Audofledis of the Salian Franks

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Audofledis of the Salian Franks

Also Known As: "Andelfieda", "Audeflede", "Blanchefleur"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Tournai (Turnacum), Belgica (Present Belgium), Roman Empire
Death: Died in Ravenna, (Present Provincia di Ravenna), Flavinia et Picenum (Present Emilia-Romagna), Italy
Cause of death: Murdered
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Childéric I, King of the Franks; Childeric I de Meroving; Basina II of the Thüringians and Basina Andovera von Thuringia
Wife of Theodoric "the Great," king of the Ostrogoths
Mother of Theodoric II, king of the Ostrogoths; Argotta of the Ostrogoths; Amalasuintha, Queen of Italy; Chrotechilde of the Ostrogoths and Arevagni
Sister of Clovis I "the Great", Meovingian King of the Franks; Lautraldis (Lanthilde) Meroving; Alboflede "Blanchefleur" Meroving; Clodius Meroving; Guntran Meroving and 3 others
Half sister of Bertachar, co-King of the Thüringians and Theodogotho

Occupation: Queen Consort of the Ostrogoths, Princess, Queen of the Ostrogoths
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Audofledis of the Salian Franks

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Merovingians (covering her birth family):

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/MEROVINGIANS.htm#AudofledisMTheodoricOstrogothdied526

1. CHILDERICH (-Tournai [481/82], bur Tournai).

Gregory of Tours records that Merovech was the father of Childerich[17]. The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Merovechus…filium…Childerico"[18].

He succeeded in [451/57] as leader of the Franks in Roman Gaul, and subsequently adopted the title CHILDERICH I King of the Franks, confirmed by his undated seal which bears the title "Childerici Regiz"[19].

Gregory of Tours records that King Childerich's "private life was one long debauch" and that he was forced into exile in Thuringia by his subjects who chose as his replacement the Roman General Ægidius, named magister militum per Gallias in [456/57] and who ruled for 8 years[20].

Gregory of Tours records Childerich's restoration as king in Gaul, followed by his alliance with "Odovacar…[and] his Saxons" (indicating that this is unlikely to refer to the Ostrogoth leader in Italy), and their joint subjugation of the Alamanni[21]. A letter from Remigius Bishop of Reims to Childerich's son Clovis congratulates the latter on taking over his father's position in "Belgica Secunda"[22], implying that Childerich's authority was limited to the north-east part of Gaul.

The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Childericus rex" reigned for 24 years[23].

m ([464]) as her second husband, BASINA, formerly wife of BASINUS King of Thuringia, daughter of ---.

Gregory of Tours names Basina as wife of Basinus King of Thuringia, with whom King Childerich sought refuge after being deposed, Basina deserting her first husband to join Childerich after he was restored as king in Gaul[24].

The marriage date is estimated on the basis of how long Childerich was allegedly in exile, assuming that the date of his deposition is accurate, and is appears to be consistent with the estimated dates of birth of the couple's descendants. The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Childericus rex" committed adultery with "in Toringam…Basina regina uxorem Bisini regis" who abandoned her husband to join Childerich[25].

Assuming that Basina existed, it is unlikely that her first name is correct considering that it is the feminine form of her first husband's name.

King Childerich & his wife had four children:

a) CHLODOVECH [Clovis] ([464/67]-Paris [27 Nov] 511, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]).

Gregory of Tours names Clovis as son of Childerich & Basina[26]. He succeeded his father in [481/82] as CLOVIS I King of the Franks.

b) LANDECHILDIS [Lantilde].

Gregory of Tours names Lanthechild as sister of King Clovis, specifying that she was baptised with him after having followed the Arian faith[27]. She converted to Arianism, according to the title of one of the sermons of Avitus Bishop of Vienne[28].

---

c) AUDOFLEDIS .

Gregory of Tours names Audofleda as sister of King Clovis, recording that she married Theodoric King of Italy[29]. Iordanes records the marriage of Theodoric and "Lodoin Francorum regem filiam eius Audefledam" and names her brothers "Celdebertum et Heldebertum et Thiudebertum"[30], although this is presumably an incorrect reference to her nephews and great-nephew with similar names.

m ([492]) THEODORIC King of the Ostrogoths in Italy, illegitimate son of THEODEMIR King of the Ostrogoths in Pannonia & his concubine Ereleuva --- ([454]-30 Aug 526).

---

d) ALBOFLEDIS (-after 496).

Gregory of Tours names Albofled as sister of King Clovis, specifying that she was baptised but died soon after, St Rémy sending a letter of condolence to her brother[31]. From the context, it would appear that her baptism took place around the same time as her brother was baptised.

“Remigius Episcopus” wrote to “Chlodoveo Regi” consoling him on the death of “germana vestra…Albochledis”[32].

References:

[18] Liber Historiæ Francorum 6, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 246.

[19] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 51.

[20] Gregory of Tours II.12, p. 128.

[21] Gregory of Tours II.18 and 19, p. 132.

[22] Epistulæ Austrasiacæ 2, MGH Epistolæ 3, discussed in Wood, I. (1994) The Merovingian Kingdoms (Longman), p. 41.

[23] Liber Historiæ Francorum 9, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 251.

[24] Gregory of Tours II.12, p. 129.

[25] Liber Historiæ Francorum 7, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 249.

[26] Gregory of Tours II.12, p. 129.

[27] Gregory of Tours II.31, p. 145.

[28] Wood, I. (1994) The Merovingian Kingdoms (Longman), p. 44.

[29] Gregory of Tours III.31, p. 187.

[30] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131.

[31] Gregory of Tours II.31, pp. 144-5.

[32] RHGF IV, p. 51.

------------------------------

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#TheodericKingGothsItalyB

THEODORIC, son of THEODEMIR King of the Ostrogoths in Pannonia & his concubine Ereleuva --- ([451][262]-Ravenna 30 Aug 526).

Iordanes names "Theodericum" as son of Theodemir, in a later passage naming his mother "Erelieva concubina"[263]. Herimannus names "Theodericus, Theodmari filius, rex Ostrogothorum" when recording his arrival in Italy[264].

He was sent as a hostage to Constantinople at the age of seven in [459/61], returning in [469/70] to assume control of the part of the kingdom formerly ruled by his uncle Valamir, under his father as overall king[265].

He left Pannonia with his father in [473], settling at Kyrrhos in Macedonia where his father named him as his successor in 474. However, by 476 Theodoric had moved back across the Danube and settled in lower Moesia in the city of Novae-Svištov. While Emperor Zeno was planning to resettle his contingent in Dacia, Theodoric marched westwards to join his relative Sidimund at Durazzo[266].

He marched against Greece in 482 and forced Emperor Zeno to conclude a treaty under which Theodoric was named consul for 484 at Constantinople and given Dacia ripensis and parts of lower Moesia[267]. He acquired Roman citizenship to serve as consul, adopting the name FLAVIUS AMALUS THEODERICUS[268]. Procopius records that “duce Theoderico” was "patricius" and later was appointed to the "consularem" by Byzantium[269].

In 487, he began an offensive against Constantinople, but was bought off by rich presents brought by his half-sister Amalafrida. He led the Ostrogoths on the move again in 488 into Italy, where he put King Odovacar to flight in Aug 489. Theodoric captured Verona, then Milan and Pavia, establishing his capital in the latter[270]. King Odovacar counter-attacked, but was again defeated 11 Aug 490. He compromised with Theodoric in Feb 493, agreeing to joint rule over Italy, but Theodoric captured and personally killed Odovacar after entering Ravenna[271].

He was proclaimed THEODORIC "the Great" King of Italy[272] by the Gothic army in Mar 493, with his capital at Ravenna. He was recognised as ruler in the west by Emperor Anastasius at Constantinople in 498[273].

