Bertha de Avenay, Abbess of Avenay
|Also Known As:||"Berta Abadesa de Avenay"|
|Death:||Died in Europe|
Daughter of Emperor Lothair I and Ermengarde of Tours
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About Bertha de Avenay, Abbess of Avenay
LOTHAIRE, son of Emperor LOUIS I "der Fromme/le Pieux" & his first wife Ermengard (795-Kloster Prüm 29 Sep 855, bur Kloster Prüm). Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" sons of Emperor Louis I & his wife Ermengard. His father sent him to govern Bavaria in [Aug] 814. He was crowned joint Emperor LOTHAIRE I in Jul 817 at Aachen, ruling jointly with his father. He was sent to Italy in 822, where he established his court at Pavia and was crowned King of Italy by the Archbishop of Milan. The Annales Xantenses record that "Ludewicus imperator" gave "filio suo Lothario regnum Langobardorum" in 822. Einhard's Annales record that the emperor sent "Walahum monachum propinquum suum [imperatoris] fratrem…Adalhardi abbatis" to Italy in 822 with "Hlotharius…filium suum". He was again crowned Emperor, at Rome 5 Apr 823 by Pope Pascal I. The rivalry with his father and brothers was exacerbated by the unexpected birth of his half-brother Charles in 823. Tension was increased when Emperor Louis invested Charles with Alemannia, Rhetia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms in Aug 829, reducing Lothaire's territory to Italy. Lothaire and his brothers rebelled in Mar 830, captured their father at Compiègne, and forced him to revert to the constitutional arrangements decided in 817. However, Emperor Louis reasserted his authority at the assemblies of Nijmegen in Oct 830 and Aix-la-Chapelle in Feb 831, and deprived Lothaire of the imperial title and relegated him once more to Italy. A further revolt of the brothers followed. Emperor Louis was defeated and deposed by his sons at Compiègne 1 Oct 833. He was exiled to the monastery of Saint-Médard de Soissons. Lothaire declared himself sole emperor 30 Jun 833, but was forced to flee to Vienne by his brothers Pepin and Louis, who freed their father. Emperor Louis was restored 1 Mar 834, crowned once more at Metz 28 Feb 835. Lothaire captured Chalon-sur-Saône, but was arrested by his father's troops near Chouzy. His father pardoned him and sent him back to Italy as king. Emperor Louis proposed yet another partition in favour of his son Charles at the assembly of Aachen in 837, which was implemented at the assembly of Worms 28 May 839 when he installed his sons Lothaire and Charles jointly, the former taking all land east of the River Meuse, the latter everything to the west, and set aside the claims of his son Louis and the successors of his late son Pepin. Lothaire succeeded as sole emperor on his father’s death 20 Jun 840. He sought to extend his power base northwards from Italy across the Alps, and deprive his half-brother Charles. The latter allied himself with his half-brother Louis, and together they defeated Lothaire at Fontenoy-en-Puisaye, near Auxerre 25 Jun 841. After retreating to Aachen, Lothaire was forced out to Lyon in Apr 842 by his brothers, who declared him incapable of governing the empire. Preliminary peace proposals signed on an island in the Saône, near Mâcon 15 Jun 842 led to the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, under which the territory of the empire was divided between the three brothers. Lothaire retained the imperial title and was also installed as LOTHAIRE I King of Lotharingia, a newly created territory covering a wide strip of land from the North Sea coast southwards to Italy, the new country being named after him. He established his seat of government at Aachen, and installed his son Louis as King of Italy. Over the following ten years, a series of meetings aimed to maintain peace between the three brothers, with varying success. After a serious illness, Emperor Lothaire abdicated in Sep 855 at Kloster Schüller, near Prüm, and divided his territories between his sons Louis II, Lothaire II and Charles. The Annales Bertiniani record that Emperor Lothaire entered "monasterium Proneæ in Arduenna", was tonsured, died "IV Kal Oct" and was buried in the monastery. The necrology of Prüm records the death "855 III Kal Oct" of "Lotharius imperator".
