning for him throughout the empire as an offering to the king from his subjects.[1]

He is thought to be one of the prime candidates for the Persian king Ahasuerus of the Purim story.

[edit] Building projects

Much of Artaxerxes's wealth was spent on building projects. He restored the palace of Darius I at Susa, and also the fortifications; including a strong redoubt at the southeast corner of the enclosure and gave Ecbatana a new apadana and sculptures. He seems not to have built much at Persepolis.[citation


http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp%2Dfam&id=I62226

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artaxerxes_II_of_Persia

Artaxerxes II of PersiaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search Artaxerxes II Mnemon Great King (Shah) of Persia

Artaxerxes II tomb in Persepolis, Iran. Reign 405-04 to 359-58 BC Born ca. 435 or 445 BC Died 358 BC Predecessor Darius II of Persia Heir Apparent Artaxerxes III of Persia Successor Artaxerxes III of Persia Consort Stateira Offspring Artaxerxes III Dynasty Achaemenid Father Darius II Mother Parysatis

Artaxerxes II Mnemon[pronunciation?] (Persian: اردشير دوم‎) (Old Persian: ΠμΫΧρςΠ meaning "whose reign is through truth");[1] was king of Persia from 404 BC until his death. He was a son of Darius II of Persia and Parysatis.

Contents [hide] 1 Reign 2 Building projects 3 Offspring 4 Identification 5 See also 6 References 7 External links


[edit] ReignHe defended his position against his brother Cyrus the Younger, who was defeated and killed by Mithridates at the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC. Artaxerxes tried to claim the glory of having killed his brother himself, but when Mithridates boasted of killing Cyrus at court while flushed with wine, Artaxerxes had him executed for making him out to be a liar.

He became involved in a war with Persia's erstwhile allies, the Spartans, who, under Agesilaus II, invaded Asia Minor. In order to redirect the Spartans attention to Greek affairs, Artaxerxes subsidized their enemies: in particular the Athenians, Thebans and Corinthians. These subsidies helped to engage the Spartans in what would become known as the Corinthian War. In 386 BC, Artaxerxes II betrayed his allies and came to an arrangement with Sparta, and in the Treaty of Antalcidas he forced his erstwhile allies to come to terms. This treaty restored control of the Greek cities of Ionia and Aeolis on the Anatolian coast to the Persians, while giving Sparta dominance on the Greek mainland. In 385 BC he campaigned against the Cadusians.

Although successful against the Greeks, Artaxerxes had more trouble with the Egyptians, who had successfully revolted against him at the beginning of his reign. An attempt to reconquer Egypt in 373 BC was completely unsuccessful, but in his waning years the Persians did manage to defeat a joint Egyptian–Spartan effort to conquer Phoenicia. He quashed the Revolt of the Satraps in 372-362 BC.

He is reported to have had a number of wives. His main wife was Stateira, until she was poisoned by Artaxerxes' mother Parysatis in about 400 BC. He also married several of his own daughters. Another chief wife was a Greek woman of Phocaea named Aspasia (not the same as the concubine of Pericles). Artaxerxes II is said to have more than 115 sons from 350 wives.[2]

[edit] Building projectsMuch of Artaxerxes's wealth was spent on building projects. He restored the palace of Darius I at Susa,[3] and also the fortifications; including a strong redoubt at the southeast corner of the enclosure and gave Ecbatana a new apadana and sculptures. He seems not to have built much at Persepolis.[citation needed]