Relations with the Franks, cemented by King Theodoric's marriage in [492], deteriorated somewhat in [506] when the Franks persecuted the Alamanni who were under Theodoric's protection[274]. However, despite the close family ties with the Visigothic kingdom after his daughter's marriage with the Visigothic king, King Theodoric was unable or unwilling to provide the necessary military support for his son-in-law against the Franks at the battle of the Vouillé in 507[275].

King Theodoric acted nominally as regent in the kingdom of the Visigoths 507-526 during the minority of his grandson Amalric King of the Visigoths, but declared himself king of the Visigothic kingdom in 511, although he appointed his sword-bearer Teudis (who later succeeded as king of the Visigoths) as governor[276]. He annexed the Visigothic territory between the Alps and the Rhône to the kingdom of Italy, and re-established the Gallic prefecture at Arles in 510[277].

The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 526 of "Theudoricus rex Gothorum in urbe Ravenna"[278]. He died from dysentery[279].

---

m ([492]) AUDOFLEDIS, daughter of CHILDERIC I King of the Franks & his wife Basina ---.

Gregory of Tours names Audofleda as the sister of King Clovis, recording that she married Theodoric King of Italy[280].

Iordanes records the marriage of Theodoric and "Lodoin Francorum regem filiam eius Audefledam" and names her brothers "Celdebertum et Heldebertum et Thiudebertum"[281], although this is presumably an incorrect reference to her nephews and great-nephew with similar names.

---

Concubine: ---. Iordanes records that Theodoric's two daughters were born "ex concubina…in Moesia" before his marriage to Audofledis[282]. The name of the concubine of Theodoric is not known.

---

King Theodoric & his wife had one daughter:

1. AMALASUINTHA [Amalswinde] ([493]-murdered [30 Apr] 535).

Iordanes names "Amalasuentham" as daughter of Theodoric[283]. Gregory of Tours records that King Theodoric left his wife Audofleda "with a small daughter…Amalasuntha" when he died[284], although this appears misleading with regard to her age bearing in mind the chronology of events established in other sources.

In a passage which appears to be a complete fabrication, Gregory records that Amalasuntha eloped with one of her slaves, Traguilla, who was later killed by her mother's emissaries who brought Amalasuntha back after "a good beating". Gregory then recounts that she murdered her mother by poisoning her communion chalice, but was herself killed by "Theudat King of Tuscany" whom the people had called to rule over them[285]. This story may have been Gregory's way of justifying King Theodebert's subsequent attack on Italy, the account of which follows in the succeeding paragraph.

She was regent in Italy for her son in 526. Procopius records that “ex filia nepos Atalaricus” succeeded on the death of "Theoderico" under the rule of "Amalasuntha matre"[286].

She renounced the territory north of the River Durance in favour of the Burgundians in 530 in the name of her son[287].

On the death of her son in 534, she declared herself AMALASUINTHA Queen of Italy, appointing her cousin Theodahad as co-regent. Theodahad arrested her end-534 and imprisoned her on an island in Lake Bolsena, where "after spending a very few days in sorrow, she was strangled in the bath by his hirelings" according to Jordanes[288].

m (515) EUTHARICH [Eutarico], son of VETERIC & his wife --- (-[522/23]).

Iordanes names "Eutharicum" as son of "Vetericus" and as husband of "Amalasuentham" and father of their two children[289]. The Chronicle of Cassiodorus records the marriage in 515 of "Theodericus filiam usam dominam Amalasuintam" and "gloriosi viri dn Eutharici"[290].

Eutharic was adopted by Emperor Justin in recognition of his father-in-law's decision to designate him as his successor after his marriage. He was given Roman citizenship and became first consul in 519 as FLAVIUS EUTHARICUS CILLIGA[291].

Wolfram estimates that Eutharich died in [522/23][292]. Jordanes specifies that Eutharich predeceased King Theodoric's nomination of his son Athalaric as his successor.

Eutharic & Amalasuintha had two children.

---

King Theodoric had two illegitimate daughters by his concubine (half-sisters of Amalasuintha):

2. THEODEGOTHA [Thiudigotho]. Iordanes names "unam…Thiudigoto et aliam Ostrogotho" as the two daughters of Theodoric born "ex concubina…in Moesia" before his marriage to Audofledis, specifying that they came to Italy and were married "unam Alarico Vesegotharum et aliam Sigismundo Burgundzonorum"[300]. Procopius records that “regi Visigothorum Alarico” married "Theoderici…Theudichusam virginem filiam"[301]. m ([494][302]) ALARIC II King of the Visigoths, son of EURIC King of the Visigoths & his wife --- (-killed in battle Poitiers 507).

3. OSTROGOTHO ([475/80]-before [520]). Iordanes names "unam…Thiudigoto et aliam Ostrogotho" as the two daughters of Theodoric born "ex concubina…in Moesia" before his marriage to Audofledis, specifying that they came to Italy and were married "unam Alarico Vesegotharum et aliam Sigismundo Burgundzonorum"[303]. Her father arranged her marriage as part of his negotiations for an alliance with the Burgundians. According to Settipani[304], this marriage took place soon after Theoderic arrived in Italy. Wolfram suggests[305] that Theodoric's alliance with the Burgundians was settled in 496. m ([494/96]) as his first wife, SIGISMUND of Burgundy, son of GONDEBAUD King of Burgundy & his wife Caratena (-murdered 523, bur Agaune). He succeeded his father in 516 as SIGISMUND King of Burgundy.

References:

[262] Wolfram, H. (1998) History Of The Goths (Berkeley, California), p. 250. , p. 262.

[263] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 77 and 128.

[264] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 482, MHG SS V, p. 84.

[265] Wolfram (1998), p. 267. According to Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 52, Theoderic returned in [475].

[266] Wolfram (1998), pp. 270-4.

[267] Wolfram (1998), p. 277.

[268] Wolfram (1998), pp. 277 and 286.

[269] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.1, p. 7.

[270] Wolfram (1998), p. 289.

[271] Wolfram (1998), pp. 281-3.

[272] His title was Flavius Theodericus rex, rather than rex Gothorum, see Wolfram (1998), p. 286.

[273] Wolfram (1998), p. 284.

[274] Wolfram (1998), p. 314.

[275] Wolfram (1998), p. 309.

[276] Wolfram (1998), p. 245.

[277] Wolfram (1998), p. 309.

[278] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 526, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 235.

[279] Wolfram (1998), p. 331.

[280] Gregory of Tours III.31, p. 187.

[281] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131.

[282] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131.

[283] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77.

[284] Gregory of Tours III.31, p. 187.

[285] Gregory of Tours III.31, pp. 187-8.

[286] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.2, p. 12.

[287] Wolfram (1998), p. 312.

[288] Jordanes, LIX, p. 51.

[289] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77 and 123.

[290] Cassiodori Senatoris Chronica 515, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 159.

[291] Wolfram (1998), p. 328.

[292] Wolfram (1998), p. 521 footnote 490.

[293] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77.

[294] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.2, p. 12.

[295] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 526, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 235.

[296] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 48.

[297] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 77 and 123.

[298] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.11, p. 61.

[299] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico III.39, p. 447.

[300] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131.

[301] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.12, p. 65.

[302] Date estimated on the basis of the marriage taking place soon after King Theoderic came to Italy, which is suggested by Iordanes.

[303] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131.

[304] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 61, footnote 97.

[305] Wolfram (1998), p. 311.

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From the German Wikipedia page on Audofleda (Source / Forrás):

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audofleda

Audofleda (* um 470; † nach 526) war die Tochter des Merowingers Childerich I. und der Basena von Thüringen und die Schwester des späteren Königs Chlodwig I. und der Lantechild.

