Carlos III el Político, rey de España

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Carlos lll 'el Político' de Borbón, rey de España

Birthdate: (72)
Birthplace: Madrid, Comunidad de Madrid, España
Death: Died in Madrid, Comunidad de Madrid, España
Place of Burial: El Escorial, Comunidad de Madrid, España
Immediate Family:

Son of Felipe V el Animoso, rey de España and Isabel de Farnesio, reina consorte de España
Husband of María Amalia de Sajonia, reina consorte de España
Father of Infanta Maria Isabel of Spain, Infanta of Naples and Sicily; Maria Josefa Antonietta de Borbón y Sajonia, Infanta de España; Maria Isabel Ana de Borbón y Sajonia, Infanta de España; Infanta Maria Josefa Carmela of Spain; Infanta Maria Luísa of Spain, Holy Roman Empress and 8 others
Brother of Infante Francisco of Spain; Felipe de Borbón, Infante de España, duca di Parma; Marie de Bourbon, dauphine de France; Luis Antonio Jaime de Borbón y Farnesio, cardenal; Maria Antonia of Spain and 1 other
Half brother of María Luisa Borbón Ponce de León; Luis I el Bien Amado, rey de España; Infante Phillip de Borbón, Infante de España; Felipe Pedro Gabriel de Borbón, Infante de España and Fernando VI "el Prudente" de Borbón, rey de España

Occupation: Rey de España, Rey de Nápoles y Sicilia, Duque de Parma, Piacenza y Castro, King of Spain, Rey
Managed by: Henn Sarv
Last Updated:

About Carlos III el Político, rey de España

Golden Fleece - Knights: Spanish Branch, 4 july 1723

Links:

Predecessor: - Ferdinand VI Successor - Charles IV

  • King of Naples and Sicily - Reign: 1734– 1759

Predecessor - Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor Successor: Ferdinand IV & III

  • Duke of Parma and Piacenza Reign1731–1734

Predecessor: Antonio Farnese Successor: Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor


Kaarle III (20. tammikuuta 1716–14. joulukuuta 1788) oli Espanjan kuningas 1759–1788, Napolin ja Sisilian kuningas 1735–1759 (nimellä Kaarle VII) ja Parman herttua 1732–1735 (nimelllä Kaarle I). Hän edusti valistunutta yksinvaltiutta.

Kaarle III paransi Madridin oloja ja rakennutti sinne paljon julkisia rakennuksia: puistokatuja, aukioita, puutarhoja ja suihkulähteitä sekä hankki kaduille kivetyksen ja valaistuksen. Kaarle III olikin yksi Madridin historian suosituimmista kuninkaista, ja sanontaa "paras pormestari, kuningas" käytettiin laajalti. Hän oli harras katolinen, mutta inhosi jesuiittoja

Puoliso: Maria Amalia of Saxony (v. 1738–1760) Lapset: Kaarle IV, Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, Maria Luisa of Spain, Infante Gabriel of Spain, Infanta Maria Josefa of Spain, Infante Antonio Pascual of Spain, Infante Philip, Duke of Calabria

Vanhemmat: Elisabeth Farnese, Filip V

Sisarukset: Ferdinand VI, Infante Luis, Count of Chinchón, Philip, Duke of Parma


Charles III (Spanish: Carlos; Italian: Carlo; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, but eldest by his second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, on the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese.

In 1734, as Duke of Parma, he conquered the kingdoms of Naples and of Sicily, and was crowned king on 3 July 1735, reigning as Charles VII of Naples and Charles V of Sicily. In 1738 he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony, an educated, cultured woman who gave birth to 13 children, eight of whom reached adulthood. Charles and Maria Amalia resided in Naples for 19 years; she died in 1760.

Upon succeeding to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, Charles, a proponent of enlightened absolutism, on 6 October 1759 abdicated the Neapolitan and Sicilian thrones in favour of Ferdinand, his third surviving son, who became Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies.

As king of Spain Charles III tried to rescue his empire from decay through far-reaching reforms such as weakening the Church and its monasteries, promoting science and university research, facilitating trade and commerce, modernizing agriculture and avoiding wars. He never achieved satisfactory control over finances, and was obliged to borrow to meet expenses. His reforms proved short-lived and Spain relapsed after his death, but his legacy lives on to this day.[1]

Biography

The birth of Charles encouraged the Prime Minister Alberoni to start laying out grand plans for Europe. In 1717 he ordered the Spanish invasion of Sardinia. In 1718, Alberoni also ordered the invasion of Sicily, which was also ruled by the House of Savoy. In the same year Charles' first sister, Infanta Mariana Victoria was born on 31 March. In reaction to the Quadruple Alliance of 1718, the Duke of Savoy then joined the Alliance and went to war with Spain. This war led to the dismissal of Alberoni by Philip in 1719. The Treaty of The Hague of 1720 included the recognition of Charles as heir to the Italian Duchies of Parma and Piacenza.

Charles' half-brother, Infante Philip Peter, died on 29 December 1719, putting Charles third in line to the throne after Louis and Ferdinand. He would retain his position behind these two until they died and he succeeded to the Spanish throne. His second full brother, Infante Philip of Spain, was born on 15 March 1720.

Beginning in 1721, King Philip had been negotiating with the Duke of Orléans, the French regent, to arrange three Franco-Spanish marriages that would cement tense relations. The young Louis XV of France would marry the three-year-old Infanta Mariana Victoria and thus she would become Queen of France; Charles' half brother Louis would marry the fourth surviving daughter of the regent, Louise Elisabeth. Charles himself would be engaged to Philippine Elisabeth who was the fifth surviving daughter of the Duke of Orléans.