[edit] OffspringBy Stateira Artaxerxes III Darius Ariaspes or Ariarathes Rhodogune, wife of satrap Orontes I Atossa, wife of Artaxerxes II & then Artaxerxes III By other wives Arsames Mithridates Phriapatius(?), probable ancestor of Arsacids Amestris, wife of Artaxerxes II Apama, wife of Pharnabazus Ocha, mother of an unnamed wife of Artaxerxes III The unnamed wife of Tissaphernes 112 other unnamed sons [edit] IdentificationIt has been suggested that this man was the Ahasuerus mentioned in the Book of Esther. Plutarch in his Lives (75 CE) records alternative names Oarses and Arsicas for Artaxerxes II Mnemon given by Deinon (c.360-340 BCE[4]) and Ctesias (Artexerxes II's physician[5]) respectively.[6] These derive from the Persian name Khshayarsha as do "Ahasuerus" ("Xerxes") and the hypocoristicon "Arshu" for Artaxerxes II found on a contemporary inscription (LBAT 162[7]). These sources thus arguably identify Ahasuerus as Artaxerxes II in light of the names used in the Hebrew and Greek sources and accords with the contextual information from Pseudo-Hecataeus and Berossus[8] as well as agreeing with Al-Tabari and Masudi's placement of events. The 13th century Syriac historian Bar-Hebraeus in his Chronography, also identifies Ahasuerus as Artaxerxes II citing the sixth century CE historian John of Ephesus.[9][10]

Zakarid-Mkhargrzeli, a noble family prominent in medieval Armenia and Georgia,claimed to be descended from Artaxerxes II - on the basis of his being nicknamed the "Longarmed", which was also the meaning of their own name. While authenticity of this pedigree is doubtful, it testifies to this king's long renown.

[edit] See alsoArtaxerxes I History of Persia The Anabasis Ten Thousand (Greek) [edit] References1.^ R. Schmitt. "ARTAXERXES". Encyclopædia Iranica. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 12 March 2012. 2.^ History of Iran 3.^ A2Sa 4.^ Wolfgang Felix, Encyclopaedia Iranica, entry Dinon, 1996-2008 5.^ Jona Lendering, Ctesias of Cnidus, Livius, Articles on Ancient History, 1996-2008 6.^ John Dryden, Arthur Hugh Clough, Plutarch's Lives, Little, Brown and Company, 1885 7.^ M. A. Dandamaev, W. J. Vogelsang, A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire, BRILL, 1989 8.^ Jacob Hoschander, The Book of Esther in the Light of History, Oxford University Press, 1923 9.^ E. A. W. Budge, The Chronography of Bar Hebraeus, Gorgias Press LLC, reprinted 2003 10.^ Jan Jacob van Ginkel, John of Ephesus. A Monophysite Historian in Sixth-century Byzantium, Groningen, 1995 [edit] External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Artaxerxes II

Artaxerxes by Plutarch H. Hunger & R.J. van der Spek, "An astronomical diary concerning Artaxerxes II (year 42 = 363-2 BC). Military operations in Babylonia" in: Arta 2006.002 Inscriptions of Artaxerxes II in transcribed Persian and in English translation. [1] Artaxerxes II of Persia Achaemenid dynasty Born: c. 436 BC Died: 358 BC Preceded by Darius II Great King (Shah) of Persia 404 BC – 358 BC Succeeded by Artaxerxes III [show]v ·t ·eMedian and Achaemenid kings


Achaemenid family tree


Median Empire (728 – 550 BC) Deioces ·Phraortes ·Madius ·Cyaxares the Great ·Astyages


Achaemenid Empire (550 – 330 BC) Achaemenes† ·Ariaramnes† ·Arsames† ·Teispes ·Cyrus I ·Cambyses I ·Cyrus II, the Great ·Cambyses II ·Smerdis ·Gaumata ·Darius I, the Great ·Xerxes I ·Artaxerxes I Longimanus ·Xerxes II ·Sogdianus ·Darius II Nothus ·Artaxerxes II Mnemon ·Artaxerxes III Ochus ·Artaxerxes IV Arses ·Darius III Codomannus


† not directly attested, possibly legendary


[show]­v ·­t ·­eThe works of Plutarch


Works ­Parallel Lives ·­Moralia ·­Pseudo-Plutarch


Lives ­Alcibiades and Coriolanus1 ·­Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar ·­Aratus of Sicyon & Artaxerxes and Galba & Otho2 ·­Aristides and Cato the Elder1 ·­Crassus and Nicias1 ·­Demetrius and Antony1 ·­Demosthenes and Cicero1 ·­Dion and Brutus1 ·­Fabius and Pericles1 ·­Lucullus and Cimon1 ·­Lysander and Sulla1 ·­Numa and Lycurgus1 ·­Pelopidas and Marcellus1 ·­Philopoemen and Flamininus1 ·­Phocion and Cato the Younger ·­Pompey and Agesilaus1 ·­Poplicola and Solon1 ·­Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius ·­Romulus and Theseus1 ·­Sertorius and Eumenes1 ·­Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus ·­Agis and Cleomenes1 ·­Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus1 ·­Themistocles and Camillus


Translators and editors ­Jacques Amyot ·­Arthur Hugh Clough ·­John Dryden ·­Philemon Holland ·­Thomas North


­1 Comparison extant ·­2 Four unpaired Lives


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Birth: 456 B.C.