Sie heiratete 493 den Ostgotenkönig Theoderich den Großen. Diese Ehe war Teil des machtpolitischen Systems Theoderichs gegen Ostrom. Einziges Kind dieser Ehe war Amalasuntha, die nach Theoderichs Tod 526 die Geschicke Italiens für einige Jahre bestimmte.

Amalasuntha soll um 530 mit dem Sklaven Traguila durchgebrannt sein. Ihre Mutter Audofleda schickte ein Heer. Traguilanis wurde getötet und Amalasuntha an den Hof zurückgebracht. Bald darauf soll Amalasuntha ihre Mutter vergiftet haben.[1]

Quellen

Gregor von Tours, Historiae (Zehn Bücher Geschichten), Buch III, Kap.31

Weblinks

Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks Book III Chap.31 (englisch)

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/gregory-hist.html#book2

Einzelnachweise

1. ↑ Historiae, Buch III, Kap.31


From the English Wikipedia page on Audofleda:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audofleda

Audofleda was the sister of Clovis I, King of the Franks.

She married Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostrogoths (471-526), around 493 AD (exact date unknown).[1] Theodoric sent an embassy to Clovis to request the marriage.[2] This political move allied Theodoric with the Franks, and by marrying his daughters off to the kings of the Burgundians, the Vandals, and the Visigoths, he allied himself with every major 'Barbarian' kingdom in the West.

Theodoric and Audofleda had one daughter, Amalasuntha, who was married to Eutharic and had one daughter and one son; Amalasuntha then ruled as Regent/Queen of the Ostrogoths from 526-34.

Audofleda was a pagan prior to her marriage, and was baptised at the time of her wedding by an Arian bishop.[2]

Sources

1.^ CW Previte-orton. The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: University Press. 1966.

2. ^ A History of Early Medieval Europe 476-911 by Margaret Deanesly, Methuen 1960 page 41


From Jordanes' Getica, on Boudicca's Bard:

http://www.boudicca.de/jordanes4-e.htm

(295) Theodoric first granted it and afterwards deprived him of his life. It was in the third year after his entrance into Italy, as we have said, that Theodoric, by advice of the Emperor Zeno, laid aside the garb of a private citizen and the dress of his race and assumed a costume with a royal mantle, as he had now become the ruler over both Goths and Romans. He sent an embassy to Lodoin, king of the Franks, and asked for his daughter Audefleda in marriage.

(296) Lodoin freely and gladly gave her, and also his sons Celdebert and Heldebert and Thiudebert, believing that by this alliance a league would be formed and that they would be associated with the race of the Goths. But that union was of no avail for peace and harmony, for they fought fiercely with each other again and again for the lands of the Goths; but never did the Goths yield to the Franks while Theodoric lived.

LVIII

(297) Now before he had a child from Audefleda, Theodoric had children of a concubine, daughters begotten in Moesia, one named Thiudigoto and another Ostrogotho. Soon after he came to Italy, he gave them in marriage to neighboring kings, one to Alaric, king of the Visigoths, and the other to Sigismund, king of the Burgundians.

---------------------------

From "People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554" by Patrick Amory:

http://books.google.com/books?id=7ndeDi_fwq0C&pg=PA450&vq=eusebia&dq=people+and+identity+in+ostrogothic+italy+%22489+554%22&sig=JutSxo0EK4syKdIKGPleEbqBv5s#v=onepage&q=eusebia&f=false

Audefleda (=PLRE2)

The wife of Theodoric and mother of Amalasuintha; her predecessor possibly only a concubine (Anonyma 1). She was the sister of Clovis, therefore a Frank by birth (AV 63: "de Francis"). It would be useful to know when she married Theodoric in order to determine her religion (since her brother converted to Catholicism in 497 or 506). But it must have been before the Laurentian schism began in 498 (from the order of events around AV64, which mentions the marriage). Moorhead, "Theodoric", pp 51-52, suggests 493 or shortly thereafter. The question therefore remains open: she could have arrived in Italy as a pagan. Gregory of Tours states that she and her daughters were Arian (Hist. 3-31), claiming that Amalasuintha poisoned her mother, in a story that is highly suspect (related to the slave Triwila or Traguila). On other matters, see PLRE 2: 185.


From "The History of Baptism" page 375, On Aspersion:

http://www.archive.org/stream/MN41874ucmf_0#page/n377/mode/1up/search/Audofledis

When it became the fashion to erect baptisteries, the practice of consecration was introduced, and a very solemn ceremony it was. Early in the morning of the Saturday before Easter Day [9] and Whitsunday, and in some places of the Epiphany, divine service was performed in the church, and infants and Catechumens were prepared for baptism in an adjoining chapel. At a fixed time, the bishop in proper habits, preceded by a procession of clergy and the children of the choir singing, went to the baptistery, which was at some distance from the church. It is particularly remarked by Roman historians that baptisteries were not adjoined to churches til the year 496, and then they stood without the church [1]. The first of this kind was prepared for the baptism of Clovis, King of France (sic), who with his sister Audofledis was dipped three times by the hand of Remigius.

(Ben M. Angel notes, other sources indicate that their baptisms took place in separate locations, with Audofledis being baptized in Ravenna, and not in Tornai. But if the dates referenced to the "Ordo Romanus Ord. de sabbato sancto" are in fact meaningful to her date of baptism - which coincided with her date of marriage - it could provide clues as to her actual wedding date in 492: that year, the Saturdays before Easter and Whitsunday were April 5 and May 24, respectively, while the Saturday before the Epiphany was January 4.)

References:

[9] Ordo Romanus Ord. de sabbato sancto - Rabani Mauri "De instit. clericor" Lib. i. Cap. xxviii. Post haec cosecratur fons, et ad ipsum baptismum catechumenus accedit, et sic in nomine sanctae trinitatis trina submersione baptizur.

[1] Joan. Bapt. Casalii de veter. Christian. Cap v. De Baptismo.


Ben M. Angel notes: Although not specifically mentioned as her death location, the activities of her husband in Ravenna, including the construction of a palace and such, would lead me to support the hypothesis that she died there. Source, "Ravenna in Late Antiquity" by Deborah Mauskopf Deliyannis:

http://books.google.cl/books?id=YSLi46ZIEHoC&pg=PA109&lpg=PA109&dq=Audofleda+Ravenna&source=bl&ots=TnrIZvCrJ6&sig=V6hKF1xCc4PExlhGJlIi5LOyUrM&hl=es&ei=_T7nTOvxHsH88Ab69Py1DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=Audofleda%20Ravenna&f=false


Family and Issue

Theodoric was married once.

He had a concubine in Moesia, name unknown, and had two daughters:

Theodegotha (ca. 473 – ?). In 494, she was married to Alaric II as a part of her father's alliance with the Visigoths.

Ostrogotha or Arevagni (ca. 475 – ?). In 494 or 496, she was married to the king Sigismund of Burgundy as a part of her father's alliance with the Burgundians.

Married to Audofleda in 493 and had one daughter:

Amalasuntha, Queen of the Goths. She was married to Eutharic and had two children: Athalaric and Matasuentha (the latter being married to Witiges first, then, after Witiges' death, married to Germanus Justinus, neither had children). Any hope for a reconciliation between the Goths and the Romans in the person of a Gotho-Roman Emperor from this family lineage was shattered.

After his death in Ravenna in 526, Theodoric was succeeded by his grandson Athalaric. Athalaric was at first represented by his mother Amalasuntha, who was a regent queen from 526 until 534. The kingdom of the Ostrogoths, however, began to wane and was conquered by Justinian I starting after the rebellion of 535 and finally ending in 553 with the Battle of Mons Lactarius.

Source: Wikipedia, Google.

