Brig. General Samuel P. Moore (CSA), Surgeon General)

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Samuel Preston Moore

Birthdate:
Death: 1889 (75-76)
Immediate Family:

Son of Stephen West Moore and Eleanor Screven Gilbert

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About Brig. General Samuel P. Moore (CSA), Surgeon General)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_P._Moore

Samuel Preston Moore (September 16, 1813 – May 31, 1889) was an American physician, who served in the medical corps of the United States Army during the Mexican–American War, and later as the Confederate Surgeon General throughout nearly all of the American Civil War.

Early life and career

Samuel P. Moore was born in 1813 in Charleston, South Carolina. He was a son of Stephen West Moore, a prominent banker in Charleston (originally from Virginia), and his wife, Eleanore Screvan Gilbert. His brother, Stephen M. Westmore, also served in the Confederacy. Moore was educated in the local public schools of Charleston, and then attended South Carolina Medical College with the intention of becoming a physician. He graduated in 1834 and relocated to Little Rock, Arkansas, to start his medical practice.

On March 14, 1835, Moore entered the U.S. Army, and was appointed as an assistant surgeon. In this capacity he serviced in the American frontier, including regions of Missouri, Kansas, Florida, as well as along the Texas border with Mexico. Moore married Mary Augusta Brown in 1845.

Moore also served as a surgeon during the Mexican–American War, which lasted from 1846 to 1848. He befriended Col. Jefferson Davis, the future Confederate President, who was greatly impressed with Moore's abilities. Following the war with Mexico, Moore served in several U.S. Army postings, including a short stint at the United States Military Academy at West Point as a surgeon. On March 30, 1849, he was promoted to the rank of major in the army's Medical Corps.

Civil War service

When the American Civil War began in 1861, Moore was still a U.S. Army surgeon. He resigned his commission on February 25, and returned to his medical practice in Little Rock, Arkansas. After the state of Arkansas seceded from the Union, Moore was approached by Jefferson Davis to join the Confederate cause, who cited "the army’s unfortunate military situation and the lack of trained medical men..." to persuade him. On March 16 Moore was assigned to lead the new Confederate Army Medical Department as surgeon general. He replaced Charles H. Smith, who had been the acting surgeon general. Moore assumed his post on July 30; he would hold this position until the end of the war. By 1863 Moore's headquarters were the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. He also would set up a Reserve Surgical Corps.

Facing shortages in medicines, supplies, and equipment due to the ongoing Union blockade of Southern ports, as well as a shortage of few trained surgeons, Moore's job was difficult. He raised the recruiting standards and gave the most capable surgeons positions of authority. Moore designed the barracks-hospital layout, which is still in use today. This single level pavilion-style hospital was ordered built throughout the South. He improved the field ambulance corps, and supplemented the few available medicines with drugs made from the South's indigenous plants, which were produced in laboratories set up by Moore.

To address the quality of surgeons, Moore organized an examination system to identify untrained doctors. If they failed, the doctor would serve as an attendant in a hospital for a time and retake the test. This system allowed semi-trained surgeons to be further educated, and unusable doctors to be dismissed from service. In 1864 Moore established the Confederate States Medical and Surgical Journal, a manual to instruct the surgeons throughout the army; it included both exact descriptions and drawings of operations. During the war Moore also founded the Association of Army and Navy Surgeons of the Confederate States of America. This organization is believed to be the oldest military medical society in the United States. He also added dentists to the hospitals, the first time in American history its soldiers and sailors had access to this service. By the end of the war in 1865, the Medical Department of the Confederacy had about three thousand men under Moore.

Postbellum

After the war ended in 1865, Moore resumed his life as a civilian doctor. He began a medical practice in Richmond, where he would spend the rest of his life. From 1877 to 1883 Moore also served on the Richmond School Board. He died in Richmond in May 1889, and was buried in the city's Hollywood Cemetery.

Legacy

While Moore's abilities and effectiveness have been disputed, Jefferson Davis approved of his performance. Military historian Bruce Allardice describes his contemporary judgments as positive, citing praises such as "his great work as an organizer, his remarkable executive ability" and his "great brusqueness of manner and his sternness as a disciplinarian." Military historian David J. Eicher disagrees, saying "Surg. Gen. William A. Hammond (U.S.) and Samuel P. Moore (C.S.) were relatively ineffective as administrators..." Another summary also praises Moore's results, stating:

With skill and dedication, Dr. Moore transformed the medical corps into one of the most effective departments of the Confederate military and was responsible for saving thousands of lives on the battlefield.

Moore's rank in the Confederate Army has also been disputed. When the Confederate Army's Medical Department was organized on February 26, 1861, the legislation stated the surgeon general would be a colonel. However, Military historian Bruce Allardice considers Moore to be a brigadier general, as did Confederate Veteran magazine. The Confederate Congress's Act of February 27, 1861, stipulated that the post would be a staff officer only. Moore is also listed as an "unsubstantiated" brigadier general of the South Carolina militia, appointed in 1865. Subsequent legislation to make the surgeon general a brigadier was proposed but never became law.

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https://www.scencyclopedia.org/sce/entries/moore-samuel-preston/

Surgeon general of the Confederacy. Born in Charleston on September 16, 1813, Moore was the sixth of nine children born to Stephen West Moore and Eleanor Screven Gilbert. Following his graduation from the Medical College of South Carolina, Moore was commissioned an assistant surgeon in the U.S. Army in 1835. He spent the next twenty-five years at a variety of western and southern military posts. During the Mexican War, Moore’s administration of the American General Hospital at Carmago impressed a young Jefferson Davis, the future president of the Confederacy. By 1860 Moore was serving as medical purveyor at New Orleans.

In 1861 Moore resigned from the U.S. Army and sought a commission in the Confederate military. Jefferson Davis selected Moore as acting surgeon general of the Confederacy. Moore faced the daunting task of creating Southern medical services from scratch. Known as a stern disciplinarian, he was able to field a medical corps of approximately three thousand officers. This was a major feat considering that only twenty-four officers had served in the U.S. Medical Corps and only twenty-seven of his physicians had surgical experience. One of the more imaginative ways Moore achieved this was to establish a scholarship program so that young Southerners could attend Richmond Medical College. Not only did he have to recruit personnel, he also had to create a system of laboratories to supply medical units. He supplied Confederate women with poppy seeds to cultivate so that the South had a homegrown supply of painkillers. Similarly, he purchased four distilleries to provide six hundred gallons of medical alcohol each day and promoted the appropriation of Union stocks. When a lack of Southern manufacturing facilities led to a shortage of medical equipment, Moore located and acquired instruments from retired or deceased doctors.

Moore promoted research throughout the war. He ordered the surgeon Joseph Jones to search out the causes of unusual infections and diseases affecting soldiers. In 1863 he organized the Association of Army and Navy Surgeons of the Confederate States to gather and disseminate information. This group would outlast the war and merge with the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States in 1914. He also instituted a monthly professional periodical, The Confederate States Medical and Surgical Journal, to better educate those under his command.

Moore oversaw each hospital in the South through personal and military correspondence and established large general hospitals, such as Chimborazo in Richmond. His greatest accomplishment might have been the vaccination of the entire Southern army against smallpox in only six weeks, a controversial decision in 1862. In 1913 the Southern Medical Journal stated, “Looking back upon what he achieved, at what he created absolutely out of nothing, the marvel grows until it impresses one today as an impossibility.”

After taking the oath of amnesty in Richmond on June 22, 1865, Moore retired from the medical practice and focused on managing his financial holdings. He died in Richmond on May 31, 1889, after a violent coughing attack. He was buried in Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond.

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