Death: 359 B.C.

General Notes

   Lost Egypt in 404 BC.
   King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes II Mnemon Achaemenid died 0359 B.C.. "Artaxerxes at that time had but a little hold on life, by reason of his extreme age, and so, when he heard of the fate of Arsames, he could not sustain it at all, but sinking at once under the weight of his grief and distress, expired, after a life of ninety-four years, and a reign of sixty-two."2 He put down a revolt by the satraps of western Anatolia 0366 B.C., circa.3 He was responsible for changes in Persia's religion, due to his failures, and saw the restoration of the worship of the earlier gods 0374 B.C..1 He conducted a second campaign against Egypt, which also failed, 0375-0374 B.C..1 He conducted a failed expedition against Egypt 0385-0383 B.C..1 He asked to mediate between Sparta and Athens, the greek city-states fighting the Great Peloponnesian War, leading to the King's Peace 0387 B.C..4 He executed his wifes servant, Gigas, who conspired with his mother to poison his wife, Statira, by having her head crushed between two large stones, the punishment for poisoners, and his mother he exiled, not against her will, to Babylon 0402 B.C..2 He faced a revolt by his brother, Cyrus, who gathered an army of Greek mercenaries and moved to attack him in Anatolia 0403 B.C..1,5 He almost assassinated by his brother, Cyrus, at his coronation, and as he was about to execute Cyrus, their mother interceded on Cyrus' behalf (Cyrus was her favourite son), she putting her neck alongside Cyrus', Artaxerxes relented and freed him, 0404 B.C..2 King of Persia, 0404-0359 B.C..5,6 He saw Amyrtaeus, Prince of Sais, declare himself King of Egypt ending complete Persian control 0405 B.C..7 King of Egypt, 0405-0359 B.C..8 "She [Parysatis] perceived he was desperately in love with Atossa, one of his own two daughters, and that he concealed and checked his passion chiefly for fear of herself, though, if we may believe some writers, he had privately given way to it with the young girl already. As soon as Parysatis suspected it, she displayed a greater fondness for the young girl than before, and extolled both her virtue and beauty to him, as being truly imperial and majestic. In fine she persuaded him to marry her and declare her to be his lawful wife, overriding all the principles and the laws by which the Greeks hold themselves bound, and regarding himself as divinely appointed for a law to the Persians, and the supreme arbitrator of good and evil." He married Statira of Armenia , daughter of Hydranes III of Armenia and N. N. (?) , 0420 B.C; His 1st.9,2,10 He was proclaimed successor (for Plutarch gives him a reign of sixty-two years) 0421 B.C..2 He was the son of King of Persia and Egypt Darius II Nothus Achaemenid and Parysatis (?).2 He was born 0453 B.C.. The 1st son.11 He was the grandson of Artaxerxes the Longhanded, and the eldest son of his daughter Parysatis, and her half-brother Darius.10 He was gentler in everything, and of a nature more yielding and soft in its action.2,10 Also called King Artaxerxes II of Egypt. Also called Arsicas His 1st name.2,10 Also called Artakhshassa II. Sources: 1. Stuart, R.W. 'Royalty for Commoners', line 414. ; 2. Bryan, K. 'Davidic Descents to the House of Plantagenet' Augustan, Vol. XXV, 16-23. He was grandson of Artaxerxes I, by his daughter Parysatis and her husband, Darius.2 He was at first called Arsicas, and when he was proclaimed king, his name changed to Artaxerxes, in honor of his grandfather.2 King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes II Mnemon Achaemenid also went by the name of Artaxerxes II "the Mindful."2,10 Also called Artakhšaça II Hakhâmanišiya old-Persian.6
   Children of King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes II Mnemon Achaemenid and Statira of Armenia :