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Audofleda of France Compact Disc #111 Pin #361260 Pedigree

Sex:  F  

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Event(s)

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Parents

Father:  Childeric I of France     Disc #111     Pin #354270   
Mother:  Basina of Thuringia     Disc #111     Pin #354271  

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Marriage(s)

Spouse:  Theodoric "the Great" Ostrogoths     Disc #111     Pin #361261  
Marriage:    

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Notes and Sources

Notes:  None   
Sources:  None   

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Submitter

RCKarnes (---)

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Submission Search: 2704150-0322105015339

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CD-ROM:  Pedigree Resource File - Compact Disc #111 
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Her ancestry is continued elsewhere on this tree. Andelfieda's father was Childeric I Franks and her mother was Basina Thuringia. Her paternal grandparents were Maerovaee Franks and Chlodeswinthe Franks. She had a brother named The Great. She was the older of the two children.


Dates

Birth: abt 0452 Westphalia, Germany

Birth: abt 0452 Rheims, Marne, Loire-Atlantique, France

Christening: 25 Dec 0535 Ravenna, Italy

Death: 30 Apr 0535 Ravenna, Italy


irmã de Clovis I


http://gw.geneanet.org/nobily?lang=fr;pz=elisabeth+therese+marie+helene;nz=de+belgique;ocz=0;p=auroflede;n=merovingien
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erelieva

Ereleuva (before 440 - ca. 500?), concubine of Theodemir and mother of Theodoric the Great.

Ben M. Angel notes: The name for this person is spelled in various ways:

Ereliva: From the "Anonymus Valesianus," published by Henri Valois ("Valesianus") in the 17th century, based on two documents: "The Lineage of Emperor Constantine" from 390, and "Ex libris Chronicorum inter cetera" on the life of Theodoric the Great, supposedly written by Bishop Maximianus of Ravenna.

Erelieva: From Jordanes in his work Getica

Ereleuva: From correspondence between this person and Pope Gelasius I.

Eusebia: Her baptismal name (when she became Catholic - she later supposedly converted to Arianism, in accordance with her husband's faith).

The following variation I've yet to find a source for other than various online family tree profiles, indicating to me it's probably a mistaken spelling passed along repeated by people copying and pasting on the internet:

Erelicia

The accepted form for her name among modern historians is Ereleuva, and for that reason, she is named here as such.

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Italy Kings:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#Theodemirdied474B

THEODEMIR [Thiudimir], son of VANDALARIUS (-Kyrrhos 474).

Iordanes names "Thiudemer et Valamir et Vidimir" as the sons of Vandilarius[231].

King of the Ostrogoths in Pannonia, under his brother Valamir, he ruled over the western part of their domain which covered the county of Somogy and northeastern Croatia. He succeeded his brother in [468/49] as King of all the Pannonian Ostrogoths.

When the Ostrogoths left Pannonia in [473], Theodemir and his contingent went towards Constantinople. They were settled in Macedonia, based in the city of Kyrrhos[232].

m ---. The name of Theodemir's wife is not known.

---

Concubine: ERELEUVA [Erelieva].

She was baptised a Catholic as EUSEBIA[233]. Iordanes names "Erelieva concubina" as mother of Theodoric[234]. She went with her son to Italy.

---

Theodemir & his wife had one child:

1. AMALAFRIDA (-murdered [523/25]).

Iordanes names "Amalfridam germanam suam [Theoderici]" as the mother of "Theodehadi" and wife of "Africa regi Vandalorum…Thrasamundo"[235].

Emperor Zeno used her as ambassador to her half-brother in 487 to thwart his attack on Constantinople[236].

Her second marriage was arranged by her half-brother, Theodoric King of Italy, as part of his efforts to foster the support of the Vandals. Amalafrida's dowry was Lilybæum in western Sicily[237].

After the death of her husband, she unsuccessfully protested his successor's withdrawal of support from her brother, but she was outmanœuvred and killed[238].

m firstly [HUGO ---] (-before 500). The Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ names "Huga rex Francorum…unicam filiam Amalbergam" who married "Irminfredo regi Thuringorum"[239], but there is no indication to whom "Huga rex Francorum" could refer.

m secondly ([500]) THRASAMUND, King of the Vandals, son of [GENTO the Vandal or GELIMER the Vandal] (before 460-523).

Amalafrida & her first husband had two children.

Theodemir had three illegitimate children by his concubine (Ereleuva):

2. THEODORIC ([451][258]-30 Aug 526).

Iordanes names "Theodericum" as son of Theodemir, in a later passage naming his mother "Erelieva concubina"[259].

He was proclaimed THEODORIC "the Great" King of Italy in Mar 493 after defeating King Odovacar.

3. THEODIMUND. The primary source which names him has not yet been identified.

He marched westwards to Durazzo with his brother in 479, leading one of the three marching columns[260].

4. daughter (-[479]). The primary source which records her existence has not yet been identified.

She died about the time her half-brother marched westwards to Durazzo[261].

References:

[231] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77.

[232] Wolfram, H. (1998) History Of The Goths (Berkeley, California), pp. 267 and 269.

[233] Wolfram (1998), p. 261.

[234] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 128.

[235] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 132.

[236] Wolfram (1998), p. 278.

[237] Wolfram (1998), p. 308.

[238] Wolfram (1998), p. 308.

[259] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 77 and 128.

[260] Wolfram (1998), p. 274.

[261] Wolfram (1998), p. 274.

----------------------------

From the Wikipedia page on Ereleuva:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erelieva

Ereleuva (born before AD 440, died ca. 500?[1]) was the mother of the Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great. She is often referred to as the concubine of Theodoric's father, Theodemir, although historian Thomas Hodgkin notes "this word of reproach hardly does justice to her position. In many of the Teutonic nations, as among the Norsemen of a later century, there seems to have been a certain laxity as to the marriage rite..."[2] That Gelasius refers to her as regina ("queen") suggests that she had a prominent social position despite the informality of her union with Theodemir.[1]

Ereleuva was Catholic, and was baptised with the name Eusebia.[1] She had probably converted from Arianism as an adult, but the details are unclear in the historical record. Ereleuva is regarded as having taken to Catholicism quite seriously, as indicated by her correspondence with Pope Gelasius and mention of her in Ennodius's Panegyric of Theodoric.[3]

Her name was variously spelled by historians in antiquity as Ereriliva (by the fragmentary chronicle of Anonymus Valesianus, ca. 527[4]) and Erelieva (by Jordanes), and is now largely known to modern historians as Ereleuva, as she was addressed most frequently by Pope Gelasius I.[1]

References

1.^ Amory, Patrick (1997). People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 450. ISBN 0521571510. http://books.google.com/books?id=7ndeDi_fwq0C&pg=PA450&vq=eusebia&dq=people+and+identity+in+ostrogothic+italy+%22489+554%22&sig=JutSxo0EK4syKdIKGPleEbqBv5s.

2.^ Hodgkin, Thomas (1897). Theodoric the Goth: Barbarian Champion of Civilisation. London: G.P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 34. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/20063.

3.^ Amory, Patrick (1997). People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 268–269. ISBN 0521571510. http://books.google.com/books?id=7ndeDi_fwq0C&pg=PA268&vq=eusebia&dq=people+and+identity+in+ostrogothic+italy+%22489+554%22&sig=xGES1zHIc6vWpPWFJFpcgJgaTnI.

4.^ See Anonymus Valesianus Pars Posterior: Chronica Theodericiana. The Latin Library.