m (Thionville, Moselle mid-Oct 821) ERMENGARDE, daughter of HUGUES Comte [de Tours] [Etichonen] & his wife Ava --- (-20 Mar 851, bur Kloster Erstein, near Strasbourg). Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris refers to the wife of Emperor Lothaire as "filiam Hugi comitis, qui erat de stirpe cuiusdam ducis nomine Etih" and in the following paragraph names her "Irmingarda". The Annales Xantenses record the marriage in 821 of "Ludewicus imperator…filio suo Lothario" and "Ermingardam filiam Hugonis comitis Turonicorum". She founded Kloster Erstein in Alsace in 849. The Annales Xantenses record the death in 851 of "imperatrix…Irmingard, coniunx Lotharii imperatoris". The Annales Formoselenses record the death in 851 of "Irmingard regina".
Mistress (1): DODA, daughter of --- (-after 9 Jul 855). The Annales Bertiniani records that "Lotharius imperator" took "duas sibi ancillas ex villa regia", of whom Doda gave birth to "filium…Karlomannum".
Emperor Lothaire & his wife had eight children:
1. LOUIS "le Jeune" (-near Brescia 12 Aug 875, bur Milan, San Ambrosio). Regino names "Hludowicum, Hlotharium et Carolum" as the three sons of Emperor Lothaire & his wife. He was sent to Italy as king in 844, crowned in Rome in 844 as LOUIS King of Italy by Pope Sergius II. He was crowned joint Emperor LOUIS II, reigning jointly with his father, at Rome in Apr 850 by Pope Leo IV. He was sole emperor in 855 after the death of his father. - KINGS of ITALY.
2. HILTRUDE (-after [865/66]). Pope Nicholas I names "Helletrude Berengarii Comitis quondam relicta" in an undated letter which refers to her as "Lothario sorore sua". m BERENGAR, son of --- (-[865/66]).
3. daughter ([825/30]-). The Gesta Francorum records that "Gisalbertus, vassallus Karoli" abducted "filiam Hlotharii imperatoris" and took her to Aquitaine where they were married. The Annales Fuldenses also record that "Gisalbertus vassallus Karoli" abducted "filiam Hlotharii imperatoris" and married her in Aquitaine in 846. The Annales Mettenses also date this event in 846. Settipani states that the emperor recognised the marriage in 849. Rösch says that this daughter is often named Ermengarde in secondary sources but that there is no contemporary proof that this is correct. m (Aquitaine 846) GISELBERT Graf von Maasgau, son of --- (-after 14 Jun 877).
4. BERTA (-after 7 May 852, maybe after ). A letter from Hincmar Archbishop of Reims to "Irmingardi augustæ", included by Flodoard in the Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ, names "Bertæ, ipsius imperatricis filiæ" referring to her activities at "Avennaci monasterii", a later passage confirming that she was "abbatissæ Avennaci monasterii". A poem by Sedulius is addressed to "Berta…proles…Lothari…Ermingardis matris". Abbess of Avenay before 847. Maybe Abbess of Faremoutiers 852-after 877. m ([Worms autumn 841]) ---. Berta was married, as shown by a second poem by Sedulius addressed to "Berta" which names "Ermingardis Cæsareumque" as her mother and refers to Bertha's "earthly spouse…now in heaven". It is possible that she was the daughter "Hlotharius…filiæ suæ" whose marriage is referred to at Worms in Autumn 841 in the Annals of Fulda . Berta's husband has not been identified.
5. GISELA (-860). The necrology of Brixen records that "Domnus Imperator Lotharius tradidit filiam suam domnam Gislam". Abbess of San Salvatore at Brescia 851-860. "Hludwicus…imperator augustus" made grants to San Salvatore in memory of "Gisla soror nostra defuncta" by charter dated 12 Jan .
