Empress Catherine I of Russia

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Empress of Russia Marta / Marfa Helena Samuilovna Catherine I (Skowronska)

Russian: Марфа / Екатерина Алексеевна I Скавронска, Polish: Marta Helena Ekaterina I (Skowrońska), Lithuanian: Imperatorė Rusijos Jekaterina I (Manvydaitė)
Also Known As: "Marta Helena Skowrońska / renaimed by Peter I as Yekaterina Alekseyevna / Marfa Samuilovna Skavronskaya / Rõngu Marta", "Jekaterina I."
Birthplace: Lietuva, Šovenių k.
Death: Died in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Cause of death: Fever and coughing bloody nose diagnosed as abcess of the lungs
Place of Burial: Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Samuel Skavronsky and Elisabet Moritz
Wife of Czar Peter the Great
Mother of sū Piotr Romanov; Pavel Romanov; Piotr Romanov; duk Jekaterina Romanova; Jekaterina Romanova and 11 others
Half sister of Karl Samuylovitch Skavronsky; Christina Skavronskaya; Anna Skavronsky and Фридрих / Федор Самуилович Скавронский

Occupation: Empress, Rusijos Carienė, imp (1725-1727)
Managed by: Noah Gregory Tutak
Last Updated:

About Empress Catherine I of Russia

Catherine I (Russian: Екатерина I Алексеевна; Yekaterina I Alekseyevna (born Marta Helena Skowrońska, Latvian: Marta Elena Skavronska, later Marfa Samuilovna Skavronskaya)


The life of Catherine I was said by Voltaire to be nearly as extraordinary as Peter the Great himself. There are no documents that confirm the ascent of Catherine. The commonly accepted version is that Catherine was born in Ringen (Rõngu), in present-day Estonia. At the time this area was the Swedish province of Livonia. Originally named 'Marta Skowrońska', she was the daughter of Samuel Skowroński, later Samuil Skavronsky, a Latvian peasant of Polish origin, most likely a Catholic, and who was already a widower of one Dorothea Hann. Her mother has been listed on at least one site as Elisabeth Moritz, whom her father married at Jakobstadt in 1680. There is some speculation that her parents were runaway serfs. Some sources state her father was a gravedigger. Samuil and her mother died of plague around 1684 or 1685, leaving five children. She was taken by an aunt who sent her to be raised by Ernst Glück, the Lutheran pastor and educator who first translated the Bible into Latvian, in Marienburg. She was essentially a house servant. No effort was made to teach her to read and she remained illiterate throughout her life.


Johann Ernst Glück (Latvian: Ernsts Gliks; 10 November 1654 – 5 May 1705) was a German translator and Lutheran theologian active in Livonia, which is now in Latvia.

Glück was born in Wettin as the son of a pastor. After attending the Latin school of Altenburg, he studied theology, rhetoric, philosophy, geometry, history, geography, and Latin at Wittenberg and Jena.

Glück is renowned for translating the Holy Bible into the Latvian language, which he carried out in its entirety in Marienburg (Alūksne) in Livonia, in the building now the Alūksne Museum, established to honour his work. He also founded the first Latvian language schools in Livonia in 1683. He died in Moscow.

He had four daughters, a son, and a foster-daughter Marta Skavronska who married Peter I and is mainly known as Catherine I. From 1725 until 1727 she was empress of Russian Empire.


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Empress Catherine I of Russia's Timeline

April 15, 1684
Lietuva, Šovenių k.
Age 19
Age 19
Age 20
December 27, 1706
Age 22
Moscow/Москва, Russia/Россия
Age 22
January 27, 1708
Age 23
Moscow, Russia
February 7, 1708
Age 23
December 18, 1709
Age 25
December 29, 1709
Age 25