(No longer a functional link):

http://familytrees.genopro.com/318186/jarleslekt/default.htm?page=toc_families.htm

From "People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554, Prosopographical Appendix (pg. 450):

http://books.google.com/books?id=7ndeDi_fwq0C&pg=PA450&vq=eusebia&dq=people+and+identity+in+ostrogothic+italy+%22489+554%22&sig=JutSxo0EK4syKdIKGPleEbqBv5s#v=onepage&q=eusebia&f=false

Ereleuva dicta Eusebia regina (= PLRE2 Erelieva quae et Eusebia)

The mother of Theodericus and concubine of Theodemer. The spelling of Gelasius, her contemporary, is preferred to those of AV ("Ereriliva") and Jordanes ("Erelieva"); Gelasius once calls her "Hereleuva," but his other usage, "Ereleuva," with the weight of the other sources, should favor a smooth breathing at the start of the name. Gelasius uses the title "regina," and calls her "sublimitas tue."

She was a Catholic, and took the name "Eusebia" in baptism: "Ereriliva dicta Gothica, catholica quidem erat, qui [sc. quae] in baptismo Eusebia dicta," AV 59. (Note that Catholicism may explain the similar pattern of the name of her granddaughter Ostrogotho Ariagni, q.v.) Probably for this reason, Ennodius referred to her "sancta mater" (Pan. 42, with PLRE2: 400). She also received letters from Pope Gelasius I seeking her influence over the king in issues of ecclesiastical and secular jurisdiction (though cf. Teia comes, an Arian correspondent of the pope). On these letters, see above, chs. 2 and 6. On their authenticity, contra Ullmann, see ch. 3. She is depicted as the addressee of a speech from Theodoric, by Ennodius, Pan. 42-4, at the time of the war for Italy in 489-493. Ennodius' references does not necessarily indicate that she was alive at the time of the Panegyricus (c.506), but it is interesting that he does not use any term such as "beatae recordationis" in mentioning her.

Gelasius, JK683 = ep. "Qui pro victu" (Thiel, frag. 36, p.502 = ETV 4) (492/496, not 495 as PLRE2: 400 states); JK 721 = ep. "Felicem et Petrum" (Ewald, coll. Brit. Gel. ep. 46, pp. 521-2 = ETV5) (496); Ennodius, Pan. 42; AV 59; Jordanes, Get. 269.

Eusebia = Ereleuva.

From "Theodoric the Goth: The Barbarian Champion of Civilisation" by Thomas Hodgkin:

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/20063/20063-h/20063-h.htm#p7

Walamir at once sent tidings of the victory to his brother Theudemir. The messenger arrived at an opportune moment, for on that very day Erelieva, the unwedded wife of Theudemir, had given birth to a man-child. This infant, born on such an auspicious day and looked upon as a pledge of happy fortunes for the Ostrogothic nation, was named Thiuda-reiks (the people-ruler), a name which Latin historians, influenced perhaps by the analogy of Theodosius, changed into Theodoricus, and which will here be spoken of under the well-known form THEODORIC. [15]

It will be observed that I have spoken of Erelieva as the unwedded wife of Theudemir. The Gothic historian calls her his concubine, [16] but this word of Page 34 reproach hardly does justice to her position. In many of the Teutonic nations, as among the Norsemen of a later century, there seems to have been a certain laxity as to the marriage rite, which was nevertheless coincident with a high and pure morality. It has been suggested that the severe conditions imposed by the Church on divorces may have had something to do with the peculiar marital usages of the Teutonic and Norse chieftains. Reasons of state might require Theudemir the Ostrogoth, or William Longsword the Norman, to ally himself some day with a powerful king's daughter, and therefore he would not go through the marriage rite with the woman, really and truly his wife, but generally his inferior in social position, who meanwhile governed his house and bore him children. If the separation never came, and the powerful king's daughter never had to be wooed, she who was wife in all but name, retained her position unquestioned till her death, and her children succeeded without dispute to the inheritance of their father.

The nearest approach to an illustration which the social usages of modern Europe afford, is probably furnished by the "morganatic marriages" of modern German royalties and serenities: and we might say that Theodoric was the offspring of such an union. Notwithstanding the want of strict legitimacy in his position, I do not remember any occasion on which the taunt of bastard birth was thrown in his teeth, even by the bitterest of his foes.

Footnotes

15: (return) Jordanes wavers between Theodericus and Theodoricus. The Greek historians generally use the form θευδερίχος. German scholars seem to prefer Theoderich. As it is useless now to try to revert to the philologically correct Thiuda-reiks, I use that form of the name with which I suppose English readers to be most familiar--namely, Theodoric.

16: (return) "Ipso siquidem die Theodoricus ejus filius quamvis de Erelieva concubina, bonæ tamen spei natus est" (Jordanes: Getica, 52).

For what it meant to be a concubine under Rome (likely customs that were still enforced in Ereleuva's time), a portion of the sample for "A History of Women in the West: From Ancient Goddesses to Christian Saints" provides a picture:

http://books.google.gr/books?id=V_Mx1wyMsbsC&pg=PA316&lpg=PA316&dq=Constantius+Eusebia+%22drugs%22&source=web&ots=A_tX28-lkI&sig=x-YZLuGnCMRe3Bqn1x-dal4d4d8&hl=el&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#v=onepage&q=Constantius%20Eusebia%20%22drugs%22&f=false

Rome elaborated a code of concubinage that imposed duties on concubines not unlike those required of wives. The minimum age for an official concubinage was the same as for an official marriage: 12 years. The concubine was required to be faithful to her master.[112] Only a freed woman concubine could initiate separation, a slave obviously could not. Concubines dressed as wives did: by covering their heads and bodies, they showed that they belonged to a citizen.

These women thus bore the risks of childbearing that official wives were protected against.[113] Yet men did not like to have large numbers of bastards by slaves and concubines. In Greek areas, a bleak portrait was painted of the lives of these unwanted children in order to dissuade men from having them.[114] (Ben notes: remember that Theodimir and his concubine Ereleuva were in Kyrros at the end of his life.)

Freed slaves who served as concubines bore the burden of multiple pregnancies. As their bodies aged prematurely, they might be abandoned by the master and turned over to a freed man or slave. If the master did not wish to see them pregnant, they had to submit to abortion. Some chose abortion of their own accord.

The physicians who wrote down various formulas for potions believed to prevent or abort pregnancy do not tell us much about the women to whom such potions were administered. They say only that the mixtures are not to be used to conceal adultery or to preserve a woman's looks. An ancient proverb gives us an idea of just how unpleasant some of these abortive potions were, particularly those involving the herb rue: "Your agony is nothing yet; you've still not come to parsley and rue."[115]

---

Upper-class women in Rome had no problem with their husbands' having sexual relations with slaves and concubines. Some women even chose their husbands' partners. The wife of Scipio Africanus knew her husband's concubine. After his death, she set the woman free and arranged a marriage with a freed slave.[117] Livia found virgins for her devoted husband Augustus to deflower.[118]

In Roman Africa, where some married women became devotees of a terrifying goddess, the African Ceres, they abstained from sexual relations and provided their husbands with concubines.[119] For pagan women, chastity consisted in "not desiring to be desired."[120] The rules for admission to Christianity confirm that concubines aborted pregnancies and abandoned children: "If a concubine was once a man's slave, if she raised his children and was devoted to him alone, she shall hear [the Word]; if not, she shall be sent away. A man who keeps a concubine shall cease to do so and take a wife according to the law; if he refuses, he shall be sent away."[121] (This perhaps relates to Catholicism... unsure if it relates to Arian-based cultures within the Empire - this question is essential when considering that Ereleuva was Catholic, and her master Theodimir was Arian.)

Concubinage was so widespread that freed men commonly ordered funerary inscriptions for themselves and two or three women described indiscriminately as wives or companions. Some scholars believe that these inscriptions refer to a succession of wives, but in my view the women mentioned shared the man's life simultaneously, one as lawful wife, the other(s) as concubines.[122] From the Talmud, we know that polygamous Jews had children by a first wife and ordered the second, the woman kept for pleasure, to "take the potion."