In 1726 Charles met Philippine Élisabeth for the first time; Elisabeth Farnese later wrote to the regent and his wife regarding their meeting:

       I believe, that you will not be displeased to learn of her first interview with her little husband. They embraced very affectionately and kissed one another, and it appears to me that he does not displease her. Thus, since this evening they do not like to leave one another. She says a hundred pretty things ; one would not credit the things that she says, unless one heard them. She has the mind of an angel, and my son is only too happy to possess her. . . . She has charged me to tell you that she loves you with all her heart, and that she is quite content with her husband." And to the duchesse d'Orléans she writes : "I find her the most beautiful and most lovable child in the world. It is the most pleasing thing imaginable to see her with her little husband : how they caress one another and how they love one another already. They have a thousand little secrets to tell one another, and they cannot part for an instant."

Out of these marriages only Louis and Louise Élisabeth would wed. Elisabeth Farnese looked for other potential brides for her eldest son. For this she looked to Austria, its principal opponent for influence on the Italian peninsula. She proposed to Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, that the Infante Charles marry the 8-year old Archduchess Maria Theresa and that her second surviving son, the Infante Philip, marry the 7-year old Archduchess Maria Anna.

The alliance of Spain and Austria was signed on 30 April 1725, and included Spanish support for the Pragmatic Sanction, a document drafted by Emperor Charles in 1713 to assure support for Maria Theresa in the succession to the throne of the Habsburgs. The emperor also relinquished all claims to the Spanish throne, and promised to support Spain in its attempts to regain Gibraltar. The ensuing Anglo-Spanish War stopped the ambitions of Elisabeth Farnese, and the marriage plans were abandoned with the signing of the Treaty of Seville on 9 November 1729. Provisions of the treaty did allow the Infante Charles the right to occupy Parma, Piacenza and Tuscany by force if necessary.

After the Treaty of Seville, Philip V disregarded its provisions and formed an alliance with France and Great Britain. Antonio Farnese, the Duke of Parma, died on 26 February 1731 without naming an heir; this was because the widow of Antonio, Enrichetta d'Este was thought to have been pregnant at the time of his death. The Duchess was examined by many doctors without any confirmation of pregnancy. As a result, the Second Treaty of Vienna on 22 July 1731 officially recognised the young Infante Charles as Duke of Parma and Piacenza.

The duchy was occupied by the Count Carlo Stampa, who served as the lieutenant of Parma for the young Charles. Charles was from then on known as HRH Don Charles of Spain (or Borbón), Duke of Parma and Piacenza, Infante of Spain. Since he was still a minor, his maternal grandmother, Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg, was named regent.

Arrival in Italy

Charles arrived in Italy on 20 October 1731. After a solemn ceremony in Madrid, Charles was given the épée d'or ("sword of gold") by his father; the sword had been given to Philip V of Spain by his grandfather Louis XIV of France before his departure to Spain in 1700. Charles left Spain and traveled overland from Seville to Antibes; he then went to Tuscany, arriving at Livorno on 27 December 1731. His cousin Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, was named his co-tutor and despite Charles being the second in line to inherited Tuscany, the Grand Duke still gave him a warm welcome. En route to Florence from Pisa, Charles was taken ill with smallpox.[4] Charles made a grand entrance to the Medici capital of Florence on 9 March 1732 with a retinue of 250 people. He stayed with his host at the ducal residence, the Palazzo Pitti.[4]

Gian Gastone staged a fête in honour of the Patron Saint of Florence, St. John the Baptist, on 24 June. At this fête Gian Gastone named Charles his heir, giving him the title of Hereditary Prince of Tuscany, and Charles paid homage to the Florentine senate, as was the tradition for heirs to the Tuscan throne. When Emperor Charles VI heard about the ceremony, he was greatly enraged due to Gian Gastone not informing him, as he was technical overlord of Tuscany and the nomination thus should have been his. Despite the celebrations, Elisabeth Farnese urged her son to go on to Parma. This he did in October 1732, where he was greeted with much joy. On the front of the ducal palace in Parma was written Parma Resurget (Let Parma rule). At the same time the play La venuta di Ascanio in Italia was created by Carlo Innocenzo Frugoni. It was later performed at the Farnese Theatre in the city.[5][6]

Source:

Über Carlos III el Político, rey de España (Deutsch)

Carlos lll. war König von Spanien.

  • Er regierte von 1735 bis 1759 als Carlo V. von Sizilien.
  • Carlo Vll. von Neapel und Sizilien.
  • Carlos lll von Spanien 1759-1788.
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Carlos III el Político, rey de España's Timeline

1716
January 20, 1716
Madrid, Comunidad de Madrid, España
January 20, 1716
- July 22, 1731
Madrid, Madrid, Community of Madrid, Spain
February 20, 1716
Madrid, Madrid, Community of Madrid, Spain
1731
July 22, 1731
- December 1, 1734
Age 15
Parma, Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
1734
December 1, 1734
- August 10, 1759
Age 18
Palermo, Palermo, Sicily, Italy
December 1, 1734
- August 10, 1759
Age 18
Naples, Naples, Campania, Italy
1740
September 6, 1740
Age 24
Napoli, Due Sicilie
1742
January 20, 1742
Age 26
Palace of Portici
1743
April 30, 1743
Age 27
Napoli, Campania, Due Sicilie