About Mary, mother of Jesus
The Gospels imply that Mary was of priestly descent. An early tradition says her parents dedicated her to service in the temple when she was three. She was a cousin of Elizabeth, who was married to the priest Zachariah. Men from priestly families (cohanim) were encouraged marriage within their own ranks. If Joseph came from the line of David, and Mary came from the family of Aaron, there would have been a neat parallelism that Jesus the Messiah had both royal and priestly ancestors.
However, the Church Fathers believed that Mary, like Joseph, was of David descent. The specific idea that the genealogy contained in the Gospel of Matthew was Joseph's, while that contained in the Gospel of Luke was Mary's gained currency only in the 16th century. One older view, was given by St. John of Damascus (c. 676-749). He states that Mary's great-grandfather Panther was a brother of Mathat, her grandfather Barpanther was Heli's cousin, and her father Joachim was a cousin of Joseph, Heli's levirate son (De fid. Orth., 4:14). In this version, Mathat has been substituted for Melchi, since the text used by John Damascene omitted the two generations between Heli from Melchi. (Note the name Panther, said by Celsus to have the name of the Roman soldier who was Jesus' biological father.)
Tony Bushby argues Mary was identical with Mariamne the Elder, an Herodian princess, granddaughter of King Herod, and daughter of Aristobulus and Berenike. However, it seems unlikely the same Jewish sources that claimed Jesus was the illegitimate son of a Roman soldier would have failed to notice that his mother belonged to the hated Herodian dynasty.
Graham Philips argues Mary was identical with Mariamne, wife of Antipater III, and supposedly a daughter of the High Priest Mattathias. The argument first confuses Antipater's first wife Mariamne, daughter of Aristobulos IV, with his second wife, a daughter of Antigonus II Mattathias. The argument then confuses Antigonus II Mattathias, King and High Priest of Judaea, killed by the Romans in 37 BCE, with Matthias ben Theophilus, High Priest, killed in 4/5 BCE.
Christian tradition denies that Mary was the mother of Jesus' brothers and sisters. The New Testament calls James, Joses, Simon and Jude the adelphoi of Jesus. (Mark 6:3, Matthew 13:55, John 7:3, Acts 1:14, 1 Corinthians 9:5). The term means siblings from the same womb. The most natural inference is that they were children of Mary and Joseph born after Jesus. The Ebionites, Jewish Christians from the 1st century who believed that Jesus was the biological son of Joseph, held this view. Early Christian writers Tertullian, Helvidius, and perhaps Hegesippus, also accepted the view that Jesus' brothers and sisters were Mary's children.
However, Christian and Islamic tradition holds the doctrine of Mary's perpetual virginity, so she could not have had children after Jesus. Early theologians Eusebius and Epiphanius held that Jesus' brothers and sisters were Joseph's children from an unrecorded earlier marriage. Jerome, another early theologian, argued that the adelphoi were sons of Mary's sister, supposedly also named Mary.
The Roman Catholic Church, following Jerome, holds that the adelphoi were Jesus' cousins, sons of Joseph's brother Clopas, and his wife Mary, a different Mary. The Orthodox Church, following Eusebius and Epiphanius, holds that they were Joseph's children from an earlier marriage.
...The angel Gabriel was sent from God to a town of Galilee to a virgin bethrothed to a man named Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin's name was Mary. Upon arriving, the angel said to her: "Rejoice, O highly favored daughter! The Lord is with you. Blessed are you among women." She was deeply troubled by his words, and wondered what his greeting meant. The angel went on to say to her: "Do not fear, Mary. You shall conceive and bear a Son and give Him the name of Jesus. Great will be His dignity and He will be called Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give Him the throne of David His father. he will rule over the house of David forever, and His reign will be without end."
Mary said to the angel, "How can this be since I do not know man?" The angel answered her: "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; hence, the Holy Offspring to be born will be called Son of God." Know that Elizabeth your kinswoman has conceived a son in her old age; she who was thought to be sterile is now in her sixth month, for nothing is impossible with God."