---

Christianity and sexual taboos:

Christianity defined its own rules for admission to or exclusion from the City of God. Paradoxically, while prohibitions proliferated under Christianity, the church as early as the second century agreed to renunciations impermissible under Roman law. Persons whom Roman law classified as infamous for life and for all posterity could join the Christian community, provided that they ceased their dishonorable activities.

Among these were careers in the theater and entertainment. The keeper of a brothel could become a Christian, but a prostitute (male or female) could not.[166] An adulterous woman could return to her husband, and an adulterous man (under the new definition) could return to his wife.[167]

Christianity set great store by female purity and accepted Roman marriage law. Concubines were accepted as long as they had been the concubine of one man only, and had kept all their children. Men were required to dismiss their concubines and marry according to law.

Thus the social arrangement that had protected wives was undermined. Eventually, the law of the Empire sanctioned the idea that concubinage was dishonorable and prejudicial to a wife's rights over her husband. Exclusive love scored a victory - but upper-class women, who lost their protection, suffered a defeat.

(Ben M. Angel notes: Uncertain how this development, apparently from the time of Constantine, affected Theodimir and Ereleuva and Theodimir's unknown wife. Again, this may have been more a Catholic/Nicene thing than an Arian thing - though concubinage has nothing to do with the difference in the two beliefs, perhaps Arianism being an "outsider" religion in the Empire accorded its followers a looser adherence to other "Christian" customs that were earlier introduced to the Empire. And it is possible that Ereleuva was married later in life, perhaps after Theodimir's wife died, although this event, rather a major one, is unrecorded.)

The End of Concubinage:

In the Christian era, the law permitted children born to a concubine to be legitimized, provided that the father was not married to another woman, because from the time of Constantine (306-337) married men had been forbidden to keep concubines. Constantine prohibited bequests to a concubine's child without authorization, which previously had been granted by imperial writ. He also prohibited gifts to concubines and their children.[168] As a result, husbands either entered into brief relationships (not concubinage) with other women or had more frequent relations with their wives.

The means by which concubines disposed of unwanted children were strictly regulated. Both Christians and Jews prohibited infanticide and exposure of children (apparently, turning them over naked into the wilds to die of exposure). Infanticide had been illegal under Roman law since the first century, but undoubtedly it was still practiced. Constantine included it in the law against murder.[169] Most important of all, in the fourth century, exposure was regarded as infanticide by indirect means; as such it was punishable by law. After 374, a father who ordered a child exposed risked capital punishment.[170]

From the English Wikipedia page on Erelieva:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erelieva

Ereleuva, who was born before AD 440, was the mother of the Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great. She is often referred to as the concubine of Theodoric's father, Theodemir, although historian Thomas Hodgkin notes "this word of reproach hardly does justice to her position. In many of the Teutonic nations, as among the Norsemen of a later century, there seems to have been a certain laxity as to the marriage rite..." That Gelasius refers to her as regina ("queen") suggests that she had a prominent social position despite the informality of her union with Theodemir.

Ereleuva was Catholic, and was baptized with the name Eusebia. She had probably converted from Arianism as an adult, but the details are unclear in the historical record. Ereleuva is regarded as having taken to Catholicism quite seriously, as indicated by her correspondence with Pope Gelasius and mention of her in Ennodius's Panegyric of Theodoric.

Her name was variously spelled by historians in antiquity as Ereriliva (by Anonymus Valesianus) and Erelieva (by Jordanes), and is now largely known to modern historians as Ereleuva, as she was addressed most frequently by Pope Gelasius I.

http://gw.geneanet.org/nobily?lang=fr;pz=elisabeth+therese+marie+helene;nz=de+belgique;ocz=0;p=erelevia;n=de+tongres http://gw.geneanet.org/nobily?lang=fr;pz=elisabeth+therese+marie+helene;nz=de+belgique;ocz=0;p=erelevia;n=de+tongres Ereleuva (before 440 - ca. 500?), concubine of Theodemir and mother of Theodoric the Great. Ben M. Angel notes: The name for this person is spelled in various ways:

Ereliva: From the "Anonymus Valesianus," published by Henri Valois ("Valesianus") in the 17th century, based on two documents: "The Lineage of Emperor Constantine" from 390, and "Ex libris Chronicorum inter cetera" on the life of Theodoric the Great, supposedly written by Bishop Maximianus of Ravenna.

Erelieva: From Jordanes in his work Getica

Ereleuva: From correspondence between this person and Pope Gelasius I.

Eusebia: Her baptismal name (when she became Catholic - she later supposedly converted to Arianism, in accordance with her husband's faith).

The following variation I've yet to find a source for other than various online family tree profiles, indicating to me it's probably a mistaken spelling passed along repeated by people copying and pasting on the internet:

Erelicia

The accepted form for her name among modern historians is Ereleuva, and for that reason, she is named here as such.

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Italy Kings:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#Theodemirdied474B

THEODEMIR [Thiudimir], son of VANDALARIUS (-Kyrrhos 474).

Iordanes names "Thiudemer et Valamir et Vidimir" as the sons of Vandilarius[231].

King of the Ostrogoths in Pannonia, under his brother Valamir, he ruled over the western part of their domain which covered the county of Somogy and northeastern Croatia. He succeeded his brother in [468/49] as King of all the Pannonian Ostrogoths.

When the Ostrogoths left Pannonia in [473], Theodemir and his contingent went towards Constantinople. They were settled in Macedonia, based in the city of Kyrrhos[232].

m ---. The name of Theodemir's wife is not known.

---

Concubine: ERELEUVA [Erelieva].

She was baptised a Catholic as EUSEBIA[233]. Iordanes names "Erelieva concubina" as mother of Theodoric[234]. She went with her son to Italy.

---

Theodemir & his wife had one child:

1. AMALAFRIDA (-murdered [523/25]).

Iordanes names "Amalfridam germanam suam [Theoderici]" as the mother of "Theodehadi" and wife of "Africa regi Vandalorum…Thrasamundo"[235].

Emperor Zeno used her as ambassador to her half-brother in 487 to thwart his attack on Constantinople[236].

Her second marriage was arranged by her half-brother, Theodoric King of Italy, as part of his efforts to foster the support of the Vandals. Amalafrida's dowry was Lilybæum in western Sicily[237].

After the death of her husband, she unsuccessfully protested his successor's withdrawal of support from her brother, but she was outmanœuvred and killed[238].

m firstly [HUGO ---] (-before 500). The Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ names "Huga rex Francorum…unicam filiam Amalbergam" who married "Irminfredo regi Thuringorum"[239], but there is no indication to whom "Huga rex Francorum" could refer.

m secondly ([500]) THRASAMUND, King of the Vandals, son of [GENTO the Vandal or GELIMER the Vandal] (before 460-523).

Amalafrida & her first husband had two children.

Theodemir had three illegitimate children by his concubine (Ereleuva):

2. THEODORIC ([451][258]-30 Aug 526).

Iordanes names "Theodericum" as son of Theodemir, in a later passage naming his mother "Erelieva concubina"[259].

He was proclaimed THEODORIC "the Great" King of Italy in Mar 493 after defeating King Odovacar.

3. THEODIMUND. The primary source which names him has not yet been identified.

He marched westwards to Durazzo with his brother in 479, leading one of the three marching columns[260].

4. daughter (-[479]). The primary source which records her existence has not yet been identified. She died about the time her half-brother marched westwards to Durazzo[261].

