Buran dukht 26th Sassanid Monarch, Queen of Persia

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About Buran dukht 26th Sassanid Monarch, Queen of Persia

Bûrândûkht est une fille de Khosro II Parviz. Selon Sébéos, elle aurait été épousée par Schahr-Barâz qui cherchait vraisemblablement à légitimer son accession au trône .Après les meurtres de Schahr-Barâz et du prétendant Khosro III, elle est proclamée impératrice à Ctésiphon, mais elle doit faire face à la tentative d'usurpation de Châhpûhr V, le fils de son époux.

S'appuyant sur le « Pahlav » 3 Farrukh Hormozd, ispahbud du Khorassan, Bûrândûkht essaie de stabiliser la situation de l’empire. Pour atteindre ce but, elle signe une paix définitive avec Byzance ; son ambassade, dirigée par la catholicos nestorien Ichoyahb II, traverse la Syrie pour se rendre à la cour d'Héraclius à Alep.

Elle tente ensuite de revitaliser l’empire en améliorant la justice, en rétablissant les infrastructures, baissant les taxes et frappant de la monnaie. Elle ne réussit pas à mener à bien la restauration du pouvoir central, qui a été fortement affaibli par la guerre avec Byzance et les guerres civiles. Mise en échec par le refus des gouverneurs de faire rentrer les taxes et par la révolte des provinces de l'est de l'empire et l'opposition de la noblesse des « Parsig » 4, Bôran abdique en faveur de sa sœur soutenue par ces derniers.

Second règne[modifier | modifier le code] Après la mort de sa sœur Azarmedûkht, Bôran, selon Parvaneh Pourshariati, est rétablie sur le trône avec l'appui de Rostam Farrokhzad et des Ispahbudhān 5. Toutefois, les troupes sassanides sont défaites en 631 lors des combats de Namariq et de Kaskar contre les envahisseurs arabes. Lors de cette dernière bataille, les forces perses sont conduites par Nasri, le frère de Māhādharjushnas, le défunt régent d'Ardachîr III, et Vinduyih et Tiruyih, les deux fils de Vistahm. Son général Bahman Jādhuyih, connu sous le nom ou titre de Mardānshāh, obtient l'année suivante un premier et éphémère succès lors de la bataille du pont6. La reine meurt de maladie à Ctésiphon après deux ans de règne7, alors que son empire allait devoir faire face à la poursuite de l'offensive des troupes musulmanes.

Bôran est décrite comme une reine sage, juste et à la nature généreuse, et ses qualités sont évoquées par le grand poète Ferdowsî dans son œuvre, le Shâh Nâmâ, qui note son esprit de justice et d’aide aux paysans.

Mirkhond, historien perse du xive siècle, lui assigne un règne d’une durée totale de un an et quatre mois. Il indique qu’elle avait fait exécuter les responsables de la mort de son père et qu’elle avait restitué la Sainte Croix à l’empereur Héraclius8. De son côté, l’historien arménien contemporain Sébéos, qui semble la confondre avec sa sœur, précise qu’elle aurait fait tuer un certain « Xorhox Ormudz un prince d’Atropatène » que les nobles avaient désigné comme roi et qui voulait s’imposer à elle comme époux. Mirkhond attribue, sans doute à juste titre, l’épisode du meurtre d’un prétendant-époux à sa sœur cadette Azarmedûkht.

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Boran was the daughter of the Sasanian emperor Khosrau II. She was the first and one of only two women on the throne of the Sasanian Empire (the other was her sister and successor Azarmidokht). Various authors place her reign between one year and four months to two years.

Her name appears as Bōrān (or Burān) on her coinage.

The Persian poet Ferdowsi refers to her as Porandokht in his epic poem, the Shahnameh. She was committed to revive the memory and prestige of her father, during whose reign the Sasanian Empire had grown to its largest territorial extent.

Boran was the daughter of Khosrau II. Since her father was said to have had a shabestan with over 3,000 concubines,[6] it is not known if her mother was one of these concubines or the king's favorite wife Shirin. Boran also had many other siblings and half-siblings named Mardanshah, Juvansher, Farrukhzad Khosrau V, Kavadh II, Shahriyar, and Azarmidokht. In 628, her father was deposed by the Sasanian nobles in favor of her brother Kavadh II, who executed the king along with 30 of their brothers out of fear of competition and rivalry (except Juvansher and Farrukhzad Khosrau V who managed to hide). Boran officially reproached Kavadh for his barbaric actions.

Some months later, Kavadh died of a plague, and was succeeded by his 7 year old son Ardashir III, who himself one year later was killed by the Sasanian general Shahrbaraz, who usurped the Sasanian throne.

Forty days later, Shahrbaraz was murdered by the faction of the Ispahbudhan nobleman Farrukh Hormizd, which was known as the Pahlav (Parthian) faction. Boran was shortly proclaimed queen in Ctesiphon by Farrukh's faction. Boran was herself related to the Ispahbudhan family through her grandmother. She shortly appointed Farrukh Hormizd as the chief minister of the Empire. Boran then attempted to bring stability to the Sasanian Empire by the implementation of justice, reconstruction of the infrastructure, lowering of taxes, and minting coins. However, after some time she was deposed in 630, and Shapur-i Shahrvaraz, the son of Shahrbaraz and a sister of Khosrau II, was made king of Sasanian Empire. However, he was not recognized by the faction of the general Piruz Khosrow, which was known as the Parsig (Persian) faction. Shapur-i Shahrvaraz was thus deposed in favor of Azarmidokht,[8] the sister of Boran.

Her sister, Azarmidokht, was then placed on the throne.

In order to seize power, Farrukh Hormizd asked Azar to marry him. Not daring to refuse, she had him killed with the aid of the Mihranid Siyavakhsh, who was the grandson of Bahram Chobin, the famous spahbed and briefly shahanshah. She was however, shortly assassinated by the latter's son Rostam Farrokhzad, who was now the new leader of the Pahlav faction.

After the murder of Azarmidokht by Rostam Farrokhzad, the latter restored Boran to the throne. Boran shortly made a meeting with the Pahlav and Parsig faction, where both factions agreed to work together.

She desired a good relationship with the Roman Empire, therefore she dispatched an embassy to Emperor Heraclius led by the dignitaries of the Persian church.

Heraclius sent Boran a formal invitation to visit Constantinople. However, after one year of reign she was found suffocated by a pillow in her bed. According to some sources she was murdered by Piruz Khosrow, thus ending the Parsig-Pahlav alliance and resuming hostilities between the two factions.

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Buran dukht 26th Sassanid Monarch, Queen of Persia's Timeline

590
590
631
631
Age 41
Ctesiphon, capital city of the Parthian and Sasanian Empires