Mary said; "I am the servant of the Lord Let it be done to me as you say." With that the angel left her. (From the Bible, the Book of Luke, Chapter 1, Verses 26-38)
Now this is how the birth of Jesus Christ came about. When his mother Mary was engaged to Joseph, but before they lived together, she was found with Child through the power of the Holy Spirit. Joseph her husband, an upright man, unwilling to expose her to the law, decided to divorce her quietly. Such was his intention, when suddenly the angel of the Lord appeared in a dream and said to him: "Joseph, son of David, have no fear about taking Mary as your wife. It is by the Holy Spirit that she has conceived this Child. She is to have a Son and you are to name Him Jesus because He will save His people from their sins." All this happened to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: 'The virgin shall be with Child and give birth to a Son, and they shall call Him Emmanuel,' a name which means, "God is with us." When Joseph awoke, he did as the angel of the Lord had directed him and received her into his home as his wife. (From the Bible, the Book of Matthew, Chapter 1, Verses 18-24)
In those days Caesar Augustus published a decree ordering a census of the whole world. This first census took place while Quirinius was governor of Syria. Everyone went to register, each to his own town. And so Joseph went from the town of Nazareth in Galilee to Judea, to David's town of Bethlehem--because he was of the house and lineage of David--to register with Mary, his espoused wife, who was with Child.
While they were there the days of her confinement were completed. She gave birth to her first-born Son and wrapped Him in swaddling clothes and laid Him in a manger because there was no room for them in the place where travelers lodged. (From the Bible, the Book of Luke, Chapter 2, Verses 1-7)
There were shepherds in that locality, living in the fields and keeping night watch by turns over their flocks. The angel of the Lord appeared to them as the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were very much afraid. The angel said to them: "You have nothing to fear! I come to proclaim GOOD NEWS TO YOU--TIDINGS OF GREAT JOY, TO BE SHARED BY THE WHOLE PEOPLE! This day in David's city A SAVIOR HAS BEEN BORN TO YOU, THE MESSIAH AND LORD! Let this be a sign to you: in a manger you will find an Infant wrapped in swaddling clothes."
Suddenly, there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host, praising God and saying, "Glory to God in high heaven, peace on earth to those on whom His favor rests."
When the angels had returned to heaven, the shepherds said to one another: "Let us go over to Bethlehem and see this event which the Lord has made known to us." They went in haste and found Mary and Joseph, and the Baby lying in the manger; once they saw, they understood what had been told them concerning this Child. All who heard of it were astonished at the report given them by the shepherds.
Mary treasured all these things and reflected on them in her heart. The shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all they had heard and seen, in accord with what had been told them. (From the Bible, the Book of Luke, Chapter 2, Verses 8-21)
When the day came to purify them according to the law of Moses, the couple (Joseph and Mary) brought Him (Jesus) up to Jerusalem so that He could be presented to the Lord, for it is written in the law of the Lord, "Every first-born male shall be consecrated to the Lord." They came to offer in sacrifice "a pair of turtledoves or two youn pigeons," in accord with the dictate in the law of the Lord.
There lived in Jerusalem at the time a certain man named Simeon. He was just and pious, and awaited the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was upon him. It was revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not experience death until he had seen the Anointed of the Lord. He came to the temple now, inspired by the Spirit; and when the parents brought in the Child Jesus to perform for Him the customary ritual of the law, he took Him in his arms and blessed God in these words: "Now, Master, you can dismiss Your servant in peace; You have fulfilled Your Word, for my eyes have witnessed your Saving Deed displayed for all the peoples to see; a revealing Light to the Gentiles, the Glory of Your people Israel."