References:

[231] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. [232] Wolfram, H. (1998) History Of The Goths (Berkeley, California), pp. 267 and 269. [233] Wolfram (1998), p. 261. [234] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 128. [235] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 132. [236] Wolfram (1998), p. 278. [237] Wolfram (1998), p. 308. [238] Wolfram (1998), p. 308. [259] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 77 and 128. [260] Wolfram (1998), p. 274. [261] Wolfram (1998), p. 274.

----------------------------

From the Wikipedia page on Ereleuva:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erelieva

Ereleuva (born before AD 440, died ca. 500?[1]) was the mother of the Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great. She is often referred to as the concubine of Theodoric's father, Theodemir, although historian Thomas Hodgkin notes "this word of reproach hardly does justice to her position. In many of the Teutonic nations, as among the Norsemen of a later century, there seems to have been a certain laxity as to the marriage rite..."[2] That Gelasius refers to her as regina ("queen") suggests that she had a prominent social position despite the informality of her union with Theodemir.[1]

Ereleuva was Catholic, and was baptised with the name Eusebia.[1] She had probably converted from Arianism as an adult, but the details are unclear in the historical record. Ereleuva is regarded as having taken to Catholicism quite seriously, as indicated by her correspondence with Pope Gelasius and mention of her in Ennodius's Panegyric of Theodoric.[3]

Her name was variously spelled by historians in antiquity as Ereriliva (by the fragmentary chronicle of Anonymus Valesianus, ca. 527[4]) and Erelieva (by Jordanes), and is now largely known to modern historians as Ereleuva, as she was addressed most frequently by Pope Gelasius I.[1]

References

[1] Amory, Patrick (1997). People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 450. ISBN 0521571510. http://books.google.com/books?id=7ndeDi_fwq0C&pg=PA450&vq=eusebia&dq=people+and+identity+in+ostrogothic+italy+%22489+554%22&sig=JutSxo0EK4syKdIKGPleEbqBv5s. [2] Hodgkin, Thomas (1897). Theodoric the Goth: Barbarian Champion of Civilisation. London: G.P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 34. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/20063. [3] Amory, Patrick (1997). People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 268–269. ISBN 0521571510. http://books.google.com/books?id=7ndeDi_fwq0C&pg=PA268&vq=eusebia&dq=people+and+identity+in+ostrogothic+italy+%22489+554%22&sig=xGES1zHIc6vWpPWFJFpcgJgaTnI. [4] See Anonymus Valesianus Pars Posterior: Chronica Theodericiana. The Latin Library.

(No longer a functional link):

http://familytrees.genopro.com/318186/jarleslekt/default.htm?page=toc_families.htm

From "People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554, Prosopographical Appendix (pg. 450):

http://books.google.com/books?id=7ndeDi_fwq0C&pg=PA450&vq=eusebia&dq=people+and+identity+in+ostrogothic+italy+%22489+554%22&sig=JutSxo0EK4syKdIKGPleEbqBv5s#v=onepage&q=eusebia&f=false

Ereleuva dicta Eusebia regina (= PLRE2 Erelieva quae et Eusebia)

The mother of Theodericus and concubine of Theodemer. The spelling of Gelasius, her contemporary, is preferred to those of AV ("Ereriliva") and Jordanes ("Erelieva"); Gelasius once calls her "Hereleuva," but his other usage, "Ereleuva," with the weight of the other sources, should favor a smooth breathing at the start of the name. Gelasius uses the title "regina," and calls her "sublimitas tue."

She was a Catholic, and took the name "Eusebia" in baptism: "Ereriliva dicta Gothica, catholica quidem erat, qui [sc. quae] in baptismo Eusebia dicta," AV 59. (Note that Catholicism may explain the similar pattern of the name of her granddaughter Ostrogotho Ariagni, q.v.) Probably for this reason, Ennodius referred to her "sancta mater" (Pan. 42, with PLRE2: 400). She also received letters from Pope Gelasius I seeking her influence over the king in issues of ecclesiastical and secular jurisdiction (though cf. Teia comes, an Arian correspondent of the pope). On these letters, see above, chs. 2 and 6. On their authenticity, contra Ullmann, see ch. 3. She is depicted as the addressee of a speech from Theodoric, by Ennodius, Pan. 42-4, at the time of the war for Italy in 489-493. Ennodius' references does not necessarily indicate that she was alive at the time of the Panegyricus (c.506), but it is interesting that he does not use any term such as "beatae recordationis" in mentioning her.

Gelasius, JK683 = ep. "Qui pro victu" (Thiel, frag. 36, p.502 = ETV 4) (492/496, not 495 as PLRE2: 400 states); JK 721 = ep. "Felicem et Petrum" (Ewald, coll. Brit. Gel. ep. 46, pp. 521-2 = ETV5) (496); Ennodius, Pan. 42; AV 59; Jordanes, Get. 269.

Eusebia = Ereleuva.

From "Theodoric the Goth: The Barbarian Champion of Civilisation" by Thomas Hodgkin:

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/20063/20063-h/20063-h.htm#p7

Walamir at once sent tidings of the victory to his brother Theudemir. The messenger arrived at an opportune moment, for on that very day Erelieva, the unwedded wife of Theudemir, had given birth to a man-child. This infant, born on such an auspicious day and looked upon as a pledge of happy fortunes for the Ostrogothic nation, was named Thiuda-reiks (the people-ruler), a name which Latin historians, influenced perhaps by the analogy of Theodosius, changed into Theodoricus, and which will here be spoken of under the well-known form THEODORIC. [15]

It will be observed that I have spoken of Erelieva as the unwedded wife of Theudemir. The Gothic historian calls her his concubine, [16] but this word of Page 34 reproach hardly does justice to her position. In many of the Teutonic nations, as among the Norsemen of a later century, there seems to have been a certain laxity as to the marriage rite, which was nevertheless coincident with a high and pure morality. It has been suggested that the severe conditions imposed by the Church on divorces may have had something to do with the peculiar marital usages of the Teutonic and Norse chieftains. Reasons of state might require Theudemir the Ostrogoth, or William Longsword the Norman, to ally himself some day with a powerful king's daughter, and therefore he would not go through the marriage rite with the woman, really and truly his wife, but generally his inferior in social position, who meanwhile governed his house and bore him children. If the separation never came, and the powerful king's daughter never had to be wooed, she who was wife in all but name, retained her position unquestioned till her death, and her children succeeded without dispute to the inheritance of their father.

The nearest approach to an illustration which the social usages of modern Europe afford, is probably furnished by the "morganatic marriages" of modern German royalties and serenities: and we might say that Theodoric was the offspring of such an union. Notwithstanding the want of strict legitimacy in his position, I do not remember any occasion on which the taunt of bastard birth was thrown in his teeth, even by the bitterest of his foes.

Footnotes

15: (return) Jordanes wavers between Theodericus and Theodoricus. The Greek historians generally use the form θευδερίχος. German scholars seem to prefer Theoderich. As it is useless now to try to revert to the philologically correct Thiuda-reiks, I use that form of the name with which I suppose English readers to be most familiar--namely, Theodoric. 16: (return) "Ipso siquidem die Theodoricus ejus filius quamvis de Erelieva concubina, bonæ tamen spei natus est" (Jordanes: Getica, 52).

For what it meant to be a concubine under Rome (likely customs that were still enforced in Ereleuva's time), a portion of the sample for "A History of Women in the West: From Ancient Goddesses to Christian Saints" provides a picture:

http://books.google.gr/books?id=V_Mx1wyMsbsC&pg=PA316&lpg=PA316&dq=Constantius+Eusebia+%22drugs%22&source=web&ots=A_tX28-lkI&sig=x-YZLuGnCMRe3Bqn1x-dal4d4d8&hl=el&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#v=onepage&q=Constantius%20Eusebia%20%22drugs%22&f=false

Rome elaborated a code of concubinage that imposed duties on concubines not unlike those required of wives. The minimum age for an official concubinage was the same as for an official marriage: 12 years. The concubine was required to be faithful to her master.[112] Only a freed woman concubine could initiate separation, a slave obviously could not. Concubines dressed as wives did: by covering their heads and bodies, they showed that they belonged to a citizen.