   King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes III Ochus Achaemenid + b. 0415 B.C., d. 0338 BCE
   Ariaspes Achaemenid b. 0416 B.C., d. 0359 B.C.
   Darius Achaemenid b. 0417 B.C., d. 0390 B.C.
   Rhodogune Achaemenid + b. 0419 B.C.
   Children of King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes II Mnemon Achaemenid:
   Apama Achaemenid+ b. 0410 B.C.
   Arsames Achaemenid b. 0414 B.C., d. 0359 B.C.
   [S204] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners: The Complete Lineage of John of Gaunt, Son of Edward III, Kings of England, and Queen Philippa (.: ., 3rd Ed., 1998), 414-84. Hereinafter cited as RfC.
   [S931] A.H. Clough, editor, Plutarch's Lives (Champaign, IL: Project Gutenberg, October 1996). Hereinafter cited as Plutarch's Lives.
   [S862] Various Encyclopædia Britannica 2001 Standard Edition CD-ROM (U.S.A.: Britannica.com Inc.
   , 1994-2000), Ariobarzanes (satrap of Phrygia) . Hereinafter cited as EB CD 2001.
   [S582] Mehan.com: From Ancient Persia to Contemporary Iran Selected Historical Milstones, online www.mehan.com. Hereinafter cited as Mehan.com.
   [S578] Fatih Cimok, Commagene Nemrut (Sifa Hamami Sokak 18, Sultanahmet 34400, Istanbul: A Turizm Yayinlari Ltd. Sti, 1995), pg. 55. Hereinafter cited as Commagene Nemrut.
   [S583] Ancient Persia, online . Hereinafter cited as Ancient Persia.
   [S715] Peter A. Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt (London, England: Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1994), pg. 202. Hereinafter cited as Chronicle of the Pharaohs.
   [S715] Peter A. Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, pg. 198.
   [S204] Roderick W. Stuart, RfC, 412-80.
   [S931] A.H. Clough, Plutarch's Lives, ARTAXERXES.
   [S931] A.H. Clough, Plutarch's Lives, He died, in 359 B.C., at age 94..
   King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes II Mnemon Achaemenid died 0359 B.C.. "Artaxerxes at that time had but a little hold on life, by reason of his extreme age, and so, when he heard of the fate of Arsames, he could not sustain it at all, but sinking at once under the weight of his grief and distress, expired, after a life of ninety-four years, and a reign of sixty-two."2 He put down a revolt by the satraps of western Anatolia 0366 B.C., circa.3 He was responsible for changes in Persia's religion, due to his failures, and saw the restoration of the worship of the earlier gods 0374 B.C..1 He conducted a second campaign against Egypt, which also failed, 0375-0374 B.C..1 He conducted a failed expedition against Egypt 0385-0383 B.C..1 He asked to mediate between Sparta and Athens, the greek city-states fighting the Great Peloponnesian War, leading to the King's Peace 0387 B.C..4 He executed his wifes servant, Gigas, who conspired with his mother to poison his wife, Statira, by having her head crushed between two large stones, the punishment for poisoners, and his mother he exiled, not against her will, to Babylon 0402 B.C..2 He faced a revolt by his brother, Cyrus, who gathered an army of Greek mercenaries and moved to attack him in Anatolia 0403 B.C..1,5 He almost assassinated by his brother, Cyrus, at his coronation, and as he was about to execute Cyrus, their mother interceded on Cyrus' behalf (Cyrus was her favourite son), she putting her neck alongside Cyrus', Artaxerxes relented and freed him, 0404 B.C..2 King of Persia, 0404-0359 B.C..5,6 He saw Amyrtaeus, Prince of Sais, declare himself King of Egypt ending complete Persian control 0405 B.C..7 King of Egypt, 0405-0359 B.C..8 "She [Parysatis] perceived he was desperately in love with Atossa, one of his own two daughters, and that he concealed and checked his passion chiefly for fear of herself, though, if we may believe some writers, he had privately given way to it with the young girl already. As soon as Parysatis suspected it, she displayed