6. LOTHAIRE (-Piacenza 8 Aug 869, bur Convent of San Antonio near Piacenza). Regino names "Hludowicum, Hlotharium et Carolum" as the three sons of Emperor Lothaire & his wife. "Lothario rege" is named "filio imperatoris Lotharii" by Folcuin. The Annales Bertiniani record that Emperor Lothaire gave Frisia to his son Lothaire in 855. He succeeded his father in 855 as LOTHAIRE II King of Lotharingia, with Aachen as his capital. He attempted to annul his marriage to marry his mistress of many years, but was opposed by Hincmar Archbishop of Reims, and later Pope Nicholas I who ordered him to return to his wife 15 Aug 865. He was negotiating with Pope Hadrian II for a new decision when he died of malaria. On his death, his lands were divided between Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks and Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks, instead of passing to his brother Emperor Louis despite the latter's objections. The necrology of Prüm records the death "869 Kal Iul" of "Lotharius rex filius eius [=Lotharius imperator]". m (, separated 857, repudiated 860) TEUTBERGA, daughter of BOSO "l'Ancien" Comte d’Arles & his wife --- (-Metz before 25 Nov 875, bur Metz, Abbaye de Sainte-Glossinde). The Annales Lobienses name "Tietberga, sorore Hucberti abbatis" as lawful wife of "Lotharius". The Annales Bertiniani name "Teutbergam" as "materteram suam [=Bosone filio Buvini comitis]". The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Thieberga regina legitima uxore [Lotharii]", specifying that she relied on the advice of "Bosonis comitis" at the time of her repudiation, although her relationship to him is not specified. Herimannus names "Tiohtpirga uxore legitima" of King Lothaire II when recording his repudiation of her. She protected the wife of Boso Count in Italy after she deserted her husband. She was repudiated on the grounds of her alleged incest with her brother Hugobert. Her husband kept her prisoner after separating from her. The Annales Bertiniani record that "uxor Lotharii" fled to "fratrem suum Hucbertum in regno Karli" in 860. She escaped in 860 and sought refuge with Charles II "le Chauve" who gave her the abbey of Avenay in the diocese of Reims. The Annales Bertiniani records that "uxore [Lothario]" gave support to "uxori Bosonis et Balduino qui filiam eius [=Karoli regis] furatus fuerat in uxorem". Abbess of Sainte Glossinde at Metz 869. "Heccardus comes" names "…Teutbergane uxore Lotharii…" among the beneficiaries under his testamentary disposition dated to [Jan 876]. It is not certain that this refers to the separated wife of King Lothar II, but no other "Teutberga/Lothaire" couple has been identified at the time. If this identification is correct, it suggests a family relationship between Teutberga and Ecchard, which has not yet been identified. Mistress (1): (from ) WALDRADA, daughter of --- (-9 Apr after 868). One manuscript of the Gesta Treverorum names "Waldradam sororem…Guntheri Coloniensis archiepiscopus" when recording her adulterous relationship with King Lothaire II. The Cæsarii Heisterbacensis Catalogus of archbishops of Köln records that the concubine of "Lotharius" was "Waldradam, sororem Guntheri archiepiscopi Coloniensis" and that her brother encouraged Lothaire to leave his legitimate wife for Waldrada, for which he was excommunicated by the Pope. The Annales Novesienses record that “Guntherus episcopus Coloniensis” had “sororem…Vastradam…aliis Waldradam” whom “dux Lotharingiæ Lotharius…superdixit” after her brother approved his divorce from “legitima uxore Tyberga”. According to Baron Ernouf, Gunther archbishop of Köln was uncle of Waldrada and Thetgaud archbishop of Trier was her brother, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. The Annales Bertiniani names "Hlotharius Waldradam concubinam" when recording that Lothaire purported to marry her in 862 and crowned her with the support of "Liutfrido avunculo suo et Waltario". Waldrada was also related to the Etichonen Grafen im Nordgau (ALSACE), as shown by the Vita Sancti Deicoli which names "Waldrada…Heberardo comitis consanguinitatis", but the precise relationship is not known. Folcuin records King Lothaire's excommunication after repudiating his wife for Waldrada. King Lothaire purported to marry Waldrada in [Aug/Sep] 862 and crowned her as Queen, but this was not recognised by the church. She became a nun at Remiremont. King Lothaire II had four illegitimate children by Mistress (1):
a) HUGUES ([855/60]-after 895). Duke of Alsace 867, until after Aug 869. The Annales Bertiniani record that King Lothaire invested "filioque suo de Waldrada Hugoni" with "ducatum Elisatium" in 867. Herimannus names "Hugonem, Lotharii regis ex Waldrada filium" when recording his rebellion in 879. After his father's death, Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks invaded Alsace and Hugues was obliged to submit to him. The Gesta Francorum records that "Hugo, Hlutharii et Waldrada filius" caused tyranny in France in 879. Pope John VIII excommunicated "Hugonem Lotharii Regis quondam filium non legitimum" in 878. Hugues challenged Louis II "le Bègue" and his son Louis III "le Jeune" in Lotharingia in 879, but was defeated in 880 and swore allegiance at Gondreville in May 881 to Louis "le Jeune" who gave him the abbey of Lobbes. The Annales Fuldenses record that Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks sent "legatis nepotum suorum" to fight "Hugonem tyrannidem exercentem in Gallia" in 880. Charles III "le Gros" King of the East Franks gave him domains of the bishopric of Metz in 882, but Hugues rebelled in the same year, was defeated once more and took refuge in Burgundy. He rebelled again in 885 and sought support from his brother-in-law Gotfrid in Frisia. The Annales Vedastini record that "Hugo…filius Hlotharii regis" was blinded in 885 on the advice of "Heinrico duce". He was shut in the monastery of Fulda, later transferred to Sankt-Gallen, and finally to the abbey of Prüm. m (883) as her fourth husband, FRIDERADA, widow firstly of ENGUERRAND, secondly of BERNARIUS, and thirdly of WICBERT, daughter of ---. Regino names "Friderada" as wife of "Engilrammo ex qua filiam quam postmodem Richwinus comes in coniugem accepti", also referring to her subsequent marriages. The Chronico Saxonico records that "Hugo filius Lotharii Regis" had "Wicbertum comitem" murdered and married his wife "Frideradam" in 883. b) GISELA ([860/65]-[21 May/26 Oct] 907). Regino records the marriage in 882 of "Gisla filia Hlotharii" and "rex Godofridus Nordmannorum". The Annales Fuldenses record the marriage of "Gotafrid Nordmannus qui superiore anno fuerat baptizatus" and "Hugone Hlutharii filio eiusque sororem" in 883. Abbess at Nivelles and Fosses, after her husband died. "Zendeboldus…rex" gave "proprietatem…in loco…VII Fontes" to "propinqua nostra…Kisla…regis Lotharii filia…abbatisse" by charter dated 30 Jul 896. "Zuendebolchus…rex" gave property to "neptis nostre…Gissele…Nyuialensis abbaciæ" for her abbey by charter dated 26 Jul 897. m (882) GODEFRID, son of HARALD "Klak" & his wife --- (-murdered Jun 885). He was one of the leaders of the Danes who ravaged large parts of territory between the Rhine and the Somme. He converted to Christianity, and Emperor Charles "le Gros" granted him large parts of Frisia as dux. c) BERTA (-8 Mar 925, bur Lucca, Santa Maria). "Hugo comes et marchio" names "patris mei Teutbaldi et matris meæ Berthe…" in a donation by charter dated 924. "Berte" is also named as mother of "Hugo rex" in the latter's donation to Cluny for the souls of his parents dated 8 Mar 934. Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by the Annales Bertiniani which name "Hugonem Lotharii iunioris filium" and “sororium illius Theutbaldum” in 880. Her origin and second marriage are confirmed by the epitaph of "Comitissæ…Bertha" specifies that she was "uxor Adalberti Ducis Italiæ…regalis generi…filia Lotharii" and records her death in 925. Liudprand provides the proof that Berta, who married Marchese Adalberto, was the widow of Theotbald when he names "Berta matre regis Hugonis", specifying that she was previously married to Adalberto, when recording her death. She was regent of Tuscany after the death of her second husband in 915. m firstly ([879/80]) THEOTBALD [Thibaut] Comte d’Arles, son of HUBERT d'Arles, Comte de Transjuranie & his wife --- (-[Jun 887]/). m secondly ([895/98]) ADALBERTO II Marchese of Tuscany, Conte e Duca di Lucca, son of ADALBERT I Marchese of Tuscany & his wife Rothildis of Spoleto (-[10/19] Sep 915, bur Lucca Cathedral). d) ERMENGARDE (-6 Aug after [895/898], bur Lucca, Santa Giustina). Her epitaph at Lucca records the death "VIII Id Aug" of "Ermingardis…dicata deo" as daughter of "rex…Lotharius". Nun at Santa Giustina in Lucca. Gingins-la-Sarra suggests that Ermengarde was the wife of Berlion [I] Vicomte de Vienne, suggesting that she went to Provence with her sister Berta who married Thibaut Comte d´Arles. He says that the charter dated 25 Dec 923, under which “Ludwicus…imperator augustus” confirmed property “in comitatu Viennensi seu et in Lugdunensi in villa…Tadernaco” to “Ingelbertus…et uxori eius Nonie” (Engelbert being this couple´s son), refers to Engelbert as “propinquus” of the emperor. He says that the term was never used in charters which name Berlion [I] and therefore deduces that the relationship must have been through Engelbert´s mother. However, the text of the charter in question does not appear to apply the word “propinquus” specifically to Engelbert. It is used in the phrase “propinquorum et fidelium suorum”, as part of the introductory words in the charter, while Engelbert is named in the document as “fidelis noster”. There appears to be no other basis for this speculation. If the hypothesis were correct, it would be difficult to explain why Ermengarde would have left Provence (presumably after the death of her supposed husband, dated to ) and established herself as a nun at Lucca, while her two sons remained in Provence.
7. ROTRUDE (chr Pavia [835/40]-). The baptism of Rotrudis daughter of Lothaire is recorded at Pavia in [835/40]. [same person as…? ROTRUDE . "Witbertus…comes" donated property at Ornois to the abbey of Tournus, for the souls of "Lanberti genitoris mei necnon et Rutrudis genetricis meæ", by charter dated 28 Jan 870. Hlawitschka suggests that she was the daughter of Emperor Lothaire I, as her son's charter dated 28 Jan 870 records that the property he donated to the abbey of Tournus had been granted to his father by Emperor Lothaire. However, the copy of the charter reproduced in the Histoire de Tournus, cited above, states that the property had been donated to Wicbert by "senioris mei Hlotharii Regis". m ([850/51]) LAMBERT Comte et Marquis de Nantes, son of LAMBERT [I] Comte et Marquis de Nantes [Guidonen] & his wife [--- of Italy] (-killed in battle 1 May 852).]
8. CHARLES (-Lyon 25 Jan 863, bur Lyon, Saint-Pierre). Regino names "Hludowicum, Hlotharium et Carolum" as the three sons of Emperor Lothaire & his wife. His father invested him in Sep 855 with Provence, Lyon and Transjuranian Burgundy. - KINGS of PROVENCE.
Emperor Lothaire I had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):
9. CARLOMAN (-). The Annales Bertiniani name "Karlomannum" as the son of "Lotharius imperator" and his mistress Doda.