These women thus bore the risks of childbearing that official wives were protected against.[113] Yet men did not like to have large numbers of bastards by slaves and concubines. In Greek areas, a bleak portrait was painted of the lives of these unwanted children in order to dissuade men from having them.[114] (Ben notes: remember that Theodimir and his concubine Ereleuva were in Kyrros at the end of his life.)

Freed slaves who served as concubines bore the burden of multiple pregnancies. As their bodies aged prematurely, they might be abandoned by the master and turned over to a freed man or slave. If the master did not wish to see them pregnant, they had to submit to abortion. Some chose abortion of their own accord.

The physicians who wrote down various formulas for potions believed to prevent or abort pregnancy do not tell us much about the women to whom such potions were administered. They say only that the mixtures are not to be used to conceal adultery or to preserve a woman's looks. An ancient proverb gives us an idea of just how unpleasant some of these abortive potions were, particularly those involving the herb rue: "Your agony is nothing yet; you've still not come to parsley and rue."[115]

---

Upper-class women in Rome had no problem with their husbands' having sexual relations with slaves and concubines. Some women even chose their husbands' partners. The wife of Scipio Africanus knew her husband's concubine. After his death, she set the woman free and arranged a marriage with a freed slave.[117] Livia found virgins for her devoted husband Augustus to deflower.[118]

In Roman Africa, where some married women became devotees of a terrifying goddess, the African Ceres, they abstained from sexual relations and provided their husbands with concubines.[119] For pagan women, chastity consisted in "not desiring to be desired."[120] The rules for admission to Christianity confirm that concubines aborted pregnancies and abandoned children: "If a concubine was once a man's slave, if she raised his children and was devoted to him alone, she shall hear [the Word]; if not, she shall be sent away. A man who keeps a concubine shall cease to do so and take a wife according to the law; if he refuses, he shall be sent away."[121] (This perhaps relates to Catholicism... unsure if it relates to Arian-based cultures within the Empire - this question is essential when considering that Ereleuva was Catholic, and her master Theodimir was Arian.)

Concubinage was so widespread that freed men commonly ordered funerary inscriptions for themselves and two or three women described indiscriminately as wives or companions. Some scholars believe that these inscriptions refer to a succession of wives, but in my view the women mentioned shared the man's life simultaneously, one as lawful wife, the other(s) as concubines.[122] From the Talmud, we know that polygamous Jews had children by a first wife and ordered the second, the woman kept for pleasure, to "take the potion."

---

Christianity and sexual taboos:

Christianity defined its own rules for admission to or exclusion from the City of God. Paradoxically, while prohibitions proliferated under Christianity, the church as early as the second century agreed to renunciations impermissible under Roman law. Persons whom Roman law classified as infamous for life and for all posterity could join the Christian community, provided that they ceased their dishonorable activities.

Among these were careers in the theater and entertainment. The keeper of a brothel could become a Christian, but a prostitute (male or female) could not.[166] An adulterous woman could return to her husband, and an adulterous man (under the new definition) could return to his wife.[167]

Christianity set great store by female purity and accepted Roman marriage law. Concubines were accepted as long as they had been the concubine of one man only, and had kept all their children. Men were required to dismiss their concubines and marry according to law.

Thus the social arrangement that had protected wives was undermined. Eventually, the law of the Empire sanctioned the idea that concubinage was dishonorable and prejudicial to a wife's rights over her husband. Exclusive love scored a victory - but upper-class women, who lost their protection, suffered a defeat.

(Ben M. Angel notes: Uncertain how this development, apparently from the time of Constantine, affected Theodimir and Ereleuva and Theodimir's unknown wife. Again, this may have been more a Catholic/Nicene thing than an Arian thing - though concubinage has nothing to do with the difference in the two beliefs, perhaps Arianism being an "outsider" religion in the Empire accorded its followers a looser adherence to other "Christian" customs that were earlier introduced to the Empire. And it is possible that Ereleuva was married later in life, perhaps after Theodimir's wife died, although this event, rather a major one, is unrecorded.)

The End of Concubinage:

In the Christian era, the law permitted children born to a concubine to be legitimized, provided that the father was not married to another woman, because from the time of Constantine (306-337) married men had been forbidden to keep concubines. Constantine prohibited bequests to a concubine's child without authorization, which previously had been granted by imperial writ. He also prohibited gifts to concubines and their children.[168] As a result, husbands either entered into brief relationships (not concubinage) with other women or had more frequent relations with their wives.

The means by which concubines disposed of unwanted children were strictly regulated. Both Christians and Jews prohibited infanticide and exposure of children (apparently, turning them over naked into the wilds to die of exposure). Infanticide had been illegal under Roman law since the first century, but undoubtedly it was still practiced. Constantine included it in the law against murder.[169] Most important of all, in the fourth century, exposure was regarded as infanticide by indirect means; as such it was punishable by law. After 374, a father who ordered a child exposed risked capital punishment.[170]

From the English Wikipedia page on Erelieva:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erelieva

Ereleuva, who was born before AD 440, was the mother of the Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great. She is often referred to as the concubine of Theodoric's father, Theodemir, although historian Thomas Hodgkin notes "this word of reproach hardly does justice to her position. In many of the Teutonic nations, as among the Norsemen of a later century, there seems to have been a certain laxity as to the marriage rite..." That Gelasius refers to her as regina ("queen") suggests that she had a prominent social position despite the informality of her union with Theodemir.

Ereleuva was Catholic, and was baptized with the name Eusebia. She had probably converted from Arianism as an adult, but the details are unclear in the historical record. Ereleuva is regarded as having taken to Catholicism quite seriously, as indicated by her correspondence with Pope Gelasius and mention of her in Ennodius's Panegyric of Theodoric.

Her name was variously spelled by historians in antiquity as Ereriliva (by Anonymus Valesianus) and Erelieva (by Jordanes), and is now largely known to modern historians as Ereleuva, as she was addressed most frequently by Pope Gelasius I. Related to the Erilaz from which the Heruli were tied with the Ostrogoths even after they returned to Scandinavia.


http://gw.geneanet.org/nobily?lang=fr;pz=elisabeth+therese+marie+helene;nz=de+belgique;ocz=0;p=erelevia;n=de+tongres


http://gw.geneanet.org/nobily?lang=fr;pz=elisabeth+therese+marie+helene;nz=de+belgique;ocz=0;p=erelevia;n=de+tongres

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Verona

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ostrogothic_Kingdom

birth locations: Verona, Ostrogothic Kingdom [Verona, Veneto, Italy] death location: Ostrogoth Kingdom [Northern Italy]


King Childeric of France I - was born in 0436 in Westphalia, Germany and died on 26 Nov 0481/0484 . He was the son of King Merovee of France. King Childeric married Princess Basina of the Thuringians in 0463/0465 in Germany. Princess Basina was born about 0438, lived in Thuringia, Germany. She was the daughter of Basine de Saxe. She died after 0470 . Children: (Quick Family Chart) i. King Clovis I "The Great" of France was born about 0467 in France and died on 27 Nov 0511 in Paris, France and was buried in Saint Denis Basilique, Paris, France. . See #28. below. ii.

Andelfieda

Meroving died on 30 Apr 0535 .''' 

Andelfieda married Theodoric Ostrogoths in Rheims,Marne,Loire-Atlantique,France. Theodoric was born about 0454 in Verona, Italy. He was the son of Theodemir Ostrogoths. He died on 30 Aug 0526 .

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