a greater fondness for the young girl than before, and extolled both her virtue and beauty to him, as being truly imperial and majestic. In fine she persuaded him to marry her and declare her to be his lawful wife, overriding all the principles and the laws by which the Greeks hold themselves bound, and regarding himself as divinely appointed for a law to the Persians, and the supreme arbitrator of good and evil." He married Statira of Armenia , daughter of Hydranes III of Armenia and N. N. (?) , 0420 B.C; His 1st.9,2,10 He was proclaimed successor (for Plutarch gives him a reign of sixty-two years) 0421 B.C..2 He was the son of King of Persia and Egypt Darius II Nothus Achaemenid and Parysatis (?).2 He was born 0453 B.C.. The 1st son.11 He was the grandson of Artaxerxes the Longhanded, and the eldest son of his daughter Parysatis, and her half-brother Darius.10 He was gentler in everything, and of a nature more yielding and soft in its action.2,10 Also called King Artaxerxes II of Egypt. Also called Arsicas His 1st name.2,10 Also called Artakhshassa II. Sources: 1. Stuart, R.W. 'Royalty for Commoners', line 414. ; 2. Bryan, K. 'Davidic Descents to the House of Plantagenet' Augustan, Vol. XXV, 16-23. He was grandson of Artaxerxes I, by his daughter Parysatis and her husband, Darius.2 He was at first called Arsicas, and when he was proclaimed king, his name changed to Artaxerxes, in honor of his grandfather.2 King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes II Mnemon Achaemenid also went by the name of Artaxerxes II "the Mindful."2,10 Also called Artakhšaça II Hakhâmanišiya old-Persian.6
   Children of King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes II Mnemon Achaemenid and Statira of Armenia :
   King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes III Ochus Achaemenid + b. 0415 B.C., d. 0338 BCE
   Ariaspes Achaemenid b. 0416 B.C., d. 0359 B.C.
   Darius Achaemenid b. 0417 B.C., d. 0390 B.C.
   Rhodogune Achaemenid + b. 0419 B.C.
   Children of King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes II Mnemon Achaemenid:
   Apama Achaemenid+ b. 0410 B.C.
   Arsames Achaemenid b. 0414 B.C., d. 0359 B.C.
   [S204] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners: The Complete Lineage of John of Gaunt, Son of Edward III, Kings of England, and Queen Philippa (.: ., 3rd Ed., 1998), 414-84. Hereinafter cited as RfC.
   [S931] A.H. Clough, editor, Plutarch's Lives (Champaign, IL: Project Gutenberg, October 1996). Hereinafter cited as Plutarch's Lives.
   [S862] Various Encyclopædia Britannica 2001 Standard Edition CD-ROM (U.S.A.: Britannica.com Inc.
   , 1994-2000), Ariobarzanes (satrap of Phrygia) . Hereinafter cited as EB CD 2001.
   [S582] Mehan.com: From Ancient Persia to Contemporary Iran Selected Historical Milstones, online www.mehan.com. Hereinafter cited as Mehan.com.
   [S578] Fatih Cimok, Commagene Nemrut (Sifa Hamami Sokak 18, Sultanahmet 34400, Istanbul: A Turizm Yayinlari Ltd. Sti, 1995), pg. 55. Hereinafter cited as Commagene Nemrut.
   [S583] Ancient Persia, online . Hereinafter cited as Ancient Persia.
   [S715] Peter A. Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt (London, England: Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1994), pg. 202. Hereinafter cited as Chronicle of the Pharaohs.
   [S715] Peter A. Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, pg. 198.
   [S204] Roderick W. Stuart, RfC, 412-80.
   [S931] A.H. Clough, Plutarch's Lives, ARTAXERXES.
   [S931] A.H. Clough, Plutarch's Lives, He died, in 359 B.C., at age 94
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Artaxerxes II Mnemon, king of Persia's Timeline

-456
-456
Persia
-425
-425
Age 30
Persia
-415
March -415
Age 41
Persia?
-410
-410
Age 45
Princess of Persia
-358
-358
Age 97
Persia
-345
-345
Age 98
400
400
Age 98
Persia
????
????
????
Persia