The Child's father and mother were marveling at what was being said about Him. Simeon blessed them and said to Mary His mother: ";This Child is destined to be the downfall and the rise of many in Israel, a sign that will be opposed--and you yourself shall be pierced with a sword--so that the thoughts of many hearts may be laid bare.";
There was also a certain prophetess, Anna by name, daughter of Phanuel of the tribe of Asher. She had seen many days, having lived seven years with her husband after her marriage and then as a widow until she was eighty-four. She was constantly in the temple, worshipping day and night in fasting and prayer. Coming on the scene at this moment, she gave thanks to God and talked about the Child to all who looked forward to the deliverance of Jerusalem. (From the Bible, the Book of Luke, Chapter 2, Verses 22-38)
After Jesus' birth in Bethlehem of Judea during the reign of King Herod, astrologers (Magi) from the east arrived one day in Jerusalem inquiring, "Where is the newborn King of the Jews? We observed His star at its rising and have come to pay Him homage." At this news King Herod became greatly disturbed, and with him all Jerusalem. Summoning all of the chief priests and scribes of the people, he inquired of them where the Messiah was to be born. "In Bethlehem of Judea," they informed him. "Here is what the prophet has written: 'And you Bethlehem, land of Judah, are by no means least among the princes of Judah, since from you shall come a Ruler Who is to shepherd my people Israel.' "
Herod called the astrologers aside and found out from them the exact time of the star's appearance. Then he sent them to Bethlehem, after having instructed them: "Go and get detailed information about the child. When you have found Him, report your findings to me so that I may go and offer Him homage too."
After their audience with the king, they set out. The star which they had observed at its rising went ahead of them until it came to a standstill over the place where the Child was. They were overjoyed at seeing the star, and on entering the house, found the Child with Mary His mother. They prostrated themselves and did Him homage. Then they opened their gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh.
They received a message in a dream not to return to Herod, so they went back to their own country by another route. (From the Bible, the Book of Matthew, Chapter 2, Verses 1-12)
After they (the astrologers) had left, the angel of the Lord suddenly appeared in a dream to Joseph with the command: "Get up, take the Child and His mother, and flee to Egypt. Stay there until I tell you otherwise. Herod is searching for the Child to destroy Him." Joseph got up and took the Child and His mother and left that night for Egypt. He stayed there until the death of Herod, to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: "Out of Egypt I have called My Son."
...after Herod's death, the angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt with the command: "Get up, take the Child and His mother, and set out for the land of Israel. Those who had designs on the life of the Child are dead." He got up, took the Child and His mother, and returned to the land of Israel. He heard, however, that Archelaus had succeded his father Herod as king of Judea, and he was afraid to go back there. Instead, because of a warning received in a dream, Joseph went to the region of Galilee. There he settled in a town called Nazareth. In this way what was said through the prophets was fulfilled: "He shall be called a Nazorean." (From the Bible, the Book of Matthew, Chapter 2, Verses 13-15 and 19-23)
His (Jesus') parents (Mary and Joseph) used to go every year to Jerusalem for the feast of the Passover, and when He was twelve they went up for the celebration as was their custom. As they were returning at the end of the feast, the Child Jesus remained behind unknown to His parents. Thinking He was in the party, they continued their journey for a day, looking for Him among their relatives and acquaintances.
Not finding Him, they returned to Jerusalem in search of Him. On the third day they came upon Him in the temple sitting in the midst of the teachers, listening to them and asking them questions. All who heard Him were amazed at His intelligence and His answers.
When His parents saw Him they were astonished, and His mother said to Him; "Son, why have You done this to us? You see that Your father and I have been searching for You in sorrow." He said to them: "Why did you search for Me? Did you not know I had to be in My Father's house?" But they did not grasp what He said to them.
He went down to them then, and came to Nazareth, and was obedient to them. His mother meanwhile kept all these things in memory. Jesus, for His part, progressed steadily in wisdom and age and grace before God and men. (From the Bible, the Book of Luke, Chapter 2, Verses 41-51)
Author: Matthew G. Easton, with editing by Paul S. Taylor.
MARY’S OTHER CHILDREN
Mary’s other sons included Joses (Joseph), James, Judas, and Simon. There were evidently sisters as well, but they are unnamed (Matthew 13:55-56; Mark 6:3). Geneaology
Mary was a direct descendant of King David which gave Jesus the right to ascend the Jewish throne, both through Mary and through adoption by his foster father, Joseph. Mary’s genealogy is supplied in Luke 3:23-38 . Dr. Henry Morris explains the genealogy in Luke:
“Joseph was clearly the son of Jacob (Matthew 1:16, so this verse [Luke 3:23 - says “son of Heli”] should be understood to mean “son-in-law of Heli.” Thus, the genealogy of Christ in Luke is actually the genealogy of Mary, while Matthew gives that of Joseph. Actually, the word “son” is not in the original, so it would be legitimate to supply either “son” or “son-in-law” in this context. Since Matthew and Luke clearly record much common material, it is certain that neither one could unknowingly incorporate such a flagrant apparent mistake as the wrong genealogy in his record. As it is, however, the two genealogies show that both parents were descendants of David—Joseph through Solomon (Matthew 1:7-15), thus inheriting the legal right to the throne of David, and Mary through Nathan (Luke 3:23-31), her line thus carrying the seed of David, since Solomon’s line had been refused the throne because of Jechoniah’s sin” [Dr. Henry M. Morris, The Defender’s Study Bible, note for Luke 3:23 (Iowa Falls, Iowa: World Publishing, Inc., 1995).].
La Virgen María es descendiente de Natán, hijo de Egla, esposa del rey David. El nombre de su padre se menciona en el Nuevo Testamento, en el evangelio de San Lucas capítulo 3, vers. 23 como Elí, pero en el protoevangelio de Santiago, uno de los evangelios apócrifos, menciona los nombre de su padre como Joaquín (Joachim) y de su madre como Ana; son éstos los evangelios que se han usado como referencia para muchos de los datos de María. Natán fue medio-hermano de Salomón, hijo de Betsabé y de David, de quien es descendiente José, esposo de María. Ambos descienden de la misma familia real, pues Salomón le sucedió al trono a su padre David y gobernó por cuarenta años el reino de Judá, después sigue reinando su descendencia por casi cuatrocientos años más, hasta que éste reino fue llevado en cautiverio por Nabucodonosor, Rey de Babilonia, en el año 586 a. de J.. Se habla poco de la Vírgen María en los cuatro evangelios; el evangelio según San Lucas menciona la visita que le hizo María santísima a su prima Elisabet, madre de Juán bautista (Cap. 1:39-56), pero fuera de esta visita y la que le hizo el arcángel Gabriel anunciandole que iba a concebir el fruto de Dios (Luc. 1:26-38), pocas veces más se menciona ella en los evangelios. San Juan la menciona en su evangelio (cap. 2:1-6) en las bodas de Caná y también durante la crucifixión de Jesús (Cap.19:25-27).
La Virgen María es descendiente de Natán, hijo de Egla, esposa del rey David. El nombre de su padre se menciona en el Nuevo Testamento, en el evangelio de San Lucas, capítulo 3, vers. 23, como Elí, pero en el protoevangelio de Santiago, uno de los evangelios apócrifos, menciona los nombre de su padre como Joaquín (Joachim) y de su madre como Ana; son éstos los evangelios que se han usado como referencia para muchos de los datos de María. Natán fue medio-hermano de Salomón, hijo de Betsabé y de David, de quien es descendiente José, esposo de María. Ambos descienden de la misma familia real, pues Salomón le sucedió al trono a su padre David y gobernó por cuarenta años el reino de Judá, después sigue reinando su descendencia por casi cuatrocientos años más, hasta que éste reino fue llevado en cautiverio por Nabucodonosor, Rey de Babilonia, en el año 586 a. de J.. Se habla poco de la Vírgen María en los cuatro evangelios; el evangelio según San Lucas menciona la visita que le hizo María santísima a su prima Elisabet, madre de Juán bautista (Cap. 1:39-56), pero fuera de esta visita y la que le hizo el arcángel Gabriel anunciandole que iba a concebir el fruto de Dios (Luc. 1:26-38), pocas veces más se menciona ella en los evangelios. San Juan la menciona en su evangelio (cap. 2:1-6) en las bodas de Caná y también durante la crucifixión de Jesús (Cap.19:25-27).
Mary, mother of Jesus's Timeline
Nazareth, Yizrael, North District, Israel
Bethlehem, Judea